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A. p. 46. In a few of the States, the judges of some of the inferior courts are elected by the people. And in the State of New York, all judicial officers are, by the new Constitution, made elective.
B. p. 81. A later apportionment of representatives, according to the census of 1840, gives to Maryland six representatives, and to New York thirty-four.
c. p. 85. The ratio of representation adopted after the census of 1840, is 70,680 ; which, with the changes in the relative population of the several States, has essentially changed the representation ; giving to all the States then in the Union, 223 representatives. Three new States, Florida, Iowa, and Texas, have since been admitted into the Union, the first with one representative, the other two with two representatives each. Wisconsin will soon be admitted with one representative.
b. p. 86. By act of 1842, every State is to be divided into as many districts as it is entiled to representatives, and one representative is to be elected in each congressional district.
E. p. 95. By act of August, 1816, contracts for the several branches of the public printing are let to the lowest bidder, who gives sufficient security.
F. p. 111. By act of congress of more recent date, the regulations respecting navigation have been essentially modified. Vessels of the United States are now, in most, if not all cases, admitted into the ports of the United States, free of duty. And when any foreign country shall cease to impose discriminating duties upon vessels of the United States, the like privilege shall be extended to the vessels of such foreign country in the ports of the United States.
G. p. 116. The prohibition of the employment of persons other than natives of the United States, applies only to the employment of citizens of such foreign nations as have, by treaty with our government, prohibited the employment of our citizens upon their vessels. Nor is the master of a vessel of the United States, while in a foreign port, prohibited from supplying a deficiency of seamen on board his vessel by employing the subjects of such foreign country whose employment is not forbidden by the laws thereof.
H. p. 123. Another bankrupt law passed Aug., 1841, and repealed, March, 1843.
I. p. 128. The rates of postage and of compensation to postmasters, have been much changed by laws of more recent date. The following are present rates: (1847.)
On letters not weighing more than half an ounce, whether containing one or more pieces of paper, any distance not exceeding 300 miles, 5 cents; over 300 miles, 10 cents; and the same for every additional half ounce or fractional excess less than a half ounce. But letters to different persons in the same package, cannot be sent as a single letter. Any person offering them to be mailed as such, is liable to a penalty of ten dollars.
On letters dropped into a post office to be delivered from the same office, 2 cents.
On handbills, circulars, advertisements, &c., on one sheet, and on “transient newspapers,” those sent otherwise than by publishers to subscribers, 3 cents, paid in advance, On newspapers not exceeding in size 1900 square inches, and sent from the office of publication to subscribers, any distance within the State, 1 cent ; if sent out and over 100 miles, 14 cents.
On pamphlets, magazines, and other mailable matter, weighing one ounce or less, 24 cents; and for every additional oz. or fractional excess less than an oz. 1 cent.
Postmasters, whose compensation for the year ending June 30, 1845, did not exceed $200, are allowed the privilege of sending, duly franked, private letters and packages not weighing more than half an ounce. Members of Congress, for thirty days before the commencement of each congress, until the meeting of the next congress receive and send free, private letters, &c., weighing 2 oz. or less, and public documents not exceeding 3 lbs. The President, all Ex-Presidents, and the Vice President during his official term, also enjoy the franking privilege.
The cominission allowed to postmasters as compensation for their services, has been slightly altered, but it is deemed unnecessary to give the rates.
J. p. 141. The standing army has since been increased to about double its former number of men.
K. p. 145. That portion of the District of Columbia which was taken from Virginia, and which included the city of Alexandria, was in 184 retroceded to that State, to which it now belongs.
L. p. 150. In the meaning of the Constitution, however, a law having a retrospective action is er post facio only when it aggravates an offence or increases a penalty, after the offence has been committed, or when it requires less or different istimony to convict the offender ; but not when it lessens the punishment, or relates to civil cases merely affecting property.
M. p. 159. By act of 1815, the electors of President or Vice President are to be chosen Hereafter in all the States on the same day. That day is the Tuesday next alter the first Monday of November.
OF SUBJECTS, MOST OF WHICH ARE NOT FOUND IN THE
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The Numbers refer to the Sections.
ed, 479, 480.
only in the House, 260, 261.
DUTIES, different kinds defined, 135, 136, 271, 271, 292, 293; must be equal
in all the states, 436, 437; collection of, 272, 275-281; may not be laid
by states, 450, 451.
how obtained, &c., 598-600.
removed by, 496.
of on productive industry, 872–879.
not the same thing, 904.
RELIGION, establishment of prohibited, 563, 561.
cerning, 382, 383.
of congress, 214.
senate, 220, 222; in office of President 468-470; in subordinate execu-
tive offices, 487.