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the market products to $546,053. Large quantities of maple and sorghum sugar and molasses, beeswax and honey, are annually manufactured. Some wine is made along the Ohio river, where considerable attention is bestowed upon the culture of the grape. In 1866 there were in the State 2,783,367 sheep, worth $9,393,864.

The great coal-field of Illinois extends into Indiana, covering in the western part an estimated area equal to 7,700 square miles, or more than one-fifth part of the whole surface. On White river the seams are upwards of six feet thick. In other localities seams of eight feet in thickness are found. Some of the coal measures, it is estimated, are capable of yielding 50,000,000 bushels to the square mile. At Cannelton, on the Ohio, a bed of cannel coal is found from three to five feet in thickness, at an elevation of seventy feet above the river. It is represented as an excellent coal for steamboat purposes, and large quantities of it are mined to supply the boats on the Ohio. T'he coal fields of Indiana will possess greater value when the supply of wood for fuel becomes less abundant and more expensive.

Besides coal, iron, limestone, marble, freestone, gypsum, and grindstones, slate of several varieties, clays useful in the arts, and some copper are found in the State.

In 1860 $300,000 were invested in forges and furnaces for working iron. About $105,000 worth of bar and other rolled iron was produced. Upwards of $400,000 worth of steam engines and machinery was made, and about $200,000 worth of iron castings. From the abundant water power, the cheapness of fuel, and the existence of excellent iron ore, there is no doubt this branch of industry is destined to a great expansion. Salt springs are found on the east border of the coal formation.

The whole number of manufacturing establishments in the State in 1860 was 5,120, employing 21,300 hands, and consuming raw material, inclusive of fuel, valued at $27,360,000, with a capital invested of $18,875,000, and producing an annual product of $43,250,000.

In the construction of an extensive railroad system, Indiana is among the foremost of the great States of the West. In the commencement of this enterprise, the State lent credit with such liberality as subsequently resulted in financial embarrassment, from which, happily, the skilful management of great resources is in recent years rapidly extricating Indiana, indicating at no distant day a liquidation of all obligations.

Lines of railroad cross the State from the Ohio river to the great lakes, and from the Ohio to the Illinois boundary, tapping the river at different points within the State, crossing the east and west boundaries, and connecting every important place with the large cities of the eastern, middle, and western States.

The geographical position of Indiana, like that of Ohio and Illinois, is such that the whole land commerce between the manufacturing States of the East and the country west of the Mississippi must pass over its territory. The amount of traffic over the lines of its railroads is already immense, and is annually witnessing an extraordinary increase.

In 1800 Indiana had a population of 4,875; in 1850, 988,393; in 1860 it was 1,350,428, and 1,700,000 in 1866. With a continuance of present prosperity the census of 1870 will find a population of 2,000,000 within the State limits.

Indiana has eight cities having each a population of 10,000 and over, viz.: Indianapolis, the capital, of 35,000; New Albany, on the Ohio river, of 19,000; Evansville, on the Ohio, of 17,000; Fort Wayne, in the northeast part of the State, of 13,000; Lafayette, Terre Haute, Madison, and Richmond, with populations of 10,000 and upwards.

The population of the towns has increased in a still greater ratio than the rural districts, believed to equal 50 per cent. since 1860 at all important railroad centres or shipping points on the Ohio.

The school fund of Indiana in 1866 was estimated at $7,611,337, and the revenue for school purposes derived from this and other sources amounted to $1,330,863.

The whole number of children in the State in 1866 attending primary schools was 390,714; high schools 12,098; number of teachers employed 9,473; num. ber of pupils attending private schools 49,332; number of volumes in town libraries 265,338. Colleges and academies are numerous throughout the State and in flourishing condition.

Illinois has Wisconsin on the north; on the east Indiana and Lake Michigan ; on the south the Ohio river, and on the west the Mississippi, its greatest length from north to south being 388 miles, and extreme width from east to west 212, with an area of 55,410 square miles, or 35,462,400 acres. It is five times as large as Belgium and more than half the size of Prussia prior to 1866. The first settlers were French Canadians, who founded as early as 1682, in the western part, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other towns.

