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whitewashed; and the whole of them ornament common centre of education. It is a half pau. ed with various carvings and images, which perized independency, which falls between all proclaims them to have been the scenes of con categories and moves us neither in the way of fusion, and the abode of depraved tastes, and respect nor of benevolence. The children feel corrupted morals; the books thrown in disorder themselves to be unprivileged in their atten. about the house; some kicking, or rather being dance and their parents have only a cold dis. kicked about the floor ; most of them with bro- pairing interest in the forlorn establishment, to ken covers, and many of them minus even an which they are doomed to send them. How dif. apology for a cover; some with covers entire, ferent the case, if they could see their sons and but the bodies missing-and all of them scribbled daughters in the same school and class with and disfigured with frightful images, traced with those of the more distinguished families; en. a pen, a plummet, or a piece of red chalk-allgaged, in a trial of talent and good manners, to of which bespeak' idleness on the part of the excel them; sometimes successful; sometimes scholar, and a culpable neglect of duty on the honored by public notice, at examinations; pass. part of the teacher.
ing, at length, into a High School, where they Teachers are bound to look after these things; are instructed in elegant learning and science; and they should consider themselves as the consti- going home to speak at their simple table, of the luted guardians of the district property; and that great facts of science, to discuss questions and they are under obligation to protect the house suggest tasteful thoughts. What a light and and its appendages from all unnecessary harm. warmth would this give, in the bosom of a poor It is certainly one very important part of their family, or in one just rising into character. duty to teach morals, and manners, as well as How kindly would it bind the hearts of the pacorrect habits; yet neither good morals nor good rents to society as a whole, how genial the influ. habits can well be promoted, in places which ence it would shed on their humble walk. In are themselves filthy, and which, from the un. such a case, the children are not trained to hate sightly marks and figures observable, one would those above them, but only to emulate themy be led to suppose had been occupied as a felon's because they now see that there is justice and prison, rather than as a school-house.
feeling and friendship for them, and that they Yet destruction seems to be the order of the are encouraged on all sides to aim at the highday in many schools, and teachers must certain est excellence. ly shoulder the greatest share of the blame.
Nor should we omit to say that an education Those who are capable of governing their begun at the common school is, in many respects, schools, can easily prevent these evils; and better than a private school can yield. It does those who cannot, of course are unqualified for the children of higher families good, to sit on a the vocation. There cannot be the least apolo- level with the children of the lower, and, if it gy offered, for allowing a set of unruly scholars must be so, to be surpassed by them. It makes during an intermission, to turn the house upside them respect merit, delivers them of their imdown; to tear the benches and desks from their practical conceits, and inspires them with a sense fastenings; to deal out wholesale destruction to of justice. It is a great advantage also to know the windows, books, slates, garments, &c. &c. society. Hence the child who is brought up ex. besides creating half a score of “expunged eyes” clusively in a private school, and especially a and bloody noses, to grace the school-room in boy, is not thoroughly educated. He does not the after part of the day.
know the people, and is not qualified to act his One very prominent reason why people gene- part among them. Their feelings, prejudices, rally are so unwilling to make repairs, or to be tastes, deficiencies, are all unknown to them. taxed for an extra appendage to their school. His knowledge is more exquisite than the world room, is that but few teachers seem to consider is, and his character is practically unamerican. it a part of their duty to protect it. Would ized. Going into life as a statesman, or a law. our teachers generally take it upon them to at- yer, or in almost any other capacity, he will go tend faithfully to these matters, we should soon under a decided disadvantage. How small a see the community willing to take measures for thing is it, indeed, to teach children the names rendering these buildings more pleasant and in. of mountains and rivers, and other things equally viting. Those who cannot, or who will not distant from them, when they do not really know control their scholars in this respect, had better their own neighbors and countrymen. retire from the business, and leave the field clear The more is this to be regretted when the for those who will.
knowledge of their fellow-citizens, in lower 0. W. RANDALL, walks of life, would so much diminish their dis.
Dep. Sup't, Oswego County. tance from them, and breed in their hearts, a Phænix, Jan. 21, 1843.
feeling of citizenship as well as of humanity,
so much enlarged; for man is man, whether high DEMOCRATIC CHARACTER OF COM. or low, and it will always be found, however MON SCHOOLS.
much we magnify the distinctions of society,
that his actions and feelings do, after all, spring [From the report of Horace Bushnell on the schools of from his manhood more than from his condition. Hartford, Ct.)
