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In addition to these six principal meridians and bases, there has beon established the Michigan meridian, with a base line running on a parallel of seven miles north of Detroit, and guiding all the surveys in that State.
In the south, the Tallahassee meridian in Florida has been surveyed north and south from the point of intersection with the base line at the city of Tallahassee, which regulates Florida surveys.
In Alabama is found the meridian of St. Stephens, starting from Mobile and intersecting the principal base on the 31st parallel, upon which rest to a certain extent the surveys in that State, and also in Mississippi east of Pearl river.
Besides, there is the Huntsville meridian, with the northern boundary of Alabama for its base, upon which are adjusted the surveys in the northern part of that State.
The Choctaw meridian in Mississippi, starting from the base, twenty-nine miles south of Jackson, runs due north, passing within two miles west of that city, and terminating on the south bonndary of the Chickasaw cession, control. ling the surveys east and west of that meridian, and north of the base.
The Washington meridian, in Mississippi, begins on the base corresponding with the 31st degree of latitude, running north, passing seven miles east of Washington, in that State, and governing the surveys in the southwestern part of Mississippi.
The Louisiana principal meridian intersects the principal base coincident with the 31st parallel, controlling the surveys west of the Mississippi.
The St Helena meridian is a continuation of the Washington meridian in the
the Mississippi river, from the base on the 31st parallel, running due south therefrom one mile east of Baton Rouge, and intersecting the river several miles south of that town.
The New Mexico meridian, with the principal base has its intersection on a hill two hundred feet in height ten miles below the mouth of the Puerco river, on the Rio Grande, and upon those lines are adjusted the surveys in New Mexico, and in that part of Colorado in the valley of the Rio Grande del Norte.
In California, there is the San Bernardino meridian, intersected by a principal base on the high peak of a mountain of that name in longitude 116° 53' west of Greenwich, that meridian controlling the surveys in the southern part of the State. The Mount Diablo meridian, intersecting its base on latitude six miles north of San Francisco, at a distance of thirty-eight miles east of the ocean, the intersection being on the loftiest peak of Mount Diablo, which is three thousand six hundred feet in height, coincides with the 123° 53' west longitude from Greenwich, and governs the surveys in middle and northern California, and in the State of Nevada; besides, there is in the State the Humboldt meridian, intersecting its base in north latitude 40° 24' on the peak of Mount Pierce, five thousand feet above the level of the ocean, the surveys west of the Coast Range, in the northwestern part of the State, having been adjusted on that meridian.
On the Pacific slope there is also the Willametle meridian, which controls the surveys in Oregon aud Washington.
In Utah the Great Salt Lake meridian commences at the corner of Temple Block in great Salt Lake city, where it is intersected by its base, the intersection being commemorated by a monument, and the structure of surveys in tha: Terri. tory resting on that meridian and base
The Boise meridian, for surveys in Idaho, intersects the principal base on the summit of an isolated rocky butte, on the plain between the Snake and Boise rivers, in latiturle 43° 26', distant 19 miles from Boise City, and bearing south 2910 west.
The Gila and Salt River meridi in, for the surveying system in Arizona, intersects the principal base line on the conical hill 150 feet in height on the south side of Gila river, opposite the mouth of Salado river, its geographical position being in latitude 33° 22' 57", longitude 1120 15' 46" west.
The Beaver Head Rock meridian, determined upon by this office for surveying operations in Montana, is a remarkable land mark in the Great Horseshoe Basin of the Rocky mountains, it having been designated as the initial point of the intersection of the principal base with the meridian. Its geographical position is in the forks of Wisdom and Jefferson rivers, tributaries of the Missouri, near the intersection point of 112° longitude west from Greenwich with the 45° 20' north latitude.
The foregoing surveying meridians and bases, with their auxiliary standard parallels and guide meridians, township and section lines, embracing the area of 485,311,778 acres of land surveyed from the beginning of the system to the 30th June, 1867, called forth perambulations of surveyors in the field amounting to 1,476,673 lineal miles.
