Page images
PDF
EPUB

name.

But the author of the life of Aristophanes says that all his comedies were acted by two útokpital, Philonides and Callistratus. I am inclined to think that this writer misunderstood certain passages in the Didascalia, wherein it was stated that Aristophanes exhibited this or that play δια Φιλωνίδου, or δια Καλλιστράτου. i. e. in the name of Pbilonides or Callistratus. The argument of the Frogs says, εδιδάχθη επί Καλλίου άρχοντος, του μετα 'Αντιγένην, επί Ληναίω. Φιλωνίδης επεγράφη, και ενίκα. Argum. Acharm. εδιδάχθη-δια Καλλιστράτου. were acted δια Φιλωνίδου. The birds δια Καλλιστράτου. The author of the life himself has remarked this. The Plutus was the last play which Aristophanes presented in his own He wrote two comedies afterwards, Κώκαλος, and Αίολοσίκων, but they were acted under the name of his son Araros. (Argum. Plut.) Platonius informs us that after Eupolis was drowned', Comedy abated of its personal invective, and the Choragi by degrees ceased to furnish the chorusses regularly, and that the Æolosico of Aristophanes bad no choric songs. It the life above quoted, that the case was the same with the Cocalus : but I do not remember to have seen it remarked that there was no chorus in the Plutus ; although amongst the Dramatis Personæ we find Xopos aypolkov, and some overwise grammarian has inserted at proper intervals in the body of the play, delmel toù Xopoll wdr), an odd accident to have happened five times in the same comedy. It appears from Aristotle, quoted by the Schol. on Aristoph. Ran. 420. that Cinesias had procured a law to be passed, limiting the expenses of the dramatic Choragi, or abolishing them altogether. Harpocrates says, that this Cinesias was abused by the comic poets every year. The X opnrylai were renewed by Lycurgus. But see Spanheim on the Argument to the Frogs, and Wesseling in Petit. Legg. Att. p. 145.

It has been thought by some learned men, that, because each of the ten tribes appointed a Choragus for the Dionysiac contests, there must have been always ten competitors for the prize of Comedy, of which only three were placed, as the phrase is on the turf. But it is clear from the argument to the Plutus, that this was not the case. We are there informed that Aristophanes,

seems, from

1. But Cicero tells us that Eratosthenes had refuted the common story of the death of Eupolis : Ep. Altic. VI. 1.

But per

The tragic

when he presented that play, had only four competitors ; Nicochares, Aristomenes, Nicophon, and Alcæus. It is most probable that different X oprylai were allotted to different tribes : so many for comic chorusses, so many for tragic, so many for dithyrambic, &c.

The contending Choragi were called 'Artixópryou', the poetical or musical candidates 'Avrididáokalo.*; the actors 'Avriτεχνοι. .

The names of successful Choragi and Poets were proclaimed to the people.

The author of the life of Sophocles says, ote vikwv éxnpúxor, xapâ viandeis é Félite. See Callimachus Epigr. VIII. 3.

The Choragus consecrated to Bacchus a tripod, inscribed with the names of himself and his poet, and the Archon. haps this is true only of the dithyrambic contests. victor seems to have consecrated a tablet or marble slab. The oldest of these inscriptions which has been preserved is in Plutarch, Themistocl. p. 251. ενίκησε δε και χορηγών τραγωδούς, μεγάλης ήδη τότε σπουδών και φιλοτιμίαν του αγώνος έχοντος και πίνακα της νίκης ανέθηκε, τοιαύτην επιγραφήν έχοντα. ΘEΜΙΣΤΟΚΛΗΣ ΦΡΕΑΡΙΟΣ EXΟΡΗΓΕΙ. ΦΡΥΝΙΧΟΣ ΕΔΙΔΑΣΚΕΝ. ΑΔΕΙΜΑΝΤΟΣ HPXEN. From the expression τοιαύτην érzypapriv, it appears that Plutarch had not seen the inscription itself, but took his information from the Didascalive. Here is no mention of the actor; and Mr. Tyrwhitt thinks that the actor's name was never mentioned in these inscriptions'. We certainly do not find it in any of the fragments which remain to us of the Attic Didascaliæ ; but, since the 'Y trokpitns is mentioned in a marble of uncertain date and place in the Oxford collection, p. 53. and in the Orchomenian inscription above referred to, it is probable that in later times the actor's name was added to those of the Choragus and the Poet.