A knowledge of the high is a knowledge of When all the children of the more wealthy many infirmities together with many traits of and influential families are withdrawn from the fellow-feeling, that pride never could suppress. public school, it ceases, of necessity, to have A knowledge of the low, a knowledge also of prominence in the public eye, and draws no many noble and fine qualities, together with warm circle of expectation round it. It is not a some vulgar prejudices. There is ever more mere charity school, in which we might feel the distinction in the outward show of ranks than interest of charity, neither is it, on the other there is within; for when the two come really hand, a school dignified by its prominence as alto feel and weigh each other, it is not the rich
knowing the poor, or the poor the rich, but it is Teachers are recommended to adopt the im. the man knowing the man, and both together 'proved method of teaching ORTHOGRAPHY, name. knowing themselves to be allied by nature to ly, by pictATION. The teacher reads from a the same God, as they are citizens of the same book, or dictates a sentence of his own forma. country. How fine a picture of society might tion, to the pupil, who either writes it down we hope to realize, through the medium of a verbatim, or merely spells the words as they perfect system of public education, What an occur, as if he were writing them down. Such elevation of manners, in the whole people, what as, 1st. Words similarly pronounced, but diffe. respectfulness to merit in all grades of life, rently spelled. 20. Words similarly spelled, but what a friendly understanding, without jealousy differently pronounced and applied. 3d. Words of precedence or character. Gathering round spelled and pronounced alike, but differing in the youth, with a common interest, we should signification. 4th. All words of unsettled orshare a common pride in their ingenuous efforts thography. at improvement. Our streets would reveal the The following sentences may serve as examdignity of intelligence and character. Our ples: houses would be abodes of thrist and self-re. Parallel to the beach ran a row of beech trees. spect, and virtuous happiness.
He is a seller of old clothes, and lives in a
cellar. REPEATING AFTER THE TEACHER.
Did you ever see a person pare an apple or a There is one practice I require at the earliest
pear, with a pair of scissors ? age; that of repeating after me. It prepares for speaking and reading elegantly, and for that not bear to look on.
The bear seized him by the bare leg. I could accomplishment open to all, of repeating poetry,
So I stayed at home to sew my clothes; but in an expressive and interesting manner. You John went to the field to sow wheat. know there are birds, who ever after repeat that We observed at the edge of the slough, the sound of the human voice which they first heard; slough of a snake.-An Outline, &c. and children have the same impressibility.Their pertinacity in their first blunders proves
MICHIGAN. the fact, and gives us a hint to avail ourselves of it. Every infant should have the name of (Extract from the report of T. Sawyer, jr. Superinteneach thing sounded to it, in a clear and agreea. dent of Common Schools, showing the importance of ble tone. It should be encouraged to repeat
"uniformity of books," made Jan. 3, 1843.) names and words, until it pronounces them as
UNIFORMITY OF BOOKS, well as it can; and should never be satisfied with The presentment against schools, by the in. merely making itself understood. Do not let a spectors, for non-uniformity of books, is unanichild be left to chance to pick up a language; mous. All execrate the evil and demand a rebut frequently encourage it to practice upon medy. The district returns also show that not short sentences, varying the tone and expression. less than 33 different reading books are used in When three years old it will be able to repeat the schools, while nearly every known author simple stories after you, a few words at a time, or compiler of a spelling book, grammar, arith. copying tone, accent, and pronunciation exactly: metic or geography, is represented, not merely When it has repeated several, it is better to read in the State, but in every school. Who, under aloud, and to read the same thing over and over, such circumstances, has not "fresh tears” to until both words and meaning are understood! shed over the misfortunes of teachers? It is Never pass on, and let it be satisfied with half not enough to reduce his monthly wages oneunderstanding. Let it hear as much good read. fifth, but two-fifths of the time bought must be ing as possible, and never any which is incor. consumed in unavailing efforts to economize both rect. Let it learn the delight of a book: and time and money by classification! If qualified make the ear and enunciation nice.-Theory of for his place, and ambitious to exhibit a school Teaching
that shall be creditable to him, how must he
proceed? Twenty scholars, of equal proficiency SPELLING.
