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is enthusiastic in his work—is young and apparently blessed with a patient spirit and even temper.
He informed me that on Sundays he repeated the sermon of the officiating priest to his pupils with his lips, uttering no sound and using some signs. He said he could make his pupils understand everything:
I am inclined to question, from the exhibitions I saw in the school-room, whether he succeeds in this exercise, unless by the considerable use of signs.
He expressed decidedly the opinion that the power of lip-reading, developed even to the highest possible degree, would never suffice to enable its possessor to follow understandingly public discourses.
He also thought that not more than one-half of his pupils would ever learn to speak with fluency, so as to be easily understood by strangers.
THE INSTITUTION AT ZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND. The number of pupils here is thirty-eight, for the instruction of whom I found five teachers employed, giving an average of only eight pupils to each class, an arrangement peculiarly conducive to success in articulation.
I conversed with several of the most advanced pupils, and was understood by them with but little difficulty.
Their reading was also distinct and less spasmodic than in some schools I have visited.
At my request, Mr. Schibel, the director, read to the most advanced class, consisting of three boys (one born deaf) a page of my selection from a book of Scripture lessons. He made no long pauses and no repetitions; used no signs and no unusual contortions of the mouth.
When he had entirely finished, the pupils were requested to give in writing what he had just repeated orally. Without asking for the repetition of a word, they wrote rapidly, each filling nearly two sides of a large hand-slate, what Mr. Schibel had said. The boy born deaf transcribed the dictated page with the greatest accuracy, the others, however, accomplishing their task in a most commendable manner. I then required each boy to read aloud what he had written. The utterance of the one born deaf I should not bave been able to follow understandingly had I not previously read what he was saying. The others pronounced their words with a good degree of clearness, and would, in the main, I think, have been understood by one who had no previous information of what they were reading.
My attention was directed to an exercise in arrithmetic, in which a class of five years' standing was being drilled. The teacher had written on the blackboard rows of figures arranged thus :
20 + 15 = ?
14 + 10 = ? One pupil after another was called upon to read aloud two numbers required to be added, and to state the sum of them. An exercise of this simple nature; at so advanced a point in the course of study, would seem to indicate a low degree of mathematical proficiency on the part of the pupils.
I witnessed an exercise with a class of three years' standing, where the teacher, holding in his hand the picture of an eagle eating a bare, asked many questions with regard to what the eagle was and was not doing, could or could not do, &c. The answers of the pupils were generally in single words; and I noticed that the teacher, besides exaggerating the positions he caused his vocal organs to assume, made constant use of signs to assist the pupil in comprehending what he was saying.
In a long conversation I held with Mr. Schibel on matters pertaining to our
profession he admitted that not all deaf-mutes succeeded in acquiring the power of articulation, assigning as a reason therefor that some did not seem to possess sufficient power over the muscles of the vocal organs. He instanced the case of the pupil referred to above, whose reading I was unable to understand, and said that his father, a speaking and hearing man, had a very gruff, muffled voice, not easily understood even in ordinary conversation, rendering it probable that the son
inherited some disability of the organs of utterance. Mr. Schibel acknowledged the necessity of a considerable use of signs in the earlier years of instruction, but said he gave religious instruction only with the voice, the younger pupils not being able to participate in this exercise.
THE INSTITUTION AT ROTTERDAM, HOLLAND. · An address on the subject of deaf-mute instruction, delivered before the “ ninth congress (scientific) of the Netherlands," in Ghent, last August, by Mr. Hirsch, the director of the Rotterdam school, so clearly defines his position as a radical supporter of the artificial method that I will quote a few paragraphs from it before proceeding to describe my visit to him and his establishment :
“ The first and principal fact that has been made patent to society is the possibility of developing intellectually, morally, and religiously the deaf and dumb. As to the means by the aid of which instruction can and ought to be imparted to them, opinions are very diverse, often very contradictory. Those diversities and contradictions of opinion have given rise to differences in methods of instruction and to dissensions between the schools of France and of Germany.
“ The object to be attained is to render possible the admission of the deafmute into society by teaching him to see—that is, to understand—the movements of the lips and to speak in bis turn.
" To attain this end the act of seeing or comprehending and of speaking must be the exclusive principle of instruction, and neither the palpable alphabet nor the language of signs can have any connexion with it.
" It is true that the language of natural signs is the first means employed by the teacher to enter into relations with the pupil, but he does not make use of this method for any length of time, and it is abandoned as soon as it can be superseded by speech.
* The daily observations which I have made for more than thirty years that I have devoted to the deaf and dumb, have convinced me that the art of seeing speech in the movements of the mouth is the most important of all the branches of instruction, and that therefore it should be most sedulously cultivated.
