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In every year since 1860 the State has maintained a position as the leading wheat and corn growing region, while the product of other staples is annually increasing.

The cultivation of the castor bean has been prosecuted successfully in the southern part, and experiments have been made to test the adaptability of the soil and climate to grape culture and the wine product; the result having been so successful that enterprising cultivators are planting large vineyards and preparing to prosecute this interest upon an extensive scale.

Although one of the richest agricultural States, a large part is mineral, the coal fields being estimated at 44,000 square miles, and the lead mines as among the most valuable in the world.

The Illinois coal-field stretches from the Mississippi, near Rock Island, eastward toward Fox river, thence southeast through Indiana, and southward into Kentucky, occupying the greater part of Illinois, the southwestern portion of Indiana, and the northwestern part of Kentucky, measuring 375 miles in length from northwest to southeast, and 200 in width from St. Louis eastward estiniated to contain 1,277,500,000,000 tons of coal, sufficient to furnish an annual supply of 13,000,000 tons for nearly a hundred thousand years, being more than six times as large as all the coal-fields of Great Britain, and embracing one-third of all the coal measures of North America.

The present annual product of the State is 1,500,000 tons, the amount increasing every year, and, as the coal is of good quality and easily mined, it is destined to become one of the most prominent interests of the State.

The great lead district of the Mississippi river occupies a portion of northwestern Illinois, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa, covering an area of about 1,000,000 acres, one-sixth of which lies in Illinois, in Jo Daviess county, which has furnished the entire lead product of the country for twenty years. A few mines in Wisconsin and Illinois have supplied and smelted 15,000,000 pounds a year.

Iron ore has been mined in Hardin county, on the Ohio, several furnaces being in operation. Valuable beds of the ore are reported between the Kaskaskia and the Mississippi; also in Ucion county and in the northern part of the State. Copper has been found in several counties ; also marble, crystallized gypsum, quartz crystal, and silex for glass manufacture; salt also existing in the southern counties, while small quantities of gold and silver have been obtained in the lead district in the northwest corner of the State. Petroleum is found in the northeast part, zinc ore in the lead district in Jo Daviess, sulphur and chalybeate springs in Jefferson and other localities.

Although the leading interest of Illinois continues to be agriculture, its manufactures have been steadily advancing.

In 1850 it had 3,162 establishments, with a capital invested of $6,217,765, producing an annual product of $16,534,272.

In 1860 it had 4,268 establishments, with a capital invested of $27,548,563, producing an annual product of $57,580,887, being an increase in value during the decade of 248 per. cent.

While Illinois was fifteenth among the States in general industry in 1850, its advance was 80 rapid during the decade that, in 1860, it stood seventh ; and while its population increased during the ten years at the rate of 101 per cent., the increase in manufactures was still greater, equalling, as before stated, 248 per cent. A similar increase during the ten years following 1860 will make the value of this branch of industry $200,000,000 in 1870, and advance it in rank to be fifth.

According to the State census, the value of manufactured products for 1865 was $63,356,013. The value of real estate and personal property for 1850 is reported in the United States census at $156,265,006, and for 1860, at $$71,860,282, being an increase in the ten years of $715,595,276, or 458 per

treme length of two hundred and seventy-five miles, and a breadth of fifty, covering an area of 11,000 square miles. The Maumee and Sandusky bays form fine harbors in the lake within the State of Ohio. The Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, and Cuyahoga rivers empty into the lake, and drain the northern portion of the State.

The western half of the State is limestone formation.

The climate of northern Ohio is of course colder in winter than the southern and interior, yet even here severe weather is not usual. In the southern and central parts the ground is seldom covered with snow more than a few days, the thermometer not usually sinking as low as zero. The summers in all parts of the State are warm and well adapted to the growth and maturity of Indian corn, the autumn season being remarkable for its beauty. The rain-fall in Ohio is generally sufficient for the most successful husbandry, droughts, although sometimes occurring, being not more frequent than in the adjoining States.

The banks of the Ohio above and below Cincinnati are covered with extensive vineyards, from which large quantities of wine are annually manufactured.