It seems probable that the original prizes of tragedy and

1. Demosth. c. Mid. I. p. 134. 2. See Casaubon on Athen. VI. p. 235. D. 3. Alciphron III. 48. 4. See the Preface to the Persæ of Æschylus, p. xxii. 5. On Aristotle, p. 149.

.

comedy were discontinued when the dramatic art had attained its consistency and polish'.

The successful poet was honoured with a crown of ivy ; Callimachus Epigr. VIII.

"Ηλθε θεαίτητος καθαρήν οδόν" εί δ επί κισσον

Τον τεον ουχ αύτη, Βάκχε, κέλευθος άγει, "Αλλων μεν κήρυκες επί βραχύν ούνομα καιρόν

Φθέγξονται, κείνου δ' Ελλας αει σοφίαν. Alciphr. ΙΙ. 3. p. 230. μα τον Διόνυσον και τους Βακχικούς αυτου κισσους, οίς στεφανωθήναι μάλλον ή τοις Πτολεμαίου βούλομαι διαδήμασιν. Cf. p. 238. To this Euripides alludes in the prayer with which he concludes his Orestes, Phænissæ, and Iphigenia in Tauris.

μέγα σεμνή Νίκη, τον εμόν

Βίοτον κατέχους,

Και μη λήγοις στεφανουσα. Cf. Aristoph. Ran. 390. Simonid. Ep. LXXII. Himer. Orat. ΧΙΙΙ. 7. Epigr. ap. Steph. v. Φασηλίς.

The actors also of the successful pieces wore crowns of ivy. Alciphr. ΙΙΙ. 48. p. 382. Κακός κακώς απόλοιτο και άφωνος είη Λικύμνιος, ο της τραγωδίας υποκρίτης" ως γαρ ενίκα τους αντιτέχνους Κριτίαν τον Κλεωναίον και "Ιππασαν τον Αμβρακιώτης ΤΟΥΣ Αισχύλου ΠΡΟΠΟΜΠΟΥΣ, τορω τινι και γεγωνoτέρω φωνήματι χρησάμενος, γαύρος ήν, και κιττοστεφής ήγε συμπόσιον.

We have no document by which we can determine the nuniber of tragedies represented at one sitting”, but it appears that the time allowed to each poet was measured by the clepsydra”.

The prizes were awarded by judges appointed by the Archon, usually five in nuniber, but not always". Their decision, as might have been expected, was not always impartial. The judges of the Cyclian chorusses were punishable by fine, if they decided contrary to justice“.

