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Wisconsin, yet extending into Illinois and Iowa, including an area of 2,880 square miles. The galena is remarkably pure, with a rare occurrence of carbonates, phosphates, or other oxidized combinations. It is found in masses commonly called “gravel mineral” or “float mineral” in the latest alluvial strata, or deposited in vertical rock fissures or in horizontal flat sheets. These deposits are not sufficient to warrant very extensive machinery or great outlay of capital. Their superficial location, however, does not demand any such elaborate working. The lead production of this region has probably reached its maximum.
· The lead mines of Missouri being in nearly the same geological position as those of the upper Mississippi are mostly of a similar character. As late as 1848 our exports of lead exceeded our imports. Since that time the tide has turned, the imports exceeding the exports $1,102,825 in 1852, and $2,613,000 in 1859.
The manufactures of lead as disclosed in the census report of 1860 were carried on by fourteen establishments with a capital of $1,739,963, consuming raw material valued at $2,679,453, and paying for labor to 346 operatives $103,056. The product of the last year's operations was valued at $3,166,029, affording a profit of $382,520, or twenty-two per cent. on the capital.
Zinc.- While the lead product of the United States has been decreasing, the zinc product has been steadily increasing for fifteen years. Its ores are extensively distributed through the United States and in great abundance, but as yet have scarcely begun to be worked. A variety of ores are worked for zinc; among these is the sulphuret of zinc or blende, called by the Cornish' miners black jack. It is associated with the ores of lead, copper, and tin, and in some mines it constitutes the prevailing ore. The long ruasting process necessary to free the metal from sulphur has caused it to be neglected. It lies in immense heaps about many lead mines, awaiting the discovery of some more speedy and economical process of reduction. In England it has become an article of commerce within the last few years, and in France there are five establishments working the same. Red oxide of zinc, found principally in Ne Jersey, owes its color to the presence of oxide of manganese, as the artificial oxide of zinc is always white when pure. It is found at Franklin and Stirling mechanically mixed with franklinite and associated with calcareous spar. A mass of it weighing 16,400 pounds was exhibited at the Crystal Palace in London. Electric calamine, or the silicate of the oxide of zinc, and other silicates of the metal with smithsonite, or the carbonate of zinc, are found in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Tennessee.
Very pure ores of these kinds also exist in Arkansas, imbedded in red ferruginous clay among the magnesian limestones. As a general truth, in the older rocks zinc is mostly associated with the more valuable metals, especially silver and copper. The ores found in such geological positions being sulphurets, are not particularly valuable. The carbonates and silicates, of much greater value, occur generally in calcareous or dolomitic rocks, forming part of or associated with the carboniforous system. These deposits are sometimes in beds intercalated in the strata or disposed in irregular masses occupying depressions in them.
In New Jersey and New York the sulphuret is found associated with galena, copper pyrites, iron pyrites, and crystallized quartz. Zinc is found in abundance in the mines of the western lead region. The silicates and the sulphurets are frequently met with, especially in Wisconsin and Missouri. The manufacture of zinc from these ores against foreign competition is not profitable by the present processes.
According to Whitney, the world's production of zinc in 1853 was as follows: Russia, (including Poland)......... ........ 4,000 tons, or 7.3 per cent. Great Britain .............
.... 1,000 tons, or 1.8 per cent. Belgium....
.........15,000 tons, or 27.3 per cent.
32, 000 tons, or 58.2 per cent.
1,500 tons, or 2.7 per cent. 1,500 tons, or 2.7 per cent.
55, 000 tons, or 100 per cent.
The production of zinc in this country in the following year was estimated as high as 5,000 or 6,000 tons. A single company in New Jersey took from two beds in Stirling Hill, between 1854 and 1860, 30,000 tons of ore. In the Saucon valley, Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, 5,000 tons were mined during 1860. Zinc paint, the white oxide, is extensively manufactured in this country. The manufacture of this and other oxides, in-1860, employed five establishments with a capital of $2,228,000, consuming raw material valued at $233,690, paying to 241 hands $87,720, and producing articles valued at $476,860. This leaves a profit of $157,450, or seven per cent on the capital invested, a remarkable disparity with other branches of manufacture.
Platinum. —Traces of this metal have been found in the lead and copper ores of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, but no grains of the native metal have been discovered north of North Carolina, where a single grain was obtained in Rutherford county, in gold washings. This grain weighed 2.541 grains troy, and had a specific gravity of 18. In California it is found associated with gold, and very frequently rejected by the miners through ignorance of its value. The native gold received at the United States mint at Philadelphia from California in 1852 contained traces of platina, but not enough to pay for detaching it. Gold received from Oregon in 1863 contained an appreciable percentage of platina. In 1850. there were imported 34,000 ounces, worth, at $6 10 per ounce, $20,740.