The great bituminous coal field of Pennsylvania and Virginia projects into the eastern and southeastern parts of the State, its western boundary extending from the northeastern corner of Trumball county through the counties of Portage, Wayne, Knox, Licking, and Fairfield, to the mouth of the Scioto. Salt springs are numerous within the same limits. Iron ore in abundance is found between the Licking and Muskingum rivers, near Zanesville, and on the Ohio near the southwest corner of Adams county, and particularly in the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Meigs, Vinton, Athens, Hocking, Perry, and Licking.

About 14,000,000 acres of the lands in the State are improved, either as pasture, grass, cultivated in grain, or planted in orchards, gardens, or lawns, leaving eleven and one-half millions unimproved either in the condition of forests or commons.

The soil of Ohio is generally of the highest fertility, free from rock or stone, and easily cultivated; all or nearly all of the land is arable and in favorable climate. The State must therefore in future take bigh rank in an agricultural point of view. In this respect it already occupies a prominent position. Wheat, Indian corn, barley, oats, buckwheat. rye, hay, grass-seeds, Irish and sweet potatoes, peas, bears, flax, hemp, hops, tobacco, melons, pumpkins, apples, peaches, pears, pluris, cherries, currants, berries, and grapes, with nearly every variety of garden vegetables, are extensively cultivated; maple and sorghum sirup and sugar, honey, and wine, are manufactured in considerable quantities; and horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs, are raised in large numbers.

In 1865 Ohio stood third among the States of the Union in the production of wheat and corn, and fourth in the yield of oats; Illinois and Wisconsin leading in the number of bushels of wheat, Illinois and Indiana in the quantity of corn, and New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois in oats; while Ohio surpassed all other States in the number and value of horses, sheep, and the amount of wool crop.

The production of grain in the State in 1865, including wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, and buckwheat, amounted in the aggregate to 134,264,000 bushels, valued at $80,000,000. In 1860 the orchard products were estimated at $1,929,309, and market products at $907,513. The value of slaughtered animals was $14,725,945.

In 1860, 8,695,000 bushels of Irish potatoes were raised; 25,092,581 pounds of tobacco, 568,517 gallons of wine, 3,345,508 pounds of maple sugar, 370,512 gallons of maple sirup, 779,076 gallons of sorglum molasses, and 1,459,601 pounds of honey were manufactured.

The estimated value of horses in the State in 1865 was $38,710,308, cows $31,432,410, other cattle $22,598,264, sheep $30,103,572, hogs $17,695,377; valuation of real estate for taxation, including town and city property, $663,647,542, and of chattel property, $442,561,379.

The forest trees of the State are white oak, black oak, jack oak, and several other varieties of the oak; the black, blue, gray, and swamp ash ; several kinds of poplar, sycamore, pawpaw, dogwood, buckeye, elm, cherry and hornbean, besides beech, iron-wood, basswood, walnut, and a few evergreen trees. Ohio, though not possessing great variety of mineral products, has inexhaustible supplies of coal and iron. The coal-fields in the eastern and southeastern portions cover an area of 12,000 square miles, extending through twenty counties, and embrace nearly one-third of the area of the whole State, it being estimated that the county of Tuscarawas alone is underlaid with an amount equal to eighty thousand millions of bushels Iron ore of very superior quality for the finer castings is found in several counties in the southern bend of the Ohio, covering an area of 1,200 square miles, and has already laid the foundation of a very extensive iron interest in the southern part of the State. In the northern part the furnaces are supplied with ore from the Lake Superior mines.

Large quantities of salt are manufactured for market.

Many oil wells have been sunk in the southeastern portion and large quantities of oil have been exported.

In 1860, according to the estimates of the commissioner of statistics for the State, 50,000,000 bushels of coal were mined, and 2,000,000 bushels of salt manufactured. Ohio ranked next to Pennsylvania in the production of coal and pig iron, the latter State standing first in these industries. For the manufacture of salt Ohio stood third. The State has doubled its products and manufactures every ten years since 1840.

