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This has meant, however, that we have had few opportunities to describe the U.S. Government's overall counterterrorism policies and programs. Unfortunately, we may have left the impression that we are not as active and aggressive in fighting international terrorism as we are, or that we are defensive in posture and only react to events.

In a recent hearing, a witness urged that the U.S. adopt a proactive counterterrorism policy. Not only do I subscribe with enthusiasm and alacrity to this recommendation, but it incorporates much of what our government is energetically doing every day.

And these activities are just as important in preventing another Pan Am 103 as the security measures that are being discussed here this morning. May I take just a moment to outline briefly the tenets of our counterterrorism policy:

The United States does not make concessions to terrorists or compromise our fundamental principles;

Second, we apply pressure to states who support terrorist groups and use terrorism as part of their foreign policy. We work to make states which supply terrorists with training sites, weapons, money, passports, or other logistical support bear the price for their unacceptable behavior. We actively seek international cooperation in this effort.

Third, the U.S. and other like-minded nations employ practical measures to counter terrorism. These measures are the bread and butter of our work. They are not glamorous, but they are essential.

They include identifying, tracking, apprehending, prosecuting, and punishing terrorists for their crimes. In a phrase, it is the application of the rule of law—treating terrorists for what they are, criminals and outlaws.

While it is not the stuff of headlines or news stories, let me assure you that this is an active, ongoing program to which the U.S. government devotes much time, energy, and money.

In closing, Mr. Chairman, let me assure you that helping to ensure that there is never another incident such as Pan Am 103 and identifying and punishing those responsible for this outrage is and will remain a permanent preoccupation of the Departments of State and Transportation, as well as other concerned agencies.

Thank you.

Senator Ford. Thank you, Mr. Ambassador.

You were here earlier when I asked Secretary Skinner if he could substantiate the news in relation to the identification of the unwitting carrier of the bomb on the airplane and who was responsible for that. Can you substantiate that statement that was carried this morning in the New York Times?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I am in the same position as Secretary Skinner, Mr. Chairman. The investigation is continuing. It is a criminal investigation, and it would be irresponsible on my part to talk about the investigation itself.

I would not want to do anything that would damage our ability to bring those responsible to justice.

Senator Ford. Well, Mr. Ambassador, here is the article: "U.S. Identifies Carrier of Bomb." Well, that is just a very flat statement. Under it, "Lebanese-American believed to have innocently taken device on Pan Am 103." And they go through there that Federal investigators have tentatively identified.

We keep going down through here, and it is like the first time I went to the Defense Department. I was told I had to get some clearance and they were going to give me some secret information. Well, that was back in the mid-fifties and I read everything they gave me in the next Life magazine.

Now, I do not know. Do we discredit the news here? Or you just want to say, I just can make no comment on that?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I am not authorized to talk about the criminal investigation, sir.

Senator Ford. Well, I am not trying to press you too hard on that, but it bothers this Senator that we read these things in the paper and then we ask people with authority, who have been authorized, the Secretary, the highest official in that Department, you are in charge of this section of the State Department.

We ask you some information, you say you are not authorized. Who is authorized in the State Department to discuss this? Only the Secretary of State?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. No one in the State Department is authorized to discuss the investigation, sir. That is under the jurisdiction, for the U.S. Government, of the FBI and the Department of Justice. The overall investigation is under the authority of the United Kingdom.

If I may say so, sir, I am also disturbed to read those things in the paper. They should not be appearing in the paper.

Senator Ford. Well, we get back to the question we have had here that is the thread through this, the people's right to know. And I do not know whether reading that and then hearing two high government officials say they are not allowed to discuss it yet—you are here representing the Department of State.

And maybe I am just off the wall here this morning with these questions, but it is disconcerting to me to read this in the paper and then no one wants to substantiate it.

There are more leaks from the non-leakers than you ever saw in your life. It just keeps coming and keeps coming and keeps coming. And yet when we get somebody before a Senate panel with some authority, they cannot talk about it.

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Mr. Chairman, I mean no disrespect.

Senator Ford. I do not worry about that. I am just frustrated.

Ambassador Mcmanaway. And if I were authorized to, if I could, I would comment. But it is simply not

Senator Ford. And the only people that can, as far as you know, comment on this would be the FBI?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Yes, sir.

Senator Ford. All right. Maybe that is where we want to go instead of talking to you.

Improving airport security necessitates the active involvement of foreign governments. What is the State Department now doing to ensure this involvement?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Sir, we are working in that area in several areas. We have worked closely with Secretary Skinner in the ICAO council meetings. We and the United Kingdom called for a special ICAO meeting after Pan Am 103 at the ministerial level, which Secretary Skinner attended.

That produced a work plan for improving, upgrading security standards throughout the world, by all members of ICAO. That has been referred to a committee of ICAO.

Senator Ford. What serious countries are not included in ICAO?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I am sorry, sir?

Senator Ford. What serious countries involved in some of our problem here are not members of that group?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I do not believe there are any serious countries that are not involved. It is a very large organization.

Senator Ford. Is Iran a member of it?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Iran, no. They are not a member of the committee. We do not have any relations with Iran anyway.

Senator Ford. All right. We are beginning to say that that is where the serious problem lies, and all we are trying to do is defend against one of them.

Go ahead and proceed. I am sorry, I did not mean to interrupt you.

Ambassador Mcmanaway. The Department of State also has a training program, Mr. Chairman, called the Anti-Terrorism Assistance program, in which we train foreign airport security officials in airport management and security. It is an extensive program.

