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approved of the opinions stated by Xanthus respecting the changes that had taken place on the face of the Earth. He doubts whether Xanthus was a native of Sardes, though Suidas v. Závdos, expressly. asserts that he was born there. We learn from Diogenes Laertiuso, that the Lydiaca were epitomised by Menippus.

The Lydiaca are quoted by Parthenius?, in Stephanus By

Ξάνθου του Λυδούς του μεν Ξάνθου λέγοντος επί 'Αρταξέρξου γενέσθαι μέγαν αυχμών, ώστ' εκλιπείν ποταμους και λίμνας και φρέατα, αυτον δε είδέναι πολλαχή πρόσω από της θαλάσσης λίθους τε κογχυλιώδεις, και τα κτενώδεα, και χηραμίδων τυπώματα, και λιμνοθάλασσαν εν 'Αρμενίους και έν Ματτιηνούς και εν Φρυγία τη κάτω· ων ένεκα πείθεσθαι τα πεδία ποτέ θάλατταν γενέσθαι. p. 49.

This
passage

is at variance with the date assigned by Suidas to Xanthus. Again, p. 50. ώστε πρός γε τον Ξάνθου λόγον ουδέν αν έχοι τις προσφέρειν άτοπον. Compare p. 579. ακούειν δ' εστί και των παλαιών συγγραφέων· οία φησίν ο τα Λύδια συγγράψας Ξάνθος διηγούμενος οιαι μεταβολαί κατέσχον πολλάκις την χώραν ταύτην, ών εμνήσθη μέν που και εν τοις πρόσθεν. The Lydiaca are also referred to at p. 572. προς δε τούτοις, ότι τους Μυσους οι μεν θράκας, οι δε Λυδούς είρήκασι, κατ' αιτίαν παλαιάν ιστορούντες, ήν Ξάνθος ο Λυδος γράφει και Μενεκράτης ο Ελαΐτης, ετυμολογούντες και το όνομα το των Μυσών, ότι την οξύην ούτως ονομάζουσιν οι Λυδοί πολλή δ' ή οξύη κατά τον Όλυμπος, όπου εκτεθήναι φασι τους δεκατευθέντας: εκείνων δε απογόνους είναι τους ύστερον Μυσούς από της οξύης ούτω προσαγορευθέντας: μαρτυρείν δε και την διάλεκτον μιξολύδιον γαρ πως είναι και μιξοφρύγιον. τέως μεν γαρ οικείν αυτους περί τον "Όλυμπον των δε Φρυγών έκ της θρακης περαιωθέντων, εϊλοντο τόν τε της Τροίας άρχοντα και της πλησίον γης: εκείνους μεν ενταύθα οικήσαι τους δε Μυσους περί τας του Καΐκου πηγας πλησίον Λυδων. Αt p.

628. Ξάνθος δε και 'Αριμούν τινα λέγει των τόπων τούτων βασιλέα. Αt p. 680. ο μεν γαρ Ξάνθος ο Λυδος μετα τα Τρωϊκά φησιν ελθείν τους Φρυγας εκ της Ευρώπης και των αριστερών του Πόντου αγαγείν δ' αυτούς Σκαμάνδριον εκ Βερεκύντων και Ασκανίας. See also

p.

681. 5. Ξάνθος δε ο παλαιός συγγραφεύς Λυδος μεν λέγεται ει δε εκ Σαρδέων ουκ ίσμεν. p. 628.

6. γεγόνασι δε Μένιπποι έξι πρώτος ο γράψας τα περί Λυδων και Ξάνθον επιτεμόμενος. Ιn Menippo. Lib. vi.

7. διαφόρως δε και τους πολλούς ιστορείται και τα Νιόβης: ου γαρ Ταντάλου φασιν αυτήν γενέσθαι, αλλ' 'Ασσάονος μεν θυγατέρα, Φιλόττου δε γυναίκα. εις έριν δε αφικομένην Λητοι περί καλλιτεκνίας υποσχεϊν τίσιν τoιάνδε, τον μέν Φίλοττον εν κυνηγία διαφθαρήναι: τον δε 'Ασσάονα της θυγατρός πόθω σχόμενον αυτην αυτη γημάσθαι. μη ενδιδούσης δε της Νιόβης, τους παίδας αυτής εις ευωχίαν καλέσαντα καταπρήσαι. και

την

1

zantinus', and probably by the Scholiast® on Apollonius Rhodius: by Hephæstion also, p. 14. Ed. Gaisf.