“Next to the art of seeing or understanding, the act of speaking is the principal object of the instruction of the deaf and dumb. By this system ninetynine out of every hundred deaf- mutes may be taught, and their progress will depend entirely on the talent and patience of the teacher; this truth, too long and often too coldly doubted, is now penetrating everywhere.”.
This school was one of the few where I was unfortunate in calling at the season of vacation. I was not therefore able to satisfy myself by personal examination as to what extent the attainments of his pupils en masse would confirm the remarkable claims he makes in the above paragraphs.
I had, however, an opportunity of examining an individual case in a manner quite novel, and which put the oral and visual abilities of the pupil to what I conceive to be a very severe test.
Just as I was leaving Mr. Hirsch, after having held a long conversation with him, in which he urged with much earnestness, and even eloquence, the advantages of his system, a young man about twenty-five years of age entered, who was introduced to me as Mr. Edward Polano, the son of a physician, and who with his sister constituted the first class taught by Mr. Hirsch in Rotterdam. I was told that these persons were born totally deaf, and that they have never at any time gained the slightest power of hearing.
Mr. Hirsch in introducing Polano to me used the German language, and on telling him who I was used the Dutch.
As I shook hands with the young man I said, looking him full in the face, “ Sprechen sie Deutsch ?” His answer was promptly, “ Ja wobl.” Immediately I added, “Parlez-vous Français ?" and his answer was as immediate, “Un peu.” Without a moment's pause I added “Sprechen sie English ?" He hesitated a few seconds and then said distinctly, “Very little," adding with a smile, “ This is a pleasant day; ,I am glad to see you,and saying in German that was the extent of his knowledge of English.
Mr. Hirsch then retired to the other side of the room, a distance of some twenty feet, and speaking in a whisper, told young Polano in Dutch that my father was the first teacher of deaf-mutes in America, that my mother was deaf and dumb, and that none of my bro hers or sisters were deaf. Polano understood him perfectly and required no repetition.
As I was under the necessity of parting from Mr. Hirsch at this time in order to take a trair for Cologne, there was no further opportunity there for me to test Polano's powers of articulation and lip reading. But I asked him if he would not walk with me to my hotel, and he replied, “ Mit vergnügen."
I will give in English the greater part of what passed between us after starting on our walk, premising the remark that all our conversation was in oral German, without the use of a single sign.
As we left the house of Mr. Hirsch Polano said: “What hotel are you stay. ing at?" I replied : “ The hotel des Pays Bas.” “O, I know it,” said he. “Do you know my pame?” he asked. “Yes,” said I, “it is Polano.” “That is right,” said he, and we exchanged cards. “Do you not believe I was born deaf?” he inquired. “() yes," said I, and added immediately: “Do you talk with your sister by signs or with the voice ?” “With the voice," replied he; “I prefer it.” “Isn't it very warm to-day ?" said he. “Very warm," was my answer.
Presently I remarked : “I think we are not going right, for my hotel.” “ () yes," said he, “we are right; did not you say you were stopping at the hotel des. Pays Bas ?" “Yes," I answered, “ that is the name of my hotel” " Then we are quite right,” said he, adding, “I live in Rotterdam, you remember, and know the city well.”
We walked on further, when, being quite sure we were going astray, I repeated that I feared we were wrong, adding that we were following quite a different course from that I took in going from my hotel, and asking if there were two hotels of the name Pays Bas in Rotterdam. He said he thought not; and so we kept on.
Growing quite certain we were wrong, I stopped and insisted we were not right, and said I feared I should be too late for the Cologne train if we did not reach my hotel soon.
He seemed much troubled and asked me if I would prefer to take a carriage. I said I would; and so we hailed a cab driver, and Polano asked him if there were two hotels des Pays Bas in Rotterdam. The cabman replicd that there were; and mentioned that one was Adler's. I then remembered that was the pame of the proprietor of my hotel, and so we jumped into the cab and told the driver to go to Adler's hotel des Pays Bas.
Polano said as we rattled over the stones, in a voice that I perfectly understood, “I hope my mistake will not make you too late for your train; I did not know there were two hotels of the same name here.,'
On reaching my hotel I paid my bill and got my luggage very hurriedly, and then we hastened on in the carriage to the railway station. On the way I took out my watch, and Polano said: “Is that an American watch ?" On my replying in the affirmative he seemed much interested, and wanted to look at it.
Just before we reached the railroad station, I asked him how much I ought
to pay the driver, and he said he “thought one florin was quite enough." He asked me “when I should come to Rotterdam again,” and I said I hoped in a few years. I asked him when I should see him in America. This question I had to repeat a second time, when he replied with a shrug, that "it cost too much money; that perhaps by-and-by, when he was rich, he would go." I told him he must come to see me in Washington, if he came to America. He replied “ he certainly would.”
As we reached the railroad station, he said he hoped I would excuse him for making me so much trouble about getting to my hotel.