The framework of the surveying system thus described as meridians and intersecting bases constitutes a scientific structure which has been established over the greater portion of this continent. Upon that structure rests the whole work of . dividing and subdividing the national territory, and of marking out the same into tracts of different sizes for farms and urban settlements. The service has been steadily advancing from the foundation of the government, and in its progress has completed the extension of the lines of survey over the whole surface of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, the Upper and Lower Peninsula, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and nearly so in Louisiana and Florida.
Sketches in outline of the rise and progress of those States where the public surveys have been completed, and of the other public land States and Territories, with the advances therein of the surveys, are presented in the following:
Onio forms part of the northwestern territory, which before and during the revolutionary war was claimed in part by several of the Atlantic States in virtue of the charters granted by the King of England to the companies colonizing those States. Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the eastern part of Minnesota, embrace the remaining portion of that territory. The greatest length of Ohio from north to south is two hundred miles, from east to west one hundred and ninety-five, covering an area of 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 acres.
It was formed into a territorial government by the ordinance of 1787, subsequently confirmed by the first Congress under the Constitution, and admitted into the Union as one of the States in 1802, with its present boundaries.
The Virginia military reservation, between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers extending from their headwaters to the Ohio covers an area of 6,570 square miles, or 4,204,800 acres, being nearly oue sixth the surface of the whole State. The Connecticut western reserve, in the northeast corner of the State, embraces 3,800,000 acres.
In 1796 Congress appropriated certain lands lying east of the Scioto and west of the seventh range of townships, and north of Zanesville, containing about 2,560,000 acres, to satisfy claims of officers and soldiers of the revolutionary war. They are known as the “ United States military lands."
In 1787 a company was formed in Massachusetts, called the “ Ohio Company," which, in the following year, entered into contract with the United States for the purchase of a tract of land on the Ohio, mostly on the west side of the Muskingum, and as ultimately patented, embracing something less than 1,000,000 acres. Within this tract, on the site of the present town of Marietta, in 1788 the first permanent white settlement within the limits of the State appears to have been made, and the oldest town in Ohio bad its beginning.
In October, 1788, John Cleves Symmes entered into contract with the Board of Treasury for the purchase of one million acres of land on the Ohio between the Great and Little Miamis, and including the site of the city of Cincinnati. As ultimately patented the tract contained only 311,682 acres, of which 248,540 were the property of the patentees, the residue consisting of various reservations and grants for public purposes.
In the fall of 1788 Fort Washington was erected on what is now the site of Cincinnati, and in the month of January, 1789, the town was laid off, which improved slowly until after the defeat of the Indians by General Wayne in 1794. Since that time the progress of Cincinnati and the surrounding country, in population, wealth, and internal improvements, has been rapid and uninterrupted. It was the seat of the territorial government until 1800.
The proprietary interest of the United States in the soil of Ohio has been disposed of, with inconsiderable exceptions, by sale and otherwise.
The surface of the interior and of the northern and western parts is level, and moderately rolling, consisting of forest and prairie. The eastern and southeastern are somewhat hilly, becoming rather rough and broken on the banks of the Ohio. Back from the river the hills are less precipitous, and generally cultivated to their summits. A ridge of high lands is found crossing the northern half of the State from east to west, forming the water-shed between the streams flowing into Lake Erie and those emptying into the Ohio.
Extensive timber tracts, in early times denominated the “ barrens,” were found between the Scioto and Great Miami rivers, many of which, by the prevention of fires, are again covered with a forest growth, and in this part of the State timber is becoming more abundant than it was half a century ago.
In this and some other western regions the highlands or water-sheds are frequently rather marshy, while the driest lands are found in the valleys of the streams. Most of the marshy lands found at an early day have been drained and brought under cultivation.
Although nearly all the land in the State may be described as of good quality, none comparatively unfit for cultivation, yet the valleys of the rivers, and particularly of the two Miamis, the Scioto, the Maumee, and their tributaries, contain the most fertile and valuable lands. Indeed, it would be difficult to find anywhere lands, equalling these in extent, surpassing them in the elements of fertility or in agricultural capacity.
