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Two years, from the army, white males..
3 3 2 4 1
Three years, from the army, white males....
3 2 2
Four years, from civil life, white males
7 3. 2 1
Six years, from civil life, white females
Tabular statement of the time of life at which the 2,315 persons treated since
the opening of the institution became insane. Under 10 years..
26 Between 10 and 15 years
19 Between 15 and 20 years
146 Between 20 and 25 years
492 Between 25 and 30 years
607 Between 30 and 35 years
430 Between 35 and 40 years
262 Between 40 and 45 years
125 Between 45 and 50 years
72 Between 50 and 60 years
65 Between 60 and 70 years
31 Between 70 and 80 years
The following table shows the nativity, as far as it could be ascertained, of the
2,315 persons treated. NATIVE BORN.
FOREIGN BORN. District of Columbia.... 197 | Ireland..
550 New York..... 157 Germany.
139 England. Maryland. 120 France.
33 Virginia. 108 Canada..
16 Massachusetts. 61 Scotland.
55 Italy... Maine. 29 Norway
6 Illinois... 22 Denmark...
6 New Hampshire 21 Sweden ...
6 Kentucky 17 Poland....
5 New Jersey 15 Switzerland....
5 Connecticut -15 Russia..
5 Indiana ... 14 Wales.
3 Wisconsin. 13 Spain..
13 Holland. Vermont.
13 Portugal.. Missouri.. 13 Nova Scotia..
2 Tennessee.. 12 Hungary
1 Rhode Island ..
10 Austria... North Carolina. 5 Buenos Ayres.
1 Iowa.... 3 Costa Rica....
1 Alabama.. 2 Sicily
1 Louisiana. 2 Belgium.
1 Georgia. 1 Mexico.
1 South Carolina.
1 Choctaw Nation.
1 Native born...
Table showing the form of disease under which the cases received since the
institution was opened labored at the time of admission.
2 36 37 41 4 1 1
1,169 186 10 7 5 31 1 5 1 2 4 1 'i
5 56 29 17 5
There were of this class, at the beginning of the year :
6 males 8 females.. Received during the year....
11 males 3 females.. Whole number under treatment..
17 males 11 females .. Discharged during the year...
9 males 2 females.. Remaining at the close of the year..
8 males 9 females..
PUBLIC PATIENTS REMAINING AT THE END OF THE YEAR.
This is the first full year since the close of the war of the rebellion in which that great struggle did not materially affect the number of admissions to the institution. The cases received this year were less by one-half than those received in the years 1865-'66, and only a little more than one-fifth the number received in the years 1864–65 and 1863–’64. The average number resident this year has, however, exceeded that of the previous year; and as the number of chronic cases remains about the same year after year, it follows that the average duration of the residence of the recent and probably curable cases exceeded by at least one-half the same average the year before. This circumstance is a proper subject of congratulation, for we think it will be found that, with certain limitations and exceptions, the benefit recent cases of insanity derive from hospital treatment is in direct proportion to its duration, if the treatment be uninterrupted and undisturbed.
The ratio of fifty-four per cent., which the number of patients admitted this year from the army and navy bears to the whole number of admissions, shows the continued preponderance of the military character of the hospital which we suppose it will hereafter maintain.
The recoveries were sixty-six per cent. of the discharges, and forty-six per cent. of the discharges and deaths. The continuation of the residence of several patients of both sexes, unusually interesting from their youth and accomplishments, into the current year, who have since made excellent recoveries, lessened the ratio of restorations that might have been reported in the year under review. Fifty per cent. of the admissions or discharges is, however, as high an average ratio of recoveries as can be expected in a course of years in any institution which denies its benefits to no case of insanity, whatever other disease or infirmity may complicate it.
The deaths were eight and a half per cent. of the whole number under treatment, and thirty per cent. of the discharges, including deaths. This is rather a large death rate, and was occasioned by the concurrence of the completion of the gradual exhaustion of the vital powers from chronic organic disease of the brain in no less than twenty-six cases, and of the death, in several recent cases, of persons of delicate constitutions from maniacal exhaustion, or from other acute affections associated with insanity. There was at no time any prevailing disease among the inmates of the house, and those of fair constitutions usually enjoyed excellent general health. That so many old cases should reach their only possible termination in the course of this year appears to have been quite fortuitous, and leads us to expect that, with the blessing of Providence upon the efforts of the medical officers to maintain the general health of the household and to relieve the sick, the per cent. of deaths in the course of the current year will be considerably reduced.
The most marked event in the past year was the admission of an unusual number of dipsomaniacs-of persons whose intemperate use of alcoholic stimulants had, in the judgment of competent medical men, become an insanity, evinced both by the extent of the indulgence and by other more or less permanent morbid mental manifestations. Laboring people suffer less from this form of mental disease than the more favored classes. They cannot command the time and means necessary for that long-continued excess which appears to impair those qualities of the cerebral structures upon which the integrity of the mental powers depends, and labor imparts a hardiness to the constitution which renders it less susceptible to the evils of drinking than that which is softened and more or less enervated by a life of ease or study. It is because we so often see in dipsomaniacs the sacrifice of the extraordinary capacities and opportunities for usefulness to their fellow-men which are afforded by liberal education, wealth, and social influence, that their cases excite our deepest interest. It has now been a quarter of a centary since the project of treating inebriates with the view of reforming their habits, in institutions exclusively devoted to their care, began to be talked of by some of the earnest and benevolent minds of the country. No such project was actually undertaken, however, till within the last half a dozen years; and the two or three existing establishments of the kind appear to have achieved only a very moderate measure of success in curing inebriety. They have, without doubt, been of considerable service to families in caring for inebriates for short periods, and relieving them from the immediate effects of a debauch. The radical defect in the system of treating this class of persons, now and hitherto pursued, is the absence of a legal, coercive detention, and an absolute abstinence from drink for a sufficient length of time to restore the impaired moral and intellectual powers, and to effect those physiological
changes which are believed to attend the loss of the morbid and the restoration • of the natural appetite. The detention not having been legally coercive in such