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personal superintendance (besides establishing a friendly society combined with their plan and calculated to extend its benefits), so much surpasses the ordinary effects of benevolence, as to excite emotions of surprise when the fact is first mentioned. How much ought it to operate, in repelling the ordináry excuse of inactivity or irresolution, -the want of means or opportunity to do good? It does not appear, that any collateral circumstances of influence or situation, have given any peculiar advantages to these ladies, in the execution of their plan: but it appears to have arisen at first from a very small beginning; the establishment having been gradually enlarged to its present extent. This will afford encouragement to benevolent undertakings, that the amount of benefit ultimately to be derived from them, may very far exceed whatever could at their first outset be foreseen.

This account will also point out a mode, in which, at a very limited expense, a large establishment, may, with constant

attention, be conducted. It will prove how much may be effected by the exertions of those, whose moderate circumstances may place expensive contributions out of their: reach-that diligence, animated by benevolence, will create the funds which when furnished by indiscriminating bounty, are too often misapplied :—and that the labour of the poor, even among children, may be so directed, as to supply the means of their own instruction and improvement.

To ladies, whom the duties of their families or situations may preclude from undertaking an extensive plan of instruction, it affords a valuable example of the advantage of gratuitous tuition, tho confined to a small number of children. There are few who might not effect something in this way, without too great a sacrifice to their time, or encroachment on their necessary employments; and it is impossible to calculate the effect of such disinterested benevolence, upon the feelings and habits of the poor, as well as on their improvement in useful

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acquirements. The respect and attention, with which poor children receive the instruction of those whose rank is elevated above their own, co-operate with the superior qualifications of these teachers in point of education or knowledge; while the gratitude, which must be inspired by such a beneficent attention to their welfare, cannot but excite them to prove themselves worthy of the patronage they have received, by a diligent practice of the virtues inculcatedupon their minds.


In the detail of the plan, tho it bears evident marks of the good sense and ability with which the whole has been arranged, yet there are many circumstances which have arisen from local convenience, and which might not be applicable in different. situations. The general principle of a system of rewards and distinctions of merit, constantly operating, is however in almost every possible case of the greatest importarce; and has in the present been found sufficient to supersede all compulsory means

of inforcing attendance, and almost to preclude the necessity of having recourse to punishment. This system may be variously modified, so as to suit different establishments, but it can scarcely be thought possible that the vigor of the human mind should be efficaciously called into action, especially in children, but by the immediate prospect of advantage and reputation held out to them in forms suited to their capacities, and captivating to their imaginations.

1st March, 1805.



Extract from an Account of Measures adopted to better the Condition of the Poor at Long Newnton, in the County of Wilts.

By Thomas Estcourt, Esq.


HE parish of Long Newnton contains 140 poor persons, of all ages, divided into 32 families, chiefly employed as labourers in husbandry. In the year 1800, an idea suggested itself, that these poor people would voluntarily exchange their claims to parochial relief, for any other aid suitable to their habits, that would yield, with their labour, a better prospect of procuring the common domestic comforts of life. They were frequently consulted on the subject, and were informed that it was anxiously desired to remove them, if possible, out of the reach of the recurrence of distresses similar to those they had lately felt; that they should be furnished with the means,

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