The Scioto and Miami valleys contain each an area of about 3,300,000 acres, and together comprise more than one-fourth of the area of the whole State. The valleys of the Muskingum, though less in extent, have much excellent land, while the Maumee bottoms in the northwest, when once properly drained, will be equal to any in productiveness, being for the most part deep, black mould, with just sufficient sand intermixed to constitute soils of the very highest fertility. Of such a character is the tract called the “Black Swamp,” in the northwest, portions of which have of late years become sufficiently dry for cultivation, and it is claimed are the best corn and grass lands. The shores of Lake Erie are of superior adaptation to the cultivation of fruit, on account of their exemption from destructive frosts. The peach, so liable to fail in most of the northern States, finds here a congenial climate, while the culture of the grape is perhaps more successful than in any other part of the State, and some of the islands of the lake, a short distance from the shore, have become celebrated for the excellence of their wine.
The Ohio river, bounding the State on the southeast and south for a distance of four hundred and fifty miles, is navigable throughout its whole length. Its principal tributaries within the State are the Scioto, the Great and Little Miami, and the Muskingum. The Great Miami and Muskingum are navigable for short distances for light boats. Lake Erie extends along two-thirds of the northern boundary of the State, with a shore line of two hundred miles. It has an ex
treme length of two hundred and seventy-five miles, and a breadth of fifty, covering an area of 11,000 square miles. The Maumee and Sandusky bays form fine barbors in the lake within the State of Ohio. The Maumee, Sandusky, Huron, and Cuyahoga rivers empty into the lake, and drain the northern portion of the State.
The western half of the State is limestone formation.
The climate of northern Ohio is of course colder in winter than the southern and interior, yet even here severe weather is not usual. In the southern and central parts the ground is seldom covered with snow more than a few days, the thermometer not usually sinking as low as zero. The summers in all parts of the State are warm and well adapted to the growth and maturity of Indian corn, the autumn season being remarkable for its beauty. The rain-fall in Ohio is generally sufficient for the most successful husbandry, droughts, although sometimes occurring, being not more frequent than in the adjoining States.
The banks of the Ohio above and below Cincinnati are covered with extensive vineyards, from which large quantities of wine are annually manufactured.
The great bituminous coal field of Pennsylvania and Virginia projects into the eastern and southeastern parts of the State, its western boundary extending from the northeastern corner of Trumball county through the counties of Portage, Wayne, Knox, Licking, and Fairfield, to the mouth of the Scioto. Salt springs are numerous within the same limits. Iron ore in abundance is found between the Licking and Muskingum rivers, near Zanesville, and on the Ohio near the southwest corner of Adams county, and particularly in the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Meigs, Vinton, Athens, Ilocking, Perry, and Licking.
About 14,000,000 acres of the lands in the State are improved, either as pasture, grass, cultivated in grain, or planted in orchards, gardens, or lawns, leaving eleven and one-balf millions unimproved either in the condition of forests or commons.
The soil of Ohio is generally of the highest fertility, free from rock or stone, and easily cultivated; all or nearly all of the land is arable and in favorable climate. The State must therefore in future take bigh rank in an agricultural point of view. In this respect it already occupies a prominent position. Wbeat, Indian corn, barley, oats, buckwheat, rye, hay, grass-seeds, Irish and sweet potatoes, pear, bears, flax, hemp, hope, tobacco, melons, pumpkins, apples, peaches, pears, pluts, cherries, currants, berries, and grapes, with nearly every variety of garden vegetables, are extensively cultivated; maple and sorghum sirup and sugar, honey, and wine', are manufactured in considerable quantities;
In 1865 Ohio stood third among the States of the Union in the production of wheat and corn, and fourth in the yield of oats ; Illinois and Wisconsin leading in the number of bushels of wheat, Illinois and Indiana in the quantity of corn, and New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois in onts; while Ohio surpassed all other States in the number and value of horses, sheep, and the amount of wool crop.