Iridium and osmium.-An alloy of these metals, called iridosmine, is found associated with native platina. Near Port Orford, to the north of Rogue river, iridium appears associated with gold to the amount of fifteen per cent. Still 'further north, between Cape Blanco and Coquille, there exists an alloy composed of fifteen per cent. of iridium and five per cent. of platinum. Between Randolph and Cape Arago thin metallic scales have been found, composed of seventy per cent. of iridium and six per cent. of platinum. It is used in manufacturing nibs of gold pens, and has ranged as high as $250 per ounce.
Mercury.—No deposits of this metal are known east of the Mississippi river. In California, its red sulphuret, called cinnabar, was first discovered on the south side of the valley of San José, about sixty miles southeast of San Francisco. It had been used by the Indians on account of the bright vermilion color it afforded as a pigment to ornament their persons. The Mexicans first worked it to extract gold and silver. In 1850, a company of Mexicans and English engaged vigorously in the extraction and metallurgical treatment of this ore, giving to their mine the name of New Almaden. In eight years they had mined 20,000,000 pounds of cinnabar, and had realized an annual profit of more than $1,000,000, when, in 1858, their proceedings were arrested by injunction from the United States court, on the ground of invalid title. The American parties who succeeded to the ownership extended their discoveries in the same range of hills. In December, 1858, they opened a new mine called Eurequita, the production of which has increased to the utmost limit of their reducing apparatus. The product of these mines in the five years ending with 1858 amounted to 13,318,350 pounds. The ore is found in connection with sedimentary strata, composed of alternating beds of argillaceous shales and layers of flint, tilted at a high angle and much flexed in rocks in close proximity to the tertiary formations. Some writers locate these deposits as high up in the geologic series as the miocene or middle tertiary.
Cobalt.-The oxide of this metal is sought after in order to give brilliant
coloringsto glass. The great demand for this article is from the British manufactories of porcelain and stained glass. The ores of cobalt are generally combinations with arsenic, sulphur, nickel, and iron. The chief of these, arsenical cobalt, was obtained at Chatham, Connecticut, as far back as 1787. Pyritous eobalt is found in Maryland, in North Carolina, and Missouri.
Nickel.-Metallic nickel, according to Whitney, is confined exclusively to bodies of extra-terrestrial origin, commonly called meteoric iron, These masses often contain a nickel alloy amounting to five or ten per cent. on the whole. It forms several combinations. The principal depository of its ores in this country is at Chatham, Connecticut, where, associated with cobalt, it is found in veins travessing gneiss and mica slate. It also exists in company with copper ores at an old mine lately reopened in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. This mine in 1859 was producing nickel ore at the rate of two hundred tons per month. A pyritous ore is also found at Mine La Motte, in Missouri.
Coal.—The known deposits of coal in the United States transcend in extent and richness those of all the residue of the world combined. The areas of the different coal-fields, as estimated by Daddow and Bannan, in their work on “Coal, Iron, and Oil," published in 1866, are represented in the following table:
Names of the principal coal
Tons of estimated
Sq. miles. Sq. mi's. Sq. mi's. Russia in Europe...
11, 313 520 510 Austria
203, 736 2, 000 1,000 Arcadia
100, 000 18,000 2, 200 Great Britain
121, 00012, 000 6, 195 Australia
3, 120,000 100.000 15,000 Total outside United States... 6, 086, 660 138, 52026, 005 U.S., (not including our late
acquisition from Russia). 3,000,000 500, 000 200 000
1. 20000 1
5 10,000,000 30,000,000,000 1.322 8 5,000,000 46,000,000,000 1. 200 10 10,000,000 57, 690,000,000 1. 45
22 500,000 42, 240,000,000
90,000,000 144, 000 000,000
250,000 288,000,000,000 1. 234 258 115, 750,000 607, 930,000,000 1.15 2,000 22,000,000 3,740,000,000,000
In 1845 our coal area was stated at 133,000 square miles. It is now known to be over 200,000 square miles, or eight times the known available coal area of all the rest of the globe. The specific areas of the American coal-fields are estimated as follows:
Square miles. Massachusetts and Rhode Island ......
300 Pennsylvania-anthracite 4,700, bituminous 12,656.
13, 126 Maryland.....
500 West Virginia. East Virginia..
225 North Carolina.
3, 700 Georgia
170 Alabama. Kentucky
13, 700 Ohio ...