No State in the Union has a more extensive system of railroads, according to the area covered and the amount of population. There is scarcely a county, and no important town, without railroad transit. Two canals connect the Ohio river with Lake Erie—one commencing at Cincinnati and terminating at Toledo; the other starting at the mouth of the Scioto, ends at Cleveland; a third connects Cincinnati with Cambridge City, in Indiana ; and a fourth, Lancaster, on the Scioto, with the Hocking valley ; making an aggregate of nine hundred and twenty-one miles.

In 1860 there were in the State 3,100 miles of turnpike and plank roads and 67,000 miles of common roads.

The surplus produce of Ohio is exported by railroad, by the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers, and the great lakes, it having amounted to over $60,000,000.

Although an inland State, it has great facilities for commerce, having a shore line on Lake Erie, with harbors capable of accommodating the heaviest and most extensive shipping, and, by way of the lakes and the St. Lawrence, direct communication with the ocean. The various railroads and canals passing through the State afford direct intercourse with the commercial cities on the Atlantic and on the Mississippi, as well as with the States and Territories beyond.

The whole number of manufacturing establishments in the State in 1860 was 11,123, employing an aggregate capital of $58,000,000, and consuming raw material valued at $70,000,000, producing annually goods valued at $125,000,000.

There are ten cities in the State having each a larger population than 10,000. In 1800 Cincinnati had 752 inhabitants ; at present the number is 200,000.

In 1800 the population, excluding Indians, was 45,365.

In 1860 it was 2,339,511, and now it is estimated as 2,500,000, ranking third in the Union in point of population, and seventh in the density of its inhabitants.

The number of persons to the square mile in Ohio at the present time is about sixty-two, in Massachusetts in 1860 it was 158.

If the population of Ohio were of equal density with that of Massachusetts it would amount to 6,314,312.

In the year ending July 1, 1866, there were erected in the State 11,000 new

buildings, being a larger number than had been built in any single year since 1856.

The assessed value of property in 1866, real and personal, was $1,106,208,921, an increase over 1865 of more than $36,000,000. Of that increase more than $33,500,000 was in chattel property. The amount of taxable property has largely increased since 1860; and although the State sent to the field during the late civil war an aggregate of more than a third of a million of men, adding to the public debt and increasing the taxes, yet the State nevertheless has continued not only to pay the interest but even to reduce the principal, the finances being accordingly in a most flourishing condition.

INDIANA, adjoining Ohio on the west, is in greatest length froin north to south about 275 miles, and from east to west about 135, embracing an area of 33,809 square miles, or 21,637,760 acres.

It was organized as a part of the northwest territory by the ordinance of 1787. The subsequent division of that territory left Indiana with its present limits, and in 1816 it was admitted into the Union.

Like the whole northwest territory it was originally claimed by the French, but was ceded to England by treaty of 1763 between Great Britain, France and Spain, and in 1783, by the treaty of peace, became a part of the United States.

In 1702 a party of French Canadians descended the Wabash and established a settlement at Vincennes, on the east bank of that river, and were subsequently confirmed in their possessions.

The public lands in Indiana have nearly all been disposed of by the general government, the quantity remaining being only about two thousand acres.

The State has numerous streams, furnishing excellent water power for mills and other manufacturing establishments. The Wabash river, forming part of the western boundary, and its principal tributary, the White river, have their sources in and near the western borders of Ohio, and with their numerous tributaries flow through nearly every county in the State.

Indiana has no mountains, but hills, rising in height from one to three hundred feet, skirt the Ohio and other rivers in the southern part, but much the greater portion of the surface is level or gently rolling. The river bottoms are deep alluvion, and the soils of all portions of the State, excepting the tops of the highest hills, are exceedingly fertile.

