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vcinity who can neither read nor write. A majority of those who suffer the punishment of death for their crimes in every part of England, are, it is believed, in this miserable state of ignorance.

There is now a legal provision for parochial schools, or rather for a school in each of the different townships into which the country is divided, in several of the northern states of North America. They are, however, of recent origin there, excepting in New England, where they were established in the last century, probably about the same time* as in Scotland, and by the same religious sect. In the protestant cantons of Switzerland, the peasantry have the advantage of similar schools, tho established and endowed in a different manner. This is also the case in certain districts in England, particularly in the northern parts of Yorkshire and of Lancashire, and

* It was passed in 1692. A copy of the Act is in serted in the Third Volume of the Society's Reports, Appendix, No. 10.

statute of 1696, the noble legacy of the Scottish Parliament to their country, began soon after this to operate; and happily, as the minds of the poor received instruction, the Union opened new channels of industry, and new fields of action to their view.

At the present day there is perhaps no country in Europe, in which, in proportion to its population, so small a number of crimes fall under the chastisement of the criminal law, as Scotland. We have the best authority for asserting, that on an average of thirty years preceding the year 1797, the executions in that division of the island did not amount to six annually; and one quarter sessions for the town of Manchester only, has sent, according to Mr. Hume, more felons to the plantations than all the judges of Scotland usually do in the space of a year.* It might appear invidious to attempt a calculation of the many thousand individuals in Manchester and its

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* Hume's Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland. Introd. p. 50.

vcinity who can neither read nor write. A majority of those who suffer the punishment of death for their crimes in every part of England, are, it is believed, in this miserable state of ignorance.

There is now a legal provision for parochial schools, or rather for a school in each of the different townships into which the country is divided, in several of the northern states of North America. They are, however, of recent origin there, excepting in New England, where they were established in the last century, probably about the same time* as in Scotland, and by the same religious sect. In the protestant cantons of Switzerland, the peasantry have the advantage of similar schools, tho established and endowed in a different manner. This is also the case in certain districts in England, particularly in the northern parts of Yorkshire and of Lancashire, and

* It was passed in 1692. A copy of the Act is inserted in the Third Volume of the Society's Reports, Appendix, No. 10.

statute of 1696, the noble legacy of the Scottish Parliament to their country, began soon after this to operate; and happily, as the minds of the poor received instruction, the Union opened new channels of industry, and new fields of action to their view,

At the present day there is perhaps no country in Europe, in which, in proportion to its population, so small a number of crimes fall under the chastisement of the criminal law, as Scotland. We have the best authority for asserting, that on an average of thirty years preceding the year 1797, the executions in that division of the island did not amount to six annually; and one quarter sessions for the town of Manchester only, has sent, according to Mr. Hume, more felons to the plantations than all the judges of Scotland usually do in th~ space of a year.* It might appear inv to attempt a calculation of the ma sand individuals in Manchest

* Hume's Commentaries on the " Introd. p. 50.

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