Clemens Alexandrinus, p. 439. A. Stromatum, L. iii. quotes a passage from a work of Xanthus entitled Μαγικά, which probably contained an account of the Magi. Ξάνθος δε εν τοις επιγραφομένοις Μαγικοίς, Μίγνυνται δε, φησίν, οι μάγοι μητράσι και θυγατράσι και αδελφάις μίγνυσθαι θεμιτόν είναι: κοινάς τε είναι τας γυναίκας, ου βία και λάθρα, αλλά συναινούντων αμφοτέρων, όταν θέλη γήμαι ο έτερος την του ετέρου. It is referred to by Diogenes Laertius".

Xanthus is also quoted by Clemens* and by Hesychius”, but without any reference to the particular work.

See also Solinus in Polyhistor ν. 40. Εtym. Mag. ν. Ερμαιον. Pliny Nat. Hist. L. xxv. c. 5.

την μεν δια ταύτην την συμφοραν από πέτρας υψηλοτάτης αυτην ρίψαι. έννοιαν δε λαβόντα των σφετέρων αμαρτημάτων διαχρήσασθαι τον 'Ασσάονα εαυτόν. C. 33. Ed. Gale. The Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen. v. 162. speaking of the children of Niobe, says, Závoos de o Λύδιος δέκα και δέκα εκ Φιλοξένου του 'Ασσυρίου, δς ώκει εν Σιπύλη.

1. The first Book is referred to under the words Λυδία, Λυκοσθένη. The second, νν. 'Αρδύνιον, Στρόγαλα. The third, ν. Ευπάτρια. The fourth, v. 'Ασκάλων. Ξάνθος έν τετάρτη Λυδιακών φησιν ότι Τάνταλος και "Ασκαλος παιδες Υμεναίου. τον δε "Ασκαλον υπό 'Ακιαμου (f. 'Αλκίμου) του Λυδων βασιλέως αιρεθέντα στρατηγόν εις Συρίαν στρατευσαι, κακεί παρθένου ερασθείς πόλιν κτίσαι, ήν αφ' εαυτού ούτως ώνόμασε. See also under the words 'Αστελέβη, 'Αστερία, Σιδήνη. The Lydiaca are referred to without mentioning the particular Book, under the words "Έλγος, Λόκοζος, Μελάμπεια.

2. Speaking of the Sangarius, a river of Phrygia, πλησίον δε αυτού ορείας Δήμητρος ιερόν έστιν, ώς φησιν Ξάνθος. L. ii. ν. 724.

3. Ξάνθος δε ο Λυδος εις την Ξέρξου διάβασιν από του Ζωροάστρου εξακόσια (έτη) φησί. In proemio.

4. Ξάνθος δε ο Λυδος περί την οκτωκαιδεκάτην Ολυμπίαδα, ως δε Διονύσιος περί την πεντεκαιδεκάτην Θάσον εκτίσθαι. Stromatum. Lib. i. p. 333, Β.

5. ν. Βουλεψίη. η λέξις παρα Ξάνθη. λέγει δε τας 'Αμαζόνας, επειδαν τέκωσιν άρρεν, εξορύσσειν αυτού τους οφθαλμούς αυτοχειρία.

!

ARISTOPHANIS Comediæ ex optimis eremplaribus emendatæ studio Rich. Franc. Phil. BRUNCK, Argentoratensis. 1783.

(Reviewed by R. Porson, in Maty's Review for July 1783.)

Before I give an account of the editor's merits, it may not be improper to say a word of the excellencies and defects of the author; especially as some modern critics have thought proper not only to greet him with the title of a scurrilous and indecent buffoon, but to wonder how such monstrous farces could be endured by the chaste ears of an Attic audience. That many should have been greatly exasperated with Aristophanes, for publicly exhibiting Socrates on the stage, and making him speak and act in a manner most inconsistent with his known character, is not surprizing ; but as the accusation urged by some against the poet, of being instrumental to Socrates's death, has been substantially refuted by many critics; so the present editor has very judiciously observed, with regard to the other part of the charge, that Socrates is not so much the object of ridicule in the Comedy of the Clouds, as the philosophers in general, who, of whatever benefit the lessons and example of Socrates himself might be to the state, were, from their idle lives, their minute, ridiculous, and sometimes impious disquisitions, highly prejudicial to their disciples, and, by consequence, to the public. If, says Mr. Brunck, Aristophanes had really in the smallest degree contributed to the death of Socrates, it is not credible that Plato would have introduced them in bis Symposium, sitting together at the same table; it is not credible that he would have been so great an admirer of him as to write an epigram in bis praise, containing a most extravagant compliment — Missa igitur hæc faciamus-of the indecency which abounds in Aristophanes, unjustifiable as it certainly is, it may however be observed, that different ages differ extremely in their ideas of this offence. Among the ancients, plain-speaking was the fashion ; nor was that ceremonious delicacy introduced, which has taught men to abuse cach other with the utmost politeness, and express the most indecent ideas in the most modest language. The ancients had little of this. They were accustomed to call a spade a spade; to give every thing its proper name.