1. Bentley Diss. Phal. p. 303.
2. Tyrwhitt. ad Aristot. p. 192.
3. Ιd. ibid. p. 14.4.

4. See Valesius in Maussac. Diss. Crit. p. 204. and Biblioth. Crit. II. iii. p. 45.

5. See Ælian II. 8. Aristoph. Av. 445. Tyrwhitt. p. 14:9. 6. Eschin. c. Ctesiph. 85.

The tripods and tablets commemorative of the Dionysiac conquerors, were placed in the Lenæan temple of Bacchus. From these, different authors at various times compiled chronological accounts of the dramatic contests, giving the names of the three first competitors, the titles of their plays, the success of each, and the name of the Archon in whose magistracy they were performed. The following extracts from them, preserved in the Arguments to the Medea of Euripides and the Plutus of Aristophanes, furnish a good specimen; 'Εδιδάχθη επί Πυθοδώρου άρχοντος, κατά την όγδοηκοστήν εβδόμην Ολυμπιάδα. πρώτος Ευφορίων" δεύτερος Σοφοκλής, τρίτος Ευριπίδης. Μηδεία, Φιλοκτήτης, Δίκτυς, θερισται Σάτυροι, ου σώζεται. The concluding words of which should be read as follows και τρίτος Ευριπίδης Μηδεία, Φιλοκτήτη, Δίκτυϊ, θερισταις Σατύροις, ου σώJetai. i. e. the Satyric drama was never published. The Plutus of Aristophanes is thus recorded : 'Εδιδάχθη επί άρχοντος Άντιπάτρου, ανταγωνιζομένων αυτω, Νικοχάρους μεν Λάκωσιν 'Αριστομένους δε 'Αδμήτο" Νικοφώντος δε Αδώνιδι. Αλκαίου δε Πασιφάη.

The principal compilers of Didascalia were Aristotle, Dicæarchus, Callimachus, Eratosthenes, Carystius of Pergamus, and Aristophanes the grammarian. The student who wishes to obtain full information on this subject must consult Casaubon on Athenæus VI. p. 235. E. Jonsius Hist. Script. Philos. I. 16. Bentley on the Fragments of Callimachus, p. 470. ed. Ernesti. ments of marble Didascaliæ were published at Rome in 1777, by G. A. Oderici, and reviewed in Wyttenbach’s Bibliotheca Critica II. iii. p. 41.

A curious inscription found at Corcyra is given by Montfaucon in his Diarium Italicum, p. 412. which says, that Aristomenes and Psyllas give each to the city of Corcyra 60 mina, εις τας των τεχνιτών μίσθωσιν τω Διονύσω. of wlich Montfaucou makes strange work, by reading to Alovúow in the dative case-It directs that there should be hired with 50 Corinthian mine three αυληται, three τραγωδοί and three κωμωδοί.

Our remarks on the number of the Chorus, the laws by which it was regulated, the actors and their dresses, will be reserved for another Number.

Two frag

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

2 was

HELLANICUS of LESBOS'. We learn from Suidas v. 'Ellávikos that according to some authors the name of the father of Hellanicus was Andromenes ; according to others Aristomenes ; according to others Scamonthat he had a son whose name was Scamon—that he resided together with Herodotus in the court of Amyntas King of Macedon, during the time of Euripides and Sophoclesthat he somewhat junior to Hecatæus, who flourished during the Persian wars—that he survived until the reign of Perdiccasthat he died at Perperene opposite to Lesbos—and that he composed many works both in prose and verse.

The chronology of this passage is not very accurate, since Amyntas, King of Macedon, died certainly before Euripides, and probably before Sophocles, was born. 3 The Paschal Chronicle assigns Ol. 67. as the date of Hellanicus, and says that he was contemporary with Democritus of Abdera, Heraclitus, and Anaxagoras. · Aulus Gellius“, on the contrary, states, on

1. A collection of the fragments of Hellanicus was published at Leipsic in 1787 by Frederick William Sturz. Another Hellanicus, who appears to have been a Grammarian, is quoted in the Sch. Min. on Homer, Od. B. 185. in the Sch. on Sophocles, Phil. v. 201. by Eustathius on Homer, pp. 816. 1035. 1173.

2. The Greek words are και Εκαταίω τω Μιλησίω επέβαλε, which Sturz translates, “ familiariter Hecatæo usus est,” but Suidas means to say that Hellanicus was young when Hecatæus was advanced in life, as appears from a similar expression under the article Máyuns, επιβάλλει δ' 'Επιχάρμω νέος πρεσβύτη.

3. P. 146. Ed. Par.-See also Syncellus Ed. Par. p. 238.

4. Hellanicus initio belli Peloponnesiaci fuisse quinque et sexaginta annos natus videtur, Herodotus tres et quinquaginta, Thucydides quadraginta. Scriptum hoc est in libro undecimo Pamphilæ. Lib. 15. c. 23.

« PreviousContinue »