In 1818 it was admitted as a State in the Union with its present boundaries. With the exception, perhaps, of a few isolated parcels, the proprietary interest of the United States in the soil of Illinois has been disposed of for cash, homesteads, military services, railroads, swamps, internal improvements, schools, universities, salines, public buildings, and other purposes. The surface is level, or gently undulating prairie, of an elevation averaging 550 feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. A very small proportion in the northwest is hilly, with occasional bluffs on the Mississippi, the Illinois and some of the other rivers, but by far the greater proportion is rolling plain. The Illinois river, the largest in the State, formed fifty miles southwest of Lake Michigan by the junction of the Kankakee and the Des Plaines, flows southwest, emptying into the Mississippi twenty miles above the mouth of the Missouri. Its length by its sinuosities is 500 miles, it being navigable half the distance. It has numerous tributaries, draining one of the finest and best improved portions of the State, while other important streams emptying into the Mississippi are Rock river in the northwest, the Kaskaskia in the central, and Big Muddy in the southern part, joining the Mississippi thirty miles south of the Kaskaskia.

Of the rivers falling into the Ohio the most important within the limits of Illinois are the Wabash, forming the boundary between Illinois and Indiana for more than a hundred miles, with its tributaries on the Illinois side—the Vermillion, the Embarras, and Little Wabash. The Saline falls into the Ohio a short distance below the Wabash, and the Cash near the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi.

The Wabash is navigable for light draught boats for 300 miles ; Rock river, during high water, more than 200 miles. Ăs the Ohio and Mississippi wash the southern and western shores of this State, the Wabash a part of the eastern boundary, the natural advantages of Illinois in navigable streams are, perhaps, unsurpassed by any State in the Union, and its position on Lake Michigan, securing it an outlet by way of the lakes and the St. Lawrence river to the Atlantic, still further increases its facilities for trade, while its geographical situation, between the commercial cities of the Atlantic States on one side and the enterprising millions beyond the Mississippi on the other, constitutes it a thoroughfare for the immense traffic between the East and West, making its network of railroads and canals the scenes of ceaseless industry, pointing to a future of increasing prosperity, wealth, and power. No State has a greater proportion of level or moderately undulating land, and none a smaller of hilly or broken, there being scarcely an acre not tillable. The soil is deep and fertile without rock or stone to impede the labors of the husbandman.

Portions of the American bottom on the Mississippi have been cultivated for more than a hundred years, without showing any signs of exhaustion. A spon

taneous growth of timber, varieties indigenous to the climate and soil, usually takes place by simply turning over the prairie sod or preventing fires, but many prefer planting the faster-growing trees, such as cottonwood and locust, in order to realize in the shortest period the advantages of timber.

The southern part is more abundantly supplied with trees than the northern and central, but belts of timber are found in all sections, sometimes skirting the banks of the streams or growing in clumps or groves upon the uplands, with wide intervals of prairie. The most common are the black and white walnut, the different varieties of the oak, the ash, hackberry, hickory, linden ór basswood, sycamore, locust, sugar-maple, buckeye, pecan, cottonwood, persimmon, and in the southern white and yellow poplar, beech, yellow pine, and cedar. Of fruit trees, the apple, peach, pear, cherry, plum, and quince are common, and succeed well. Grapes, currants, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, and blackberries are largely cultivated and yield extensive crops.

As Illinois extends through more than five degrees of latitude, a considerable difference exists between its northern and southern extremities in respect to climate. In the northern part the winters are sometimes severe, but less so than on the Atlantic in the same parallel. The summers are warm, yet agreeably modified by continual breezes.

The State, every portion of which is healthy, occupies a leading agricultural position, there being few regions of like area possessing in an equal degree elements of the highest agricultural capacity, with so many circumstances favorable to their development.

In 1850 Illinois had 76,208 farms, valued at $96,133,290; in 1860, 144,338, valued at $408,944,033. The quantity of land in farms increased about 77 per cent. during the decade, the improved land 165 per cent., the cash value of farms about 325, and the value of farming implements and machinery nearly 200 per cent.

