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A. p. 46. In a few of the States, the judges of some of the inferior courts are elected by the people. And in the State of New York, all judicial officers are, by the new Constitution, made elective.

B. p. 81. A later apportionment of representatives, according to the census of 1840, gives to Maryland six representatives, and to New York thirty-four.

c. p. 85. The ratio of representation adopted after the census of 1840, is 70,680 ; which, with the changes in the relative population of the several States, has essentially changed the representation ; giving to all the States then in the Union, 223 representatives. Three new States, Florida, Iowa, and Texas, have since been admitted into the Union, the first with one representative, the other two with two representatives each. Wisconsin will soon be admitted with one representative.

b. p. 86. By act of 1842, every State is to be divided into as many districts as it is entiled to representatives, and one representative is to be elected in each congressional district.

E. p. 95. By act of August, 1816, contracts for the several branches of the public printing are let to the lowest bidder, who gives sufficient security.

F. p. 111. By act of congress of more recent date, the regulations respecting navigation have been essentially modified. Vessels of the United States are now, in most, if not all cases, admitted into the ports of the United States, free of duty. And when any foreign country shall cease to impose discriminating duties upon vessels of the United States, the like privilege shall be extended to the vessels of such foreign country in the ports of the United States.

G. p. 116. The prohibition of the employment of persons other than natives of the United States, applies only to the employment of citizens of such foreign nations as have, by treaty with our government, prohibited the employment of our citizens upon their vessels. Nor is the master of a vessel of the United States, while in a foreign port, prohibited from supplying a deficiency of seamen on board his vessel by employing the subjects of such foreign country whose employment is not forbidden by the laws thereof.

H. p. 123. Another bankrupt law passed Aug., 1841, and repealed, March, 1843.

I. p. 128. The rates of postage and of compensation to postmasters, have been much changed by laws of more recent date. The following are present rates: (1847.)

On letters not weighing more than half an ounce, whether containing one or more pieces of paper, any distance not exceeding 300 miles, 5 cents; over 300 miles, 10 cents; and the same for every additional half ounce or fractional excess less than a half ounce. But letters to different persons in the same package, cannot be sent as a single letter. Any person offering them to be mailed as such, is liable to a penalty of ten dollars.

On letters dropped into a post office to be delivered from the same office, 2 cents.

On handbills, circulars, advertisements, &c., on one sheet, and on “transient newspapers,” those sent otherwise than by publishers to subscribers, 3 cents, paid in advance, On newspapers not exceeding in size 1900 square inches, and sent from the office of publication to subscribers, any distance within the State, 1 cent ; if sent out and over 100 miles, 14 cents.

On pamphlets, magazines, and other mailable matter, weighing one ounce or less, 24 cents; and for every additional oz. or fractional excess less than an oz. 1 cent.

Postmasters, whose compensation for the year ending June 30, 1845, did not exceed $200, are allowed the privilege of sending, duly franked, private letters and packages not weighing more than half an ounce. Members of Congress, for thirty days before the commencement of each congress, until the meeting of the next congress receive and send free, private letters, &c., weighing 2 oz. or less, and public documents not exceeding 3 lbs. The President, all Ex-Presidents, and the Vice President during his official term, also enjoy the franking privilege.

The cominission allowed to postmasters as compensation for their services, has been slightly altered, but it is deemed unnecessary to give the rates.

J. p. 141. The standing army has since been increased to about double its former number of men.

K. p. 145. That portion of the District of Columbia which was taken from Virginia, and which included the city of Alexandria, was in 184 retroceded to that State, to which it now belongs.

L. p. 150. In the meaning of the Constitution, however, a law having a retrospective action is er post facio only when it aggravates an offence or increases a penalty, after the offence has been committed, or when it requires less or different istimony to convict the offender ; but not when it lessens the punishment, or relates to civil cases merely affecting property.

M. p. 159. By act of 1815, the electors of President or Vice President are to be chosen Hereafter in all the States on the same day. That day is the Tuesday next alter the first Monday of November.

INDEX

OF SUBJECTS, MOST OF WHICH ARE NOT FOUND IN THE

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The Numbers refer to the Sections.
AMBASSADORS, powers and duties of, 483; privileges of, 386; how appoint-

ed, 479, 480.
ARISTOCRACY, defined, 34.
APPOINTMENT of subordinate executive officers, how made, 91, 92, 479.
ATTAINDER, (See bills of attainder.)
Bail, definition and objects of, 127; (See bailment.)
Bail, excessive, prohibited by constitution, 576.
BAILMENT, definition of, 654.
BIGAMY, definition of, 604; (See polygamy.)
Bill, defined, 75; bills, how passed, 75-82; for raising revenue, originate

only in the House, 260, 261.

Bills of attainder, may not be passed, 432, 442, 448; defined, 433.

Bills of credit, states may not emit, 442; defined. 446.

Body politic, meaning of, 15.

BRIBERY, what it is, 737; how punished, 740.

BURGLARY, what it is, 731; how punished, 740.

CAPITATION tax, 131; in what cases restricted by constitution, 434, 435.

CARRIERS, how far liable for loss of property, 663, 664.

CHARGE of affairs, duties and compensation of, 484.

CENSUS, origin and meaning of, 208.

CHARTER, definition of, 40.

CHATTELS real, 640.