There is another VOL. U. NO. 5.

Q

sort of indecency, which is infinitely more dangerous; which corrupts the heart without offending the ear. I believe there is no man of sound judgment who would not sooner let his son read Aristophanes than Congreve or Vanbrugh. In all Aristophaves's indecency there is nothing that can allure, but much that must deter. He dresses

up

the most detestable vices in an amiable light; but generally, by describing them in their native colours, makes the reader disgusted with them. His abuse of the most eminent citizens may be accounted for upon similar principles. Besides, in a Republic, freedom of speech was deemed an essential privilege of a citizen. Demosthenes treats his adversaries with such language as would, in our days, be reckoned scurrilous enough; but it passed, in those days, without any notice or reprehension. The world is since greatly altered for the better. We have, indeed, retained the matter, but judiciously * rejected what was offensive in the manner. In his plots too, it must be owned, Aristophanes is sometimes faulty. It ought however to be observed, that his contemporary comic poets did not pique themselves upon the artful management of the plot. Aristophanes has therefore the usual failing of dramatic writers, to introduce speeches, and even scenes, not much conducing to the business of the drama. But if the only use of the plot be, as the great Bayes has decided, to bring in good things, our poet will stand totally clear on this head of the charge; and the Knights may be mentioned as an honourable exception even to this censure, as the design of the play, to expose Cleon, and to turn him out of bis place, is admirably supported from beginning to end. To sum up Aristophanes's character, if we consider his just and severe ridicule of the Athenian foibles, his detestation of the expensive and ruinous war in which Greece was engaged; his pointed invectives against the factious and interested demagogues, by whom the populace was deluded, who bauled for freedom in their senseless mood ;" his contempt of the useless and frivolous enquiries of the Sophists ; his wit, and versatility of style ; the astonishing playfulness, originality, and fertility of his imagination ; the great harmony of versification, whenever the subject required it, and his most refined elegance of language; in spite of Dr. Beattie's dictum, we shall look over his blemishes, and allow that, with all his faults, he might be a very good Citizen, and was certainly an excellent Poet.

never

* A line is here omitted by the printer of Maty's Review. The words between asterisks are supplied from conjecture.

The learning, industry, and sagacity of Mr. Brunck, are well known to the literati, by his elegant editions of some of the Greek Tragedies, the Analecta Veterum Poetarum, and Apollonius Rhodius. The present volumes are nearly of the same size with the. Analecta ; but the type in which the text is printed is the same with that of the Greek Tragedies. I am told most readers complain of the diminutive size of the character, and I must confess I should have been better pleased if the editor had employed the same types in this work as in the Analecta ; it would have spared the reader's eyes, and, perhaps, have rendered the typographical errors fewer than they are at present. Mr. Brunck has had, for the use of this edition, (besides all the former editions of any consequence) the collations of many manuscripts; in the Plutus, Nubes, and Ranæ, five (the collation of one does not appear but in the Addenda); in the Equites, Acharnenses, Aves, and Lysistra, three ; in the Vespæ, Pax, and Ecclesiazusæ, two; in the Thesmophoriazusä, but one. By the help of these manuscripts, the observations of critics, and his own reading, he has been enabled not only to purge the text from innumerable usurpations, but sometimes to supply chasms in it: an instance or two of which I shall give in the progress of this article. The ingenious critic apologizes (or rather does not apologize) for having left some 'faulty readings in the text (which either critical sagacity, or the assistance of MSS. would have removed) on account of the great hurry in which he was obliged to write his notes. To me, I own, this reason seems not entirely satisfactory.—"Quod olim librorum descriptoribus sæpis“sime evenit, id et ego quandoque passus sum ; nec hujus “inconsiderantiæ necesse duco ut me purgem, veniamque pe

tam; quin mirari subit lætarique, bonam Fortunam frequentiori“ bus istiusmodi lapsibus mihi cavisse ; maxime quum recordor,

partem haud minimam istarum fabularum a me descriptam "iterum fuisse, dum in Museo meo vel ludebat filius meus, quo "animum meum nihil magis advertit oblectatque, vel confabula“bantur boni quidam viri, qui quot fere diebus horisque matuti“nis ad me visere solent." _Tantamme rem tam negligenter ? I think in such a casel should have sent Master Brunck out of

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