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maintenance and utilization of such lands. Any balance of
This legislation conveys a very broad authority for recreational
development. Furthermore the intent of the legislation was made clear
in hearings on the legislation and the Committee reports recommending
1ts enactment by Congress.
This intent is stated in Report No. 1309,
78th Congress, 2nd Session, House of Representatives, as follows:
"To date the Corps of Engineers has placed in
This legislative authority does not limit or prescribe the extent to which development of reservoir areas for public use should be undertaken with Federal funds. Since it does not provide specific guidelines as to facilities to be provided and detaile for leasing, concessions and transfer to other agencies' it has been necessary for the
Corps of Engineers to work out administrative procedures for accom
plishment of these purposes.
Public Relations: One of the most important aspects of the recreational development program is its effect on the relations between the Federal Government and its citizens. The recreational opportunities provided by Federal projects are something that individuals from near and far can see, use and appreciate as a personal experience. On the other hand few persons realize how or when the projects prevent flood damage from year to year, or that
the hydroelectric power produced by a Federal project is fed into a
system and aids in lighting their homes. Thus if the recreational
resource is inadequately developed or poorly managed, whether this
development and management be in Federal or non-Federal hands, the affected citizen will attribute the blame to the Federal project and the Federal agency concerned. On the other hand a well developed and managed project, with a proper balance of Federal, State and local participation, can be a strong factor in strengthening the bonds
between the Federal Government and its citizens.
III ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES OF THE
CORPS OT ENGINEERS
Within the framework of legislative authority provided by the Congress the Corps of Engineers has formulated very definite policies and procedures for dealing with the recreational potential of water resource projects with the objective of protecting the existing
recreational and natural resources, preserving and making available
for general public use the basic recreational opportunity created by such projects, and pointing the way toward full development and utilization of this recreational potential by others. Those policies and procedures were first established by instructions issued by the Chief of Engineers in 1946 governing the program of the War Department under Section 4 of the Flood Control Act of 1944, and have been progressively modified uver the years in the light of experience gained in handling the recreational resources, and in an effort to meet emerging needs. At the present time they are set forth in a series of Engineering Manuals, which are attached as appendices to this report, and described briefly in the paragraphs which follow.
Planning and Administration of Lands and Waters (Appendix II):
This manual (EM 1130-2-302), issued in its present form in April 1959,
prescribes policies and procedures for the planning, operating and
administration of Civil Works project lands and waters. In recognition of growing public interest in and demand for recreational opporunities, Corps of Engineers procedures for planning water resource developments call for consideration of the need to protect existing recreational
resources, to preserve and make available basic recreational resources
created by such developments, and to enhance these recreational resources in appropriate cases. Initial consideration of recreational needs and means for meeting them is undertaken in the pre-authorization (survey) phase of civil works planning. The advisability of and justi
fication foc including recreation as a purpose of projects recommended to the Congress for authorization 18 appraised in this phase of plannini in accordance with physical and economic principles applicable to
other project purposes. After projects have been authorized, "master
plans" for their administration and operation are prepared to assure
preservation of their scenic, biological, and recreational resources,
and to assure coordination with interested and responsible Federal,
State and local agencies.
The planning procedures which have been
adopted provide a practical and consistent basis for recognizing and
meeting growing recreational needs throughout the various phases of
water resource project formulation and accomplishment.
Criteria for Recreational Facilities (Appendix 3): This Manual (EM 2130-2-312), dated May 1960, provides guidance for Division and District Engineers to assure uniform and satisfactory development of the basic facilities needed at Civil Works projects to permit public use of the recreational potential, and point the way to more complete development by non-Federal agencies. The objective of this manual 18 to furnish guideline criteria for anticipating development needs Including the type and number of facilities which will be provided by
the Corps of Engineers at projects where authority is granted for
such development and funds made available for design and construction.
Fish and wildlife Conservation (Appendix 4):
(EM 2165-2-104), dated September 1959, prescribes policies for the consideration of fish and wildlife conservation in water resource
survey investigations of projects under the jurisdiction of the Corps of Engineers. It has been prepared in the light of legislative authority given by the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958
(Public Law 85-624). The term fish and wildlife as used in this Manual includes recreation associated with use of fish and wildlife
Grants under Section 209 of the Flood Control Act of 1954
(Appendix 5): This Manual (EM 405-2-830), dated July 1958, prescribes in detail the policies, procedures, and responsibilities for the outleasing of real property of the Department of the Army for recreational development and use of Civil Works land and water areas. This
is discussed further in a later section of this report.
These policies and procedures have been developed in
the light of practical experience over the years. Since providing for recreational use of Corps of Engineers' projects was a new field
of Federal activity for which detailed guidance did not exist at the outset it has been unavoidable that progress was not entirely uniform and that there has been variation in the types of facilities provided and in the arrangements with other agencies. The manuals included with
this report have been aimed at securing greater uniformity and effect
iveness in these respects.
The need for basic facilities to protect the recreational re
sources of reservoir projects and make them available to the public
has far exceeded the capacity of facilities initially installed at the time many reservoirs were placed in operation. This has been met in
part through additional funds provided by the Congress from Fiscal
Year 1959 to date to meet essential needs at many completed projects.