The production of grain in the State in 1865, including wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, and buckwheat, amounted in the aggrexate to 134,264,000 bushele, valued at 880,000,000. In 1860 the orchard products were estimatid at 81.929,309, and market products at $907,513. The value of slaughtered animals was $14,125,945.
In 1860, 8.695,000 bushels of Irish potatoes were raised; 25,092.581 pounds of tobacco, 568,517 gallons of wine, 3,345,508 pounds of muple sugar, 370,512 gallons of maple sirup, 779 076 gallons of sorglum molasses, aud 1,459,601 pounds of honey were manufactured.
831,432,410, other cattle $22,598,264, sheep $30,103,572, hog* $ 7,695,377; valuation of real estate for taxation, including town and city property. $663,617,542, and of chattel property, 8442,561,379.
The forest trees of the State are white oak, black oak, jack oak, and several other varieties of the oak; the black, blue, gray, and swamp ash ; several kinds of poplar, sycamore, pawpaw, dogwood, buckeye, elm, cherry and hornbean, besides beech, iron-wood, basswood, walnut, and a few evergreen trees. Ohio, though not possessing great variety of mineral products, has inexhaustible supplies of coal and iron. The coal-fields in the eastern and southeastern portions cover an area of 12,000 square miles, extending through twenty counties, and embrace nearly one-third of the area of the whole State, it being estimated that the county of Tuscarawas alone is underlaid with an amount equal to eighty thousand millions of bushels. Iron ore of very superior quality for the finer
an area of 1,200 square miles, and has already laid the foundation of a very extensive iron interest in the southern part of the State. In the northern part the furnaces are supplied with ore from the Lake Superior mines.
Large quantities of salt are manufactured for market.
Many oil wells have been sunk in the southeastern portion and large quantities of oil have been exported.
In 1860, according to the estimates of the commissioner of statistics for the State, 50,000,000 bushels of coal were mined, and 2,000,000 bushels of salt manufactured. Ohio ranked next to Pennsylvania in the production of coal and pig iron, the latter State standing first in these industries. For the manufacture of salt Ohio stood third. The State has doubled its products and manufactures every ten years since 1840.
No State in the Union has a more extensive system of railroads, according to the area covered and the amount of population. There is scarcely a county, and no important town, without railroad transit. Two canals connect the Ohio river with Lake Erie-one commencing at Cincinnati and terminating at Toledo; the other starting at the mouth of the Scioto, ends at Cleveland; a third connects Cincinnati with Cambridge City, in Indiana ; and a fourth, Lancaster, on the Scioto, with the Hocking valley; making an aggregate of nine hundred and twenty-one miles.
In 1860 there were in the State 3,100 miles of turnpike and plank roads and 67,000 miles of common roads.
The surplus produce of Ohio is exported by railroad, by the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers, and the great lakes, it having amounted to over $60,000,000.
Although an inland State, it has great facilities for commerce, having a shore line on Lake Erie, with harbors capable of accommodating the heaviest and most extensive shipping, and, by way of the lakes and the St. Lawrence, direct communication with the ocean. The various railroads and canals passing through the State afford direct intercourse with the commercial cities on the Atlantic and on the Mississippi, as well as with the States and Territories beyond.
The whole number of manufacturing establishments in the State in 1860 was 11,123, employing an aggregate capital of $58,000,000, and consuming raw material valued at $70,000,000, producing annually goods valued at $125,000,000.
There are ten cities in the State having each a larger population than 10,000. In 1800 Cincinnati had 752 inhabitants ; at present the number is 200,000.
In 1800 the population, excluding Indians, was 45,365.
In 1860 it was 2,339,511, and now it is estimated as 2,500,000, ranking third in the Union in point of population, and seventh in the density of its inhabitants.
The number of persons to the square mile in Ohio at the present time is about
If the population of Ohio were of equal density with that of Massachusetts it would amount to 6,314,312.
In the year ending July 1, 1866, there were erected in the State 11,000 new