As I handed a porter some money for taking my luggage, he remarked : “ You paid him too much.” He accompanied me to the railroad carriage, and bid me good bye, and in a moment the train moved.
All this I have described was done in the greatest hurry. From the time I left Mr. Hirsch, Polano and I were either walking at a rapid pace through crowded streets, or riding over the pavements in a carriage, and yet what conversation we had was carried on with perfect ease, and without any resort whatever to the language of signs.
The circumstances of my interview with Polano were of such a nature as to induce me to accord cheerfully the merit of notable and praiseworthy success to Mr. Hirsch in this case ; asking you, however, to bear in mind that the young man and his sister were private pupils of Mr. Hirsch during a period of eleven years. and were, therefore, in the enjoyment of advautages secured at a cost far beyond what can reasonably be demanded at the hands of public legislators or almoners of private benevolence in behalf of the great mass of deaf-mutes, coming as they do from families of the poor.
Leaving further conclusions suggested by my interview with Mr. Hirsch and his pupil to a later point in my report, when they will more properly have a place in an analytical review I propose to give of my work of inspection as a whole, I pass to a description of the institutions properly belonging to
CLASS III, Wherein the sign language is admitted as a valuable adjunct in all stages of deaf-mute instruction, if it is not acknowledged as the basis of education.
I do not wish it to be understood that in those institutions which I have thought proper to claim as employing the combined system, the importance accorded respectively to articulation and the language of pantomime is identical
To a harmony so complete, the successors of the belligerent opponents, Heinecke and de l'Epée, have not yet attained. A comparative view, however, of the institutions of Europe as at present conducted, shows great progress during the past twenty years towards unity of sentiment, and warrants the expectation that the day is not distant when the general elimination of all that is undesirable, coupled with the adoption of all that experience has proved to be useful, shall put an end to the unhappy differences, the origin of which must ever dim the lustre of names justly inscribed on the roll of fame as benefactors of mankind.
THE INSTITUTION AT PARIS. No stronger testimony to the progress which in the last twenty years has been made towards unity of method in deat mute instruction on the continent of Europe can be afforded than the present attitude of this the oldest, largest, and always most prominent exponent of wnat was formerly known as the French system. The director of this establishment is the aistinguished Professor Leon Vaïsse, well known in America as a successful and experienced instructor of deaf-mutes on both sides of the Atlantic, and as an author of valuable works relating to the profession. Under his energetic and liberal admin
istration as full and complete a recognition of the value of the sign language is accorded as could reasonably be demanded by its most enthusiastic admirers.
Dactylulogy is also made to perform an important part in the process of instruction, and at the same time opportunities for acquiring facility in artificial speech and lip reading are afforded to every pupil in the institution, effort in this direction being only suspended when plain evidence appears of inability on the part of the pupil to succeed So similar are the methods here employed, aside from the instruction of articulation, to those made use of in our American schools, that I will not occupy time and space in writing of them further than to say, that the ancient reputation of this noble institution for thorough and effective work in the development of deaf-mutes has been fully sustained by the results of the examinations I have been freely permitted to make of its classes. Instruction in artificial speech is now given at stated hours daily by a majority of the instructors in the institution. All new pupils are required to engage in these oral exercises for a sufficient time to determine the degree of success they are likely to achieve. After a trial of two years further effort ceases with those who fail to attain to a certain standard of Auency, but with the remainder articulation is made a regular pursuit during the entire course of study.
Professor Vaïsse bas prepared a diagram representing, in section, the position of the vocal organs when uttering the several elementary sounds of the French language, (many of them corresponding to those of the English,) which has proved so useful in the practical work of iņstruction that I have, with his perinišsion, caused a copy to be made, which I herewith present, and which I trust may may be engraved and published with this report.
I cannot better give you an idea of the thoroughness and success attending the teaching of articulation in this institution than by detailing what I witnessed in a class of thirty boys taught by Professor Vaïses himself.
Standing before them with his hands folded behind his back, relying wholly on his vocal organs as a means of communicating what he wished to say to his pupils, he repeated slowly and distinctly sentences of moderate length. Single pupils were then required to come forward and write what had been spoken by the instructor (1) phonetically; then (2) to indicate by underlineations the vowels and consonants; then (3) in the same manner the syllabic divisions; then (4) the verbal divisions; (5) to write the sentence in accordance with the French rules of accentuation, punctuation, and orthography; and, finally, to read it aloud and adopt such corrections in pronunciation as the instructor might find it necessary to make.
Copies of several of these, as completed by the pupils, will serve to illustrate this interesting process:
il fè by in ch ô= Il fait bien chaud.
je su i za lé ô mi nis tèq=Je suis allé au ministère. ze sekrétèr jénéral matan d è = Le secrétaire général