in a particular branch, may be picked out and In pronouncing words for the scholar to spell, called the first, second or third class; what then? the teacher should always articulate them as Half a dozen different text books in that class, they are uttered by the best scholars, in distinct all treating perhaps upon a similar subject, have public speaking. The contrary method, prac. conducted the several members through protised by some teachers, of uttering words as cesses and to results widely, and, it may be, though every syllable were accented, prevents irreconcilably variant. Take the spelling book, the pupil from learning to spell the actual spo. for instance. Among those used our schools, ken language; and consequently he receives lit. are Webster's Elementary, Sanders', and Bent. tle practical benefit. Hence the reason, why so ley's Pictorial spelling books. In his preface, many who are considered good spellers at school, Webster says, that "the minds of children may never spell correctly when they attempt to write. well be employed in learning to spell and pro
The scholar should be required to pronounce nounce words, whose signification is not within his lesson before being called upon to spell it, the reach of their capacities.” And the objects and should utter each syllable distinctly, and of his book are. chiefly to teach orthography the accented syllable, with a decided emphasis. and pronunciation.". Sanders, in his preface,
An erect and firm position should be main. says a spelling book should not only comprise tained by the pupil, while pronouncing words, a system of instruction, embracing the subjects the shoulders being drawn back; as a lounging of orthography and pronunciation, but should posture, is inconsistent with a firm, distinct,
and teach also the signification and use of words." clear enunciation; and a leaning posture con And his book, he believes, “will be found to fines the vocal aparatus, and renders speaking secure this object." Bentley, to obviate the much more difficult.
dullness of all other spelling books, and “ren.
der the gradations of accent in the pupil's inci. of things. He subdivides his class of twenty pient attainment as easy and interesting as pos. into as many sets as there are different books, sible," has "inserted in his introductory lesson and instructs only one set at a time. While this such words as will convey familiar and definite is going on, the others stand like so many stocks, ideas to the child,” and “interspersed with them listless and inattentive, or their minds are abroad pictures.” The pronunciation of Webster is upon the play ground or at home, and the mul. sanctioned by the most general usage of well tifarious divices of unemployed childhood are in bred people both in the United States and Eng. process of rapid formation. When the five or land; and his orthography is that which is six scholars, composing the first set of this most simple and now the best authorized.”—
strange class have terminated their labors, an. Sanders, in “adopting the orthography and or other begins, thus leaving the rest to follow in thæpy of Webster,” says that the orthogra- their illustrious footsteps," intent only upon phy of Dr. Johnson and his followers has not, what is not going on around them. Now, if this either in England or the United States, been ge class of twenty had the same books, attention nerally adopted.” Bentley says, that, in his would be secured, mutual instruction and vast elementary books some years ago, graphy and pronunciation of Walker's diction economy of time and labor would result, and the
the spirit of mischief be effectually layed. But ary were strictly adhered to." His present work, all this is a slight evil compared with others. the Pictorial spelling book, not being confined to
Districts change their teachers annually. Ow. that dictionary as a standard, will, in some few ing to a variety of circumstances, and this very words, differ from those formerly published.* want of uniformity is one of them, teachers are Thus far, we have, in these three books, the driven from place to place like so many birds of materials for wholly different systems of ar. rangement, and of a partially different language. while the bird returns to its wonted latitude, the
passage-with this difference, however, that Again, Webster says thai “ two vowels in a schoolmaster takes good care never to be caught syllable, when only one is pronounced, are call. in the same district a second time. And every ed a digraph.” Sanders calls them “an impro. succession of teachers brings with it a succes. per dipthóng. "Webster says “a, e, , are sion of new books. The necessary books of always vowels; i and u are vowels or dipthongs; last year are upon the shelf or in the garret, the wo is always a vowel; and y is either a vowel, a useless lumber of the present. The teacher, dipthong or a consonant." Sanders disposes of from the paucity of his wages, cannot afford to the vowels by styling them regular and irregu
accommodate himself to the circumstances of lar-giving to o the occasional sound of
his district, nor, as a general thing, are the pa. consonant and short u.” Bentley says
the vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y." rents disposed to accommodate the teacher. So Comparisons of this nature might be extend. | defective classification, waste of time and means,
the wheel turns round, bearing with it expense, ed through the books cited, and if necessary, mutual heart-burnings, district quarrels, eviction through Cobb, Town, and others used in the schools; not, at this time, for the purpose of of the teacher, disgust of officers, dissolution of condemning the worst and passing judgment best system in the world. This is not an over.
