## Pakistan Development Review, Volume 16, Issues 1-3Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1977 - Pakistan |

### From inside the book

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Page 1

is to effect a real transfer of resources from the developed countries to the

developing ones. Aid can be given through a number of arrangements which

differ from ...

**Grant**.**Element**. in. Foreign. Aid. M.A. Mahmood* Introduction The purpose of aidis to effect a real transfer of resources from the developed countries to the

developing ones. Aid can be given through a number of arrangements which

differ from ...

Page 4

Having calculated the present value of a loan from formula 2 it is simple to derive

the

100 (3) Q where Q is the amount of the principal loaned and PV is its present ...

Having calculated the present value of a loan from formula 2 it is simple to derive

the

**grant element**for the loan. This is given below: Q — PV x 100 Q or (1 - PV) x100 (3) Q where Q is the amount of the principal loaned and PV is its present ...

Page 7

d G.E. G.E. dXi Xi where G.E. is the

variables.3 These transformation elasticities may be estimated by regressing the

natural logarithm (log) of the G.E. on the log of Xi. The elasticities for the rate of ...

d G.E. G.E. dXi Xi where G.E. is the

**grant element**and Xi is one of the threevariables.3 These transformation elasticities may be estimated by regressing the

natural logarithm (log) of the G.E. on the log of Xi. The elasticities for the rate of ...

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### Contents

A Simple Optimisation Model for Cotton Processing Activities | 17 |

An Urban Poverty Line Estimate | 49 |

A Policy Review | 89 |

4 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

adjusted age of marriage agricultural analysis assumption average Bangladesh basic needs calculated capital cloth coefficient Column constraints consumption cost crops demand for contraception developing countries Development Economics diesel wagons domestic earnings Economic Development Economy of Pakistan educational level effective exchange rate employment equation estimates exchange rate expenditure explanatory variable export factors farm farmers fertility foreign inflow grant element gross domestic product growth rate import substitution increase industry Institute of Development interest rates investment Islamabad Karachi Korea labour Lahore living children loans ment mortality number of children number of living objective functions opportunity cost output Pakistan Development Review Pakistan Institute percent percentage period petrol PIDE Planning population growth poverty line primary education problem production Punjab ratio Rawalpindi regression rupees sample savings sector solutions spindles Statistical Table target tion trade urban yarn