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gone the Small-pox, selected for the preservation of the precious fluid, by transmitting it successively from one to another, during the course of the voyage. The expedition set sail from Corunna, under the direction of Dr. Balmis, on the 30th November, 1803. It made the first stop at the Canary Islands, the second at Porto Rico, and the third at the Caracas. On leaving that province, by the port of La Guayra, it was divided: one part sailing to South America, under the charge of the Subdirector Don Francis Salvani; the other, with the Director, Dr. Balmis, on board, steering for the Havannah, and thence for Yucatan. There a subdivision took place: the Professor Francis Pastor proceeding from the port of Sisal, to that of Villa Hermosa, in the province of Tobasca, for the purpose of propagating Vaccination in the district of Chiapa, and on to Goatemala, making a circuit of four hundred leagues, through a long and rough road, comprising Oaxaca; while the rest of the expedition, which arrived without accident at Veracruz, traversed not only the Vice-royalty of New Spain, but also the interior provinces; whence it was to return to Mexico, which was the point of re-union.
This precious preservative against the ravages of the Small-pox, has already been extended through the whole of North America, to the coasts of Sonora and Sinaloa, and even to High Pimeria. In each capital a Council has been instituted, composed of the principal Authorities, and the most zealous members of the faculty, charged with the preservation of this invaluable specific, as a sacred deposit, for which they are accountable to the King and to posterity.
This being accomplished, it was the next care of the Director to carry this part of the expedition from America to Asia, crowned with the most brilliant success, and, with it, the comfort of humanity. Some difficulties having been surmounted, he embarked in the port of Acapulco for the Philippine Islands; that being the point at which, if attainable, it was originally intended that the undertaking should be terminated.
The bounty of Divine Providence having vouchsafed to second the great and pious designs of the King, Dr. Balmis happily performed the voyage in little more than two months: carrying with him, from New Spain, twentysix children, destined to be vaccinated in
succession, as before; and as many of them were infants, they were committed to the care of the Matron of the Foundling Hospital at La Corunna, who, in this, as well as the former voyages, conducted herself in a manner to merit approbation. The expedition having arrived at the Philippines, and propagated the specific in the islands subject to his Catholic Majesty, Dr. Balmis, having concluded his philanthropic commission, concerted with the Captain General the means of extending the beneficence of the King, and the glory of his august name, to the remotest confines of Asia.
In point of fact, the Cow-pox has been disseminated through the vast Archipelago of the Visayan Islands; whose Chiefs, accustomed to wage perpetual war with us, have laid down their arms, admiring the generosity of an enemy, who conferred upon them the blessings of health and life, at the time when they were ladouring under the ravages of an epidemic Small-pox. The principal persons of the Portuguese colonies, and of the Chinese empire, manifested themselves no less beholden, when Dr. Balmis reached Macao and Canton; in both which places he accomplished the intro
duction of fresh virus, in all its activity, by the means already related: a result, which the English, on repeated trials, had failed to procure, in the various occasions when they brought out portions of matter in the ships of their East India Company, which lost their efficacy on their passage.
After having propagated the Vaccine at Canton, as far as the circumstances of the empire would permit, and having confided the further dissemination of it to the Physicians of the English factory at the above-mentioned port, Dr. Balmis returned to Macao, and embarked in a Portuguese vessel for Lisbon; where he arrived on the 15th August. In the way he stopped at St. Helena, in which, as in other places, by dint of exhortation and per severance, he prevailed upon the English to adopt the astonishing antidote, which they had undervalued for the space of more than eight years, though it was a discovery of their own. nation, and though it was sent to them by JENNER himself.
Of that branch of the expedition which was destined for Peru, it is ascertained that it was shipwrecked in one of the mouths of the River de la Magdalena; but having derived imme
diate succour from the natives, from the magistrates adjacent, and from the Governor. of Carthagena, the Subdirector, the three members of the faculty who accompanied him, and the children, were saved, with the fluid in good preservation, which they extended in that port, aud its province, with activity and success. Thence it was carried to the isthmus of Panama, and persons, properly provided with all necessaries, undertook the long and painful navigation of the River de la Magdalena; separating, when they reached the interior, to discharge their commission in the towns of Teneriffe, Mompox, Ocana, Socorro, San Gil y Medellin, in the valley of Cucuta, and in the cities of Pamplona, Giron, Tunja, Velez, and other places in the neighbourhood, until they met at Santa Fe: leaving every where suitable instructions for the members of the faculty, and, in the more considerable towns, regulations conformable to those rules which the Director had prescribed for the preservation of the virus; which the Viceroy certifies to have been communicated to fifty thousand persons, without one unfavourable case. Towards the close of March, 1805, they prepared to continue their journey in separate