The value of live stock in 1850 was $24,209,258; in 1860, $72,501,225; and in 1865, according to the State returns, it had advanced to $123,770,554, showing an increase during the ten years following 1850 of 200 per cent., or 20 per cent. per annum, and 70 per cent. for the five years following 1860, or 14 per cent. per annum.

New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio are the only States making larger quantities of butter; and, in the value of slaughtered animals, Illinois is exceeded only by New York.

In 1860 Illinois produced 23,837,023 bushels of wheat, and 115,174,777 bushels of Indian corn, being 14 bushels of wheat and 67 bushels of Indian corn to every man, woman, and child. .

The State surpassed all others in wheat and corn products, there having been cultivated upon its soil nearly one-seventh of the entire wheat and corn crop of the United States, In 1865, 177,095,852 bushels of Indian corn were produced, and 25,266,745 bushels of wheat. The entire grain crop in 1865, including Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, and buckwheat, amounted to 232,620,173 bushels. The crop of potatoes was 5,864,408 bushels, tobacco, 18,867,722 pounds, and hay, 2,600,000 tons, the whole amounting in value to $116,274,322. Besides this there were produced in 1865, 5,000,000 pounds of cotton, a branch of industry just beginning to receive attention, yet already pronounced one of the most profitable crops in the southern part of the State; also large quantities of grass seeds, maple and sorghum sugar and molasses, flax, flaxseed, hemp, hops, silk cocoons, beeswax, honey, wine, butter and cheese, peas, and beans. The wool clip in 1865 was over 6,000,000 pounds; orchard products of the value of $2,000,000, and market, $500,000.

The year 1865 was unfavorable for wheat in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, the yield in each being less than in either 1862, 1863, or 1864. Illinois then produced 32,213,500 bushels.

In every year since 1860 the State has maintained a position as the leading wheat and corn growing region, while the product of other staples is annually increasing.

The cultivation of the castor bean has been prosecuted successfully in the southern part, and experiments have been made to test the adaptability of the soil and climate to grape culture and the wine product; the result having been so successful that enterprising cultivators are planting large vineyards and preparing to prosecute this interest upon an extensive scale.

Although one of the richest agricultural States, a large part is mineral, the coal fields being estimated at 44,000 square miles, and the lead mines as among the most valuable in the world.

The Illinois coal-field stretches from the Mississippi, near Rock Island, eastward toward Fox river, thence southeast through Indiana, and southward into Kentucky, occupying the greater part of Illinois, the southwestern portion of Indiana, and the northwestern part of Kentucky, measuring 375 miles in length from northwest to southeast, and 200 in width from St. Louis eastwardestimated to contain 1,277,500,000,000 tons of coal, sufficient to furnish an annual supply of 13,000,000 tons for nearly a hundred thousand years, being more than six times as large as all the coal-fields of Great Britain, and embracing one-third of all the coal measures of North America.

The present annual product of the State is 1,500,000 tons, the amount increasing every year, and, as the coal is of good quality and easily mined, it is destined to become one of the most prominent interests of the State.

The great lead district of the Mississippi river occupies a portion of northwestern Illinois, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa, covering an area of about 1,000,000 acres, one-sixth of which lies in Illinois, in Jo Daviess county, which has furnished the entire lead product of the country for twenty years. A few mines in Wisconsin and Illinois have supplied and smelted 15,000,000 pounds a year.

Iron ore has been mined in Hardin county, on the Ohio, several furnaces being in operation. Valuable beds of the ore are reported between the Kaskaskia and the Mississippi; also in Urion county and in the northern part of the State. Copper has been found in several counties; also marble, crystallized gypsum, quartz crystal, and silex for glass manufacture; salt also existing in the southern counties, while small quantities of gold and silver have been obtained in the lead district in the northwest corner of the State. Petroleum is found in the northeast part, zinc ore in the lead district in Jo Daviess, sulphur and chalybeate springs in Jefferson and other localities.

Although the leading interest of Illinois continues to be agriculture, its manufactures have been steadily advancing.