CITIZENS, privileges of, secured in all the states, 533, 534.

COASTing trade, regulations concerning, 301.

COMMUNITY, meaning of, 15.

CONGRESS, compensation of members, 253, 254; officers of, how chosen,

214.

CONSTITUTION, signification of, 40; of United States, supreme law of the

land, 554, 555.

Consuls, powers and duties of, 485; how appointed, 479.

Contracts, obligation of, may not be impaired, 442, 449.

CONTRACTS of sale, law concerning, 648, 653.

CORPORATION, definition of, 15.

CORRUPTION of blood, abolished, 529; defined, 531.

COUNTERFEITING, defined, 732; punishment of, 740.

Courts of justice, in states, different kinds of, 107-119.

Customs, meaning of, 136.

DEEDS and mortgages, nature of, 635-639.

DEMOCRACY, detinition of, 37, 38.

DESPOTISM, defined. 32, 33.

DUELLING, what constitutes the offence, and how punishable, 738

DUTIES, different kinds defined, 135, 136, 271, 271, 292, 293; must be equal

in all the states, 436, 437; collection of, 272, 275-281; may not be laid

by states, 450, 451.
Election, by ballot and viva voce described, 53; majority and plurality,

54.
EMBARGO, its meaning and constitutionality, 317.
EMBEZZLING, definition and punishment of, 735, 740.
Envoy, plenipotentiary. (See ambassador.)
Estates real, title to, how acquired and secured, 630-639.
Excise, meaning of, 136.
Ex post facto law, may not be passed, 432, 433, 442, 448.
Faction, in what it consists, 189.
FEDERAL, meaning of the term, 179, 183.
FORGERY, defined, 732; how punished, 740
FREEHOLDER, definition of, 56, 631.
Gifts, when valid, 643.
HABEAS CORPUs, privileges of writ of secured, 430; meaning of, 431; writ,

how obtained, &c., 598-600.
HOMICIDE, defined, 728.
IMPEACHMENT, and mode of trial, 105, 106, 229, 230, 231; what officers

removed by, 496.
IMPOSTS, definition of, 136.
INTERNAL improvements, power of congress concerning, 424, 425; effects

of on productive industry, 872–879.
JUDGES, appointment and compensation of, 98, 102, 479, 509.
JURISDICTION, defined, 107.
JURY, trial by, secured, 122, 521, 522, 575.
LARCENY, definition and punishment of, 734, 740.
LIBEL and slander, 592-596.
Lien, general and particular, 668.
MANSLAUGHTER, law concerning, 726, 727; how punished, 740.
MARRIAGE, law relating to, 602-608.
MILITIA, power of congress concerning, 403, 408.
MINISTERS, public, appointment and duties of, 479, 480, 483-485.
Mint of the United States, and manner of coining money, 337–339.
MONARCHY, absolute and mixed, 31-36.
MONEY,causes of abundance and scarcity of, 907; quantity and value of,

not the same thing, 904.
NEGATIVE, power of, absolute and qualified, defined, 80; utility of, 81,

82.
NOBILITY, title of, may not be granted by United States, 440, 441
NOTARIES PUBLIC, duties of, 687, 688.
Oath to support constitution to be taken, 473, 474, 556, 557
OLIGARCHY, definition of, 34.
PARDON and reprieve, utility of power, 90.
PARLIAMENT of Great Britain how constituted, 35.
Passports, what, and when granted, 310.
PERJURY, definition of, 736; punishment of, 740.
Petition, right of secured, 563.
POLYGAMY, uefinition and punishment of, 604.
Price, causes of the fluctuation of, 754, 906.
PRODUCT, definition of, 755, 771.
PROPERTY, manner of descent to heirs, 632-631.
QUARANTINE, defined, and regulations concerning, 318.
QUORUM, definition of, 243.

RELIGION, establishment of prohibited, 563, 561.
RELIGious liberty, secured by constitution, 563.
REPRIEVE and pardon, power of, where vested, and why, 90.
REPUBLIC, defined, 38.
REVENUE, defined, and power to raise, where vested, 134.
Right of suffrage, definition and extent of, 55, 56.
Right of people against unreasonable searches and seizures secured, 570

571.
Rights and powers of states and people, what reserved by, 578, 582.
ROBBERY, crime defined, 733; how punished, 740.
SAFETY-FUND, in New-York, how created and replenished, 940.
SEARCHES and seizures, how authorized, 570.
SHERIFFS, origin and duties of, 113.
SINKING-FUND, national, how provided, and for what purpose, 287-233
SLANDER and libel, definition of, and law concerning, 592-596.
SLAVE-TRADE, foreign, how long tolerated by constitution, 427; laws un

cerning, 382, 383.
SPEAKER and officers of legislature, how chosen, and duties of, 71, 72

of congress, 214.
Stocks, what, and how created, 285, 932.
Tax and taxes, different kinds of, defined, 131, 135, 136.
TREATIES, how made, 27, 479, 480; supreme law of the land, and why,.

554, 555.
VACANCY, in state representation in congress, how filled, house, 212, 213;

senate, 220, 222; in office of President 468-470; in subordinate execu-

tive offices, 487.
Value, intrinsic and exchangable, defined, 749.
WARRANTY of title, 650, 651.
Wealth, definition of, 748; by what produced, 751

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