the district, and general dissatisfaction with the upon the best, for that would be a labor of cri: drawn picture. It is precisely what results, in tical analysis, but to show the stupendous evil oi putting text books of various modes of ar. many cases, from a neglect to secure uniformity
of books. rangement, and, although treating of similar subjects, of dissimilar rules and detinitions, into
NEW JERSEY. the hands of children attending the same school, and necessarily, for form's sake at least, arrang. IMPORTANCE OF INSPECTION-SCHOOL JOURNAL ed in the same class. So in respect to the score
-PARENTAL INTEREST-MORAL TRAINING and a half of reading books, grammars, arith. metics, &c. &c. But it is not necessary. Now, recurring to the class of twenty scholars, made to the Legislature, by William Pennington, Go
(From the report of the trustees of the School Fund, whose books differ like the texture of their gar- vernor of the State.] ments, how shall the teacher proceed with the recitation? Suppose it to be a spelling class.
This want of a due inspection of our public The teacher first takes up definitions. * John, schools is the worst feature in the administra. what do you call two vowels in a syllable, when tion of the existing system of public instruction. only one is pronounced ?". 'A diagraph, sir.” | The frequent, faithful and intelligent visitation “ Is that right, boys?" " Yes, sir, exclaim of schools, is the main spring in rendering them half a dozen who own Webster. No, sir," useful. By it the teachers are improved, bad exclaim another half dozen, who study Sanders. ones exposed, and good ones encouraged. Ne. Then follows the task of explaining the paradox glect, detection, discipline and erroneous methai John is both right and wrong. So on through thods of instruction are corrected. The supe. the lesson. And contradictions and explana. rior methods of government and instruction in tions must use up time just in proportion as this any one school are commended by the visiting or that author, or this or that standard of spell committee, to the practice of all the schools in ing and pronouncing is adopted. Similar diffi. the township and finally to the whole state.culties attend other classes.
The advantages and benefits of these visitations The teacher, thus driven to the wall, hits upon can hardly be over estimated, and for them the only contrivance tolerable under such a state there can be no adequate substitute.
The history of education every where, teaches • Fowle's " Common School Speller," reeently pub that all laws fail in establishing good schools, lished, follows the orthography of Johnson and Wor. unless they are followed by the zealous efforts cester, and the orthæpy of Walker: The words are of the people at large themselves. In Massaclassed with reference to sound and other prominent wemblances.
chusetts, Connecticut and New-York, there are
periodicals devoted exclusively to the cause of parents, husbands and wives, citizens and all popular education. The establishment of some who are in authority, are addressed and coun. similar publication, or the employment of one selled. Their duties, their influence on others, or all these, existing in neighboring states, to their means of doing good, and their just respon. be circulated in every district in our own state, sibility, are pointed out with such simplicity and would be eminently advantageous in awakening, clearness, that to hear, to regard, and to obey, enlightening and elevating public sentiment in seem perfectly easy, and disobedience entirely relation to the whole subject. For it cannot be inexcusable. Every philosophical code of ethics too often repeated that the encouragement, which has been submitted to the judgment of and co-operation of parents and the friends of enlightened men, has been valuable only so far education, are vitally essential to the improve. as it conformed to the precepts of the pure mo. ment and success of any system of instruction. rality of the Bible. Let, then, the moral prin. Let it not be supposed that the trustees mean ciples and rules of action of the Bible be sedu. by the term parents, only fathers. They mean lously taught in the public schools. what the term imports, both fathers and mothers. The zealous and active co-operation of mothers
MISSOURI. is necessarily required. They guard the moun. tain spring of influence. The neat and cleanly
We extract, with deep pleasure, the following appearance, manners and punctuality of the ebildren, and the preparation of the lesson at glowing appeal to the Legislature of Missouri, home, mainly depend on them. Their indivi- from the address of John H. Lathrop, President dual and associated efforts, if well directed and of the State University. We rejoice that elucontinued, can effect a mighty revolution in our public schools for good. Let the mothers in a cation has so able ani devoted an advocate in township become acquainted with the subject of the far west, and trust that the publication of a education, of what a good teacher and good large edition of the address, by order of the school ought to be, and of the true situation of Legislature of Missouri, is an indication that the places where their little children are com. pelled to spend the greater part of the day, and his efforts in this sacred cause will be sustained the fathers and voters generally will know it by the guardians of the common weal.-Ed. and be prepared to act on the subject at the next The subject, too, makes a strong appeal to nadistrict and township meetings. The efforts of tional pride, in view of its bearing on our ultiassociated females in other states has wrought mate rank in the brotherhood of nations. Knowpowerfully in aid of public instruction. Let not ledge is national power. The time is at hand, the mothers and daughters of New Jersey be and now is, when mere brute force may be consecond to those of any other state in this " labor sidered an insignificant item in the sum of naof love."