12, 000 Indiana .
7, 700 Illinois
44, 000 Michigan.
24, 000 Missouri
21, 000 Nebraska.
Square miles. Kansas...
12, 000 Arkansas...
12, 000 Indian territory.
10,000 Texas ....
3,000 Oregon-anthracite 100, bituminous 500
600 Washington Territory....
750 West of the Rocky mountains.
5,000 * Total.....
220, 166 In addition to the above it is supposed that adjacent to the Rocky mountains there are some 200,000 equare miles of lignites, tertiary, and other inferior coals. Another estimate arranges the areas within the ancient Appalachian basin as follows:
Of the American coal-fields the Pennsylvania anthracite, though one of the smallest in area, is now the most copious in production, and the most available to the commercial and industrial interests of the nation. It is arranged in basins as follows :
This production, averaging 20,667 tons per square mile, equals the average of the most productive British coal-field in 1864. Since that time, however, the English coal trade has increased in volume about fifty per cent. English statisticians estimate that their coal resources will be exhausted, at the present rate of production, with an average increase no greater than has been observable of late years, in about three hundred years. Our mining system is not carried on with the close economy of the British mines. With us " the waste is equal to the vend." At least one-third more of the coal extracted from the mines might be made available in the market with a more economical method. Instead of a yield of 60,000 tons per acre, we might reasonably hope for 80,000 or 90,000 tons. The latter aggregate would still leave a mass of 6,780 tons per acre left in pillars and otherwise unavoidably wasted. At the rate of 60,000 tons per acre the anthracite coal-field promises an aggregate of 18,000,000,000
Daddow and Bannan, in their estimate of the coal-fields of the United States, assign 7,100 square miles to Obio, 6,700 square miles to Indiana, and 30,000 square miles to Illinois which would reduce the above total to 200,266 square miles.
tons. An addition of fifty per cent to this enormous aggregate is worthy the attention and efforts of scientific and business men. Our present production is about 10,000,000 tons per annum. ' In all probability it will be 15,000,000 tons in 1870. The present generation will probably see this aggregate doubled and even quadrupled. Of our aggregate coal product of 22,000,000 tons in 1864, near 10,000,000 tons were mined in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania. They represent a commercial value of $60,000,000 Passing westward, several outlying patches, separated from the main body by denudation, form a sort of connecting link between the anthracite regions of the northeast and the massive bituminous deposits of the great Appalachian coal basin. Of these, the Broad Top coal-field, occupying an area of from forty to eighty square miles in Huntington, Bedford, and Fulton counties, Pennsylvania, south of the Juniata river, is the most prominent. The coal of this region is called semi-anthracite, from its partaking the qualities of anthracite and bituminous. The mines of this region in 1864 produced 386,645 tons, valued at $544,000. North Mountain, Barclay or Towanda, Ralston, and Blossburg basins also mark the transition from the anthracite to the bituminous regions lying upon the northeastern edge of the latter.
The great Alleghany or Appalachian coal basin extends along the Alleghany range from Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, southwest into Alabama. Its areas in the different States are as follows:
Sq. miles. Pennsylvania ..
550 West Virginia and Virginia.
Its length is 875 miles, and its breadth varies from 30 to 180 miles. It undulates westward, forming six principal basins and five prominent anticlinals, independent of the Maryland basin. The deposits are naturally divided by Mahoning sandstone into two groups, of which the 'lower, corresponding to the white ash anthracite formation, occupies the much larger area-perhaps threefourths of the entire field
It is traversed by several water-courses which have cut channels entirely through the coal measures. These coal-fields are all basin-shaped, and the depth of the basin increases going eastward. The thickness of the seams ranges from fifty to seventy-five feet, with an average of about one-half this aggregate throughont the entire coal field.
The Pennsylvania section of this coal field, embracing nearly 13,000 square miles, extends through twenty-four counties. In 1864 the coal mined amounted to 5,839,000 tons of 2,000 pounds. The Cumberland coal region in Maryland, separated from the Alleghany coal-field by the high axis of Negro mountain, is sometimes called the Frostburg basin. It covers an area of from 150 to 180 square miles. The other Maryland basins enlarge this area to 550 square miles. The coal shipped from Cumberland in 1864 amounted to 657,996 tons, a net decrease of 90,349 tons as compared with 1863, a decline fully accounted for by important military operations interrupting the working of the mines.
That portion of the Alléghany coal-field lying in West Virginia is the best and most available of the whole, being mostly accessible through numerous navigable streams. Recent improved relations of the industrial forces and the