In 1850 it had 3,162 establishments, with a capital invested of $6,217,765, producing an annual product of $16,534,272.

In 1860 it had 4,268 establishments, with a capital invested of $27,548,563, producing an annual product of $57,580,887, being an increase in value during the decade of 248 per. cent.

While Illinois was fifteenth among the States in general industry in 1850, its advance was so rapid during the decade that, in 1860, it stood seventh; and while its population increased during the ten years at the rate of 101 per cent., the increase in manufactures was still greater, equalling, as before stated, 248 per cent. A similar increase during the ten years following 1860 will make the value of this branch of industry $200,000,000 in 1870, and advance it in rank to be fifth.

According to the State census, the value of manufactured products for 1865 was $63,356,013. The value of real estate and personal property for 1850 is reported in the United States census at $156,265,006, and for 1860, at $$71,860,282, being an increase in the ten years of $715,595,276, or 458 per

cent. In 1866 the governor estimated the real wealth of the State at not less than $1,200,000,000.

The population in 1850 was 851,470, in 1860, 1,711,981, and in 1865, 2,151,007. A density of population equal to that of Massachusetts would give Illinois a population of 8,754,780; a density equal to that of the French empire would increase it to 9,641,340.

The average ratio of the population in Belgium is 424 to the square mile, which, upon a surface as extensive as that of Illinois, would exhibit a population of 23,493,840, or about 300,000 more than the population of the whole United States in 1850. One-ninth part of the surface of Belgium is waste, and a fifth still covered with primeval forest. Two-thirds of the kingdom are cultivated with such industry and scientific skill as to entitle the occupants of the soil to be called the model farmers of Europe, and to constitute Belgium an extensive garden. Next to agriculture, mining forms the most important interest in that kingdom, and coal and iron are the most valuable mineral products, coal forming the most important of Belgian exports. But the Belgian coal-field covers an area of only 500 square miles, or about one twenty-second part of the whole surface of the kingdom.

The Illinois coal-field covers an area of 44,000 square miles, or three-fourths of the whole surface, and if its soil were cultivated with the laborious care be- . stowed upon the Belgian fields, scarcely an acre could be designated as waste. land.

The railroad system is on a scale commensurate with its advantageous position in respect to agriculture and internal commerce.

Three thousand one hundred and sixty miles are completed and now in operation, eight hundred and twelve miles more are in course of construction, making in the aggregate 3,979 miles, or one mile of railroad to 14 square miles of territory.

France has an area of 212,000 square miles, and in 1865 had 8,140 miles of railroad, or about one mile of road to every twenty-six square miles of territory, being about half as many miles of railroad upon a given space as in Illinois. At the same period France had a population of 37,382,000, and the ratio of population to railroad mileage was one mile to 4,600 inhabitants; whereas in IMinios, if the present population be assumed as 2,250,000, the ratio will be one mile of completed railroad to 710 inhabitants, about six times as many in proportion to population as in France.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 122,550 square miles, in 1865 had 13,289 miles of railroad completed, or one mile of railroad to every nine square miles, being a greater railroad mileage than Illinois in comparison to the extent.

But the United Kingdom in 1865 had a population of 30,000,000, and consequently one mile of railroad to every 2,250 inhabitants, about twice as many railroads as France compared to the population, but only about one-third as many as Illinois by a similar comparison. In the whole United States there is about one mile of railroad to every 81 square miles of surface and to every 1,000 inhabitants.

Eight lines cross the eastern boundary of the State, and the Mississippi river is approached within the State by thirteen, connecting with the east and west through routes across the States of Missouri and Iowa, and northern routes through Wisconsin and Minnesota, westward to the Pacific and eastward to the great trade marts of the Atlantic coast.

In addition to the facilities thus afforded to commerce, a canal has been constructed from Lake Michigan, at Chicago, to La Salle on the Illinois river, 100 miles in length, affording communication by water between the lake and the Mississippi. The canal is now being enlarged by deepening its channel to accommodate large class vessels, so that the waters of Lake Michigan will flow

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