The valley of the Ohio river, including that of the Whitewater in the southeast, contains 5,500 square miles, and is a limestone region, consisting partly of broken hills. About two-thirds of this region is good farming land, the greater part of the residue valuable for grazing. White River valley, extending from the Wabash in the southwest to the Ohio line in the northeast, embraces an area of about 9,000 square miles, or 5,760,000 acres, the surface of which is almost uniformly level. This magnificent valley covers more than one-fourth part of the whole State; the soil is deep vegetable mould, destitute of rock or stone, and of the richest quality. Large prairies occupy the western part of the valley, while the remaining portion was covered with heavy forest, much of which has been removed and the land converted into cultivated farms. The numerous streams flowing through every part of this valley furnish an abundant supply of water for the purposes of farming or raising stock, or as power for mills or manufacturing establishments.

The Wabash valley is still more extensive, covering 12,000 square miles, or 7,680,000 acres. It extends from the Ohio river northward along the western border of the State for 150 miles; thence inclining northeast, it reaches the boundary of Ohio, north of the White River valley. It has large prairies in the west, heavy forests in the east, and abundant water power in the centre. With the exception of some of the highest bluffs in the lower part of these valleys, every acre of their surface is susceptible of cultivation. The Wabash valley

within this State alone is 600 square miles larger than the kingdom of Belgium, and contains a less quantity of inferior land.

The valley of the Maumee contains 2,000 square miles in the northeast part of the State, of the same general character as the eastern portion of the Wabash and White River valleys. The bottom lands of the Kankakee, in the northwest, are low and flat, forming in some places extensive swamps. These, however, are susceptible of drainage, and when the demand for land becomes sufficient to justify the expense, will be reclaimed and their fertile soils converted to productive uses.

Immediately bordering Lake Michigan extensive sand-hills occur, behind which is a region covered with pine.

One of the finest agricultural sections is found in the northern tier of counties, in the valleys of the St. Joseph and the Elkhart.

Unimproved lands of excellent quality may be purchased from private holders in the less settled portions of the State at very reasonable prices; but in Indiana, as in all the States east of the Mississippi, the price of real estate is annually increasing.

The valley of the Ohio was originally heavily timbered, but most of it has been felled to supply fuel to the boats on the river, and for shipment as lumber, In the central, eastern, and northern parts many heavily-timbered forests of walnut, poplar, beech, buckeye, oak, maple, ash, elm, sycamore, dogwood, hickory, and basswood still exist. Considerable quantities of walnut lumber are transported by rail to New York. The great demand for fuel along the railroads traversing every part of the State is working a rapid decrease of the forest. Prudence would seem to require that some of the best forest lands, when denuded of their larger trees, should be surrendered to the younger growths, and suffered to renew the forest. Were such lands protected from fires and other destructive causes, the young timber would become large enough for all useful purposes in a single generation.

The climate is similar to that of Ohio. The prevailing winds of winter produce severe spells of cold, seldom, however, of long duration. The summers are warm but salubrious.

Indiana holds a high rank as an agricultural State. In 1850, when the population was less than a million, the estimated value of real and personal property was $202,650,264, which in 1860 had increased to $528,835,371, or nearly 161 per cent. in ten years.

In 1850 the cash value of farms in the State was appraised at $136,385,173, and in 1860 at $344,902,776, an increase of more than 200 per cent.

In 1865 and 1866 the value of real and personal property, according to the appraisement of the board of equalization, amounted as follows:

Value of lands and improvements, including town lots, in 1865, $373,391,061; in 1866, $389,793,346, being an increase of $16,402,285; value of real and personal property in 1865, $570,458,400, which in 1866 had increased to $584,607,829.

In 1860 Indiana ranked as the third State in the relative amount of wheat produced, and fourth as to corn. In 1865 the State surpassed all others except Illinois in the production of corn, and ranked fifth in the production of wheat. The produce of the fields, in grains, potatoes, tobacco and hay, amounted to $80,748,014.

The value of live stock in 1860 was $50,116,964; in 1866 $88,657,071. Owing to the fertility of soil and the geniality of climate, this State must ever hold a prominent position as an agricultural region. Wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, Irish and sweet potatoes, sorghum, grass, flax, hemp, hops, and tobacco succeed well and are extensively cultivated. The fruits and vegetables common to the latitude of the State find here as favorable conditions to their growth as in any of the States east of the Rocky mountains.

In 1860 the products of the orchards amounted to $1,258,942 in value, and

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