It has been under way for the last three or four years. We have trained now some 7200 officials around the world from some 40-odd countries. That is an active program, for which we are asking the Congress for $10 million in fiscal year 1990 to continue.

Senator Ford. Is this in addition to what the FAA might do?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Yes, sir. We work with the FAA in that program.

Senator Ford. Who trains? Does the FAA furnish the instructors or are the instructors within the State Department?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. The FAA provides instructors. They have been supplimented by American firms or airport officials who are experienced, police departments, et cetera.

Senator Ford. How many such contracts would you think the State Department would have in this arena?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I would have to submit that for the record, sir.

Senator Ford. Would you do that for me. And you might, in addition to that, give us all the contracts and the names of the contractors that you use to instruct and train.

Ambassador Mcmanaway. We would be happy to.

[The information referred to follows:]

The following is a list of organizations utilized in providing training under the auspices of the Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program. Alabama Canine Law Enforcement Training Center Arizona Department of Public Safety Aviation Security Corp.

Baltimore-Washington International Airport Police

Baltimore County Police Department

BDM Corporation

Broward County Sheriffs Office

Bureau Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms—Treasury

Bureau of Diplomatic Security—Department of State

California Specialized Training Institute

Charles Kirchner Associates

Charleston, South Carolina Police Department

Chicago Police Department

Community Relations Service—Justice Department
Control Risks Group
Cronin/Cay Group, The

Dallas-Ft Worth Airport Public Safety Division
Department of Energy
Drug Enforcement Administration—Justice
Dulles International Airport Authority
Essex Institute

Fairfax County Sheriffs Department
Federal Aviation Administration—Transportation
Federal Bureau of Investigation—Justice
Federal Emergency Management Agency

Federal Law Enforcement Training Ctr.—Treasury Department
Flint, Michigan Police Department
Frank Bolz Associates
Futura, Inc.

Georgia Bureau of Investigation
Glen Murphy & Associates
Global Technology Corporation
Global Training Academy

Immigration & Naturalization Service—Justice
Instructional Communications, Inc.

International Association of Bomb Technicians & Investigators

International Association of Chiefs of Police

Knoxville, Tennessee Police Department

Los Angeles International Airport Authority

Los Angeles Police Department

Louisiana State Police Academy

Maryland State Police Department

Miami, Fla. Port Authority

Miami Police Department

Nassau County Police Department

National Association of State Directors of Law Enforcement & Training
National Sheriffs Associations

New York/New Jersey Port Authority Police Department

New York City Police Department

Northwestern University Traffic Institute

Perspective Instructional Communications, Inc.

Phoenix Police Department

Police Executive Research Forum

Prince Georges County Police Department

San Diego Sheriffs Department

Scientific & Commercial Systems Corporation

Scottie School of Defensive Driving

Texas A & M University System

Training Group, Inc., The

Transportation Safety Institute—Department of Transportation

U.S. Capitol Police

U.S. Coast Guard—Transportation

U.S. Customs Service—Treasury
U.S. Marshal's Service—Justice
Washington D.C. Police Department

Wackenhut Corporation, The Summary:

Federal agencies 15

State and local governments 25

Educational institutions 4

Professional associations 5

Private contractors 17

Total 66

Senator Ford. These are not necessarily all members of our embassies and so forth around the world? They are members of other countries?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. Yes, sir, in all cases.
Senator Ford. In all cases.

Should U.S. embassies in any given country, receive FAA security bulletins affecting other nations? And what is the procedure for making diplomatic personnel aware of the threat described in these security bulletins?

You touched on that and probably you elaborated, but I want it again for the record.

Ambassador Mcmanaway. The only use of FAA security bulletins by the Department of State is to send them to our security or aviation officials at the posts that might be affected by the threat, in order that they may assist the airline in working with the host government to upgrade security to counter the threat.

That is the only prescribed use by the Department of State of FAA bulletins.

Senator Ford. Let us talk about family notification just a bit. The Pan Am 103 incident has raised a number of questions, I think, about the manner in which families of the victims should have been handled.

One proposal being considered calls for the State Department to notify the next of kin through the most expeditious means available. Now, what is your position on such a proposal and what would you do different today than you did during the incident following the crash of Pan Am 103?

Ambassador Mcmanaway. I wonder if I might ask Mr. Mahoney, my colleague, to respond to that question.

Mr. Mahoney. Senator, whenever an American dies overseas in any circumstances it is our job to see that his family or next of kin is notified. If no one else is doing the notification or the next of kin are not with him, we immediately set out to do so.

Senator Ford. What do you mean, no one else is doing it? What do you mean, "no one else'?

Mr. Mahoney. Right. About 6,000 Americans die overseas every year. Many of them are, for example, people who have retired overseas. Perhaps they emigrated to America, they have returned to their home country, they are living with social security payments and whatever, and their whole family is right there at the time.

And it may well be that the death of a person does not come to our attention for a long time. They do not tell us, they do not require a service from us. And in that sense, we do not make a notification because the family is there.

So what I mean is, if you have a tourist or someone studying overseas who does not have his family with him, the instant that the death of that person comes to our attention we immediately undertake to notify the next of kin in the United States. So there is that distinction.

Senator Ford. What is the longest and shortest period of notification to the family of a tourist involved in an accident? What is the procedure to notify you or the embassy in that country so you might start communication? What is the procedure to receive that information?

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