tional greatness. We need but cast our eyes Let it never be forgotten by us all, and espe over the map of the world, and over the record cially the Legislature, who, by their enactments, of passing events, to be convinced that the na. give a current to the course of publicinstruction, tion which is first in intelligence is first in power. that education implies a deep and thorough mo. The way is open for our own country to win ral training, as well as intellectual improve high honors in this intellectual race. If she ment. Knowledge of every kind is said to be diligently avail herself of the advantages of her ealeulated to soften the mind and tends to link position, and wisely use the means of progress man with his fellows, and of itself ought to pre. within her grasp, she will be called upon to vent the commission of crime ; but, yet it is true share the first honors, even with that coun. that “high mental attainments are no adequate try which we prou lly claim as our father land. security against moral debasement.”.. Many There is no man so humble that he may not men, conspicuous in other days, and distinguish bear a part in his national progress, and it ed by wit, taste, learning, and knowledge, were should be the pride of every man, whether his no less distinguished by lawless passions and station be public or private, to contribute the the disregard of all moral and social virtue.-unit of his individual mind, the springs of his Lofty attainments are tremendous engines for individual influence, to swell the tide of in. the working out of good or evil. If not based tellect which is bearing his country onward to on correct and safe principles, and accompanied this magnificent, this glorious result. by correct counsel, they become most terrible
And now, gentlemen, allow me to come a step to work iniquity."
your business and your bosoms," In this connection, the trustees are impelled while I open to you the inquiry, what part is to suggest that the legislature, in any revision of Missouri destined to bear in the accomplish. the system, ought to recommend the introduction ment of this magnificent, this glorious result? of the Bible as a text book in our public schools. What golden contributions is she preparing to This suggestion is not made with a view of giv. pour into the overflowing treasury of the naing preference to any system of religious faith, tional intellect? What is the relative position or of introducing any sectarian instruction ; but which she is to hold in this confederacy of resimply for the purpose of laying at the founda. publics? Is it in your minds that she shall have tion of all instruction, the pure and lofty morali. a place in the first rank in respectability and ty of the Bible, so that the axioms of its morality influence? If so, forget not that knowledge is shall be taughi at the commencement of any in- power. And while you are looking gratefully, struction and never intermitted. It contains a not to say proudly, on the elements of prosperi. system of morality unsurpassed and unequalled. ty which a bounteous Providence has scattered lis moral instructions concern that almost infi. in profusion around you--on your broad domain nite variety of conduct in men which is exhibited itself an empire; on your virgin soil rich in the
all the relations they sustain. Children an: accumulated mould of ages; on the untold ini.
neral deposits beneath, inviting the hand of man a systematic gradation, from the primary to the to remove them from the vaults and safes of na: most elevated English school; and enables all ture's primeval, and still scarce open treasury; the teachers to devote their talents and energies op the great arteries of trade, rolling through to great advantage, and with strikingly marked your very boly, the life giving tide, in unmea. success. sured volume; on the very central position you In no particular is the successful operation of occupy on the map of your expanding country; the system more apparent, than in the sudden on your genial climate; and last, though not springing up in our midst of so large a number of leasi, on your descent-and who among you is substantial and spacious school houses. Many not proud of his blood-looking I say on these of them are most elegibly situated, surrounded elements of greatness: remember that all these by public squares and streets, affording a free are but the physical material, out of which a circulation of air, and giving ample opportunity creative intelligence, with plastic hand, must for the physical exercise of the pupils. The fashion the very body of your character, and citizens of many of the districts have evinced a breathe into it, by a divine inspiration, what most commendable zeal, (and through their ever of life, beauty and power, it may present building committees have applied themselves to the eye of the world.
well to the task,) in erecting, furnishing and The just conception then, of the high destiny fitting up, suitable and convenient houses. Most which is before us as a State, the firm resolve of them are well adapted to ventilation, and the to be faithful to the endowments of Heaven in. seats properly arranged and rendered comfortavolve, as a necessary consequence, the intellec. ble by proper construction. tual culture of our citizens. Without the high
Every thing pertaining to school houses and intelligence, the informing mind, the animating the grounds attached, should be rendered as at. soul, our unrivalled physical advantages, one tractive and inviting as possible. They should and all, will be enduring monuments, bearing be furnished with suitable blinds or curtains, in living characters the common inscription, and surrounded with shade trees to render them
"Man is the only growth that dwindles here." cool and pleasant in summer; and great care But with a just appreciation of the advan. skould be taken in that season that they be pro. tages of our position, and a disposition to make perly ventilated ; and in winter, that they be them all subservient to the great object of the suitably heated and rendered comfortable in every universal and liberal culture of the popular part; not, as is often the case, heated at times mind, we have it in our power, as we advance to such a degree as to render a transit from the to the maturity of our political strength, to pre. school room to the open air, as great a change sent to the world a model Commonwealth, in all as "a sudden leap from the extremes of the that respects the intellectual, the moral, and the torrid to the frigid zones," thereby endangering social advancement of man.
the healths, and even lives of the children ; but
an equilibrium of temperature, seldom or never FREE SCHOOLS.
rising above or falling below 60 degrees, should
he carefully maintained. [From the Report of I. F. Mack, Saperintendent of
Admitting the principle that universal intelli. the Rochester city schools—made Jan. 2, 1843.)
gence and virtue, are the safeguards of our re. Whole number of children attending the pub. public, and that the property of the country lic and the ordinary private schools of the city should be taxed to disseminate them, yet there the year previous to the adoption of the present are some who object to the system of Free system, as has been shown, was 2,355. Ave. Schools, on the ground that they impose an unrage attendance less than 2,000. The annual equal and an unjust burden on those who have expense of which was $19,792, a fraction over no children to be benefitted-or if they have, $10 per scholar.
choose to educate them abroad, or in private The number attending the public schools alone schools, and consequently derive no benefit from the past year, as will be seen in the appendix, is the money they are compelle:l to pay. But is it 3, 151. Amount expen led for the payment of so? Is there a citizen in this city, whose cir. teachers, fuel anl other contingent expenses of cumstances would be as good without as with a the school is $12,328.80, including salary of Su- system of efficient and universal education ?p'rintendent. It is proper here to observe, that Would it be as well for any one, if a large pro. ihe expenses consequent upon fitting up and fur. portion of the children of this city were to grow Dishing now houses, (in many instances paid out up without the restraint which intelligence and of the school fund of the district as contingent moral precept impose? Viewed only in referexpenses,) have materially contributed to in- ence to the present time, and through the me. crease the aggregate sum expended the past dium of sell-interest, the annual tax for the sup. 'season ; and have rendered the expenses of the port of the schools this city, is to its citizens schools essentially greater in proportion to the a good investment, and is but a “ light preminumber of scholars attending the past, than will um,” viewed in prospect, for the permanency be aecessary the future season.
and protection of the property which is made io The principle a:lopted by the Board, in the contribute. organization of the city into large districts, (once There is still another, and a more enlarged deemed by some of our citizens of doubiful poli- view, which, in my opinion, every American cy,) I am happy to say is, in its application, of citizen is bound to take of this matter. Parents the greatest utility.
or not-land-holders or not--we all have a vital Collecting under one roof a large number of interest in the welfare, and in the intelligence of scholars, affords the only opportunity to separate the rising generation. They must soon fill a'l the sexes anl classify them, according to age and the offices of city ani state, and wield the desti. u ivancement. It promotes economy, through a , nies of our cominon country, when we are in proper and judicious division of labor,establishes declining years. Whether the children of our