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that the game is going to be fundamentally changed so that it will be satisfactory. A great trouble with the game of the past has been that it was played, not according to the rules as they stood, but according to indefinite traditions, and no two officials agreed on the traditions. An official at one of the games last season said, while walking off the field after the game: “ These fellows have been kicking all the afternoon because I would not inflict a penalty for holding in the line. I think a certain amount of holding in the line is all right.” The rules said there should be no holding. I do not agree that the making of specific and definite rules is discreditable, altho the acts which have led to the necessity of certain rules may have been.

The next thing is to lessen the publicity by confining the game to the college public as far as possible. That, of course, is a difficult thing to carry out in some ways, but it can be carried out in a measure, and I think only the graduates and undergraduates and their friends should be allowed to come. No tickets should be on sale.

The amount of money taken in at these sports should be diminished. If there is an enormous amount of money, as there has been some years, it seems mean not to indulge in certain extravagances. If you have less money, you have less professionalism, because you have not the money to spend for undesirable things.

One of the greatest changes necessary is an honest endeavor somehow to prevent all solicitation. We have already made an endeavor to put an end to some of it. I think the migration of men from one college to another should be prevented. A man who has once played upon the team of one college never should be allowed to play on the team of another college under any circumstances whatever.

The rule just passed by the athletic committee, which requires one year's residence before entering on any sport, is an admirable one. It prevents a freshman from getting his head turned by the excitement of the game so that he gets settled down before he goes into the sport, and I think the game should be confined to undergraduates of the three upper classes of the college, and perhaps of the scientific school. I have made that remark before and caused rather acrimonious comments from gentlemen who taught undergraduates, while I teach graduates. But, it seems to me that these boys in college are younger and that they are not entirely by the play age. When they enter a professional school of any sort, it is high time that they stopped playing boys' games. They can have all the exercise they want, but they should at that time be attending to their bread and butter.

All men who have to deal in any way with such questions have their own fads. My private fad is the prevention of all coaching. I think the game should get back to simpler principles, and I think the boys ought to have not only the fun, but the work of the game, and should expend all the gray matter that is used on it themselves. It is a boys' game, pure and simple, and it is time that we gray-haired men got out of it. I do not mean by that that the gray-haired men should not have something to say about the game, but the boys should be left entirely to their own devices, as far as the playing of the games goes. The graduates should have nothing to do with that. The players should have first-class medical supervision, for very serious results may come from excessive training or from improper attention to injuries. I do not believe the time has yet come to leave the planning of the general policy entirely to the undergraduates, because, when you see the mess that the graduates occasionally make of the game, it seems a good deal to expect the much less experienced undergraduates to correct the evils.

EDWARD HALL NICHOLS HARVARD UNIVERSITY

V

THE FUTURE OF THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE

EXAMINATION BOARD

The establishment of the College Entrance Examination Board of the Middle States and Maryland was an advance in the management of the admission of students to college, not only because it made the practice of many colleges more efficient, but also because it instituted an authoritative committee, thru which future evolution may be wisely directed. Indeed, we may assume that the work which the members of this board may hope to do in making the connections between colleges and secondary schools rational in all respects is more important than the admirable work already done in systematizing and simplifying the conditions of entrance examinations. In this article I shall suggest certain possibilities for the future development of the activity of this College Entrance Examination Board on the basis of a study of the actual results of the present arrangements.

The facts which I shall present concern the records in entrance examinations and the academic careers of all the students of Columbia College entering in 1901, 1902, and 1903, and especially the relation between their success in the entrance examinations and their success in college. From these facts it will be proved that even so carefully managed examinations as these are an extremely imperfect means of estimating an individual's fitness for college. The suggestions to be made concern a simple and practicable development of the work of the College Entrance Examination Board which would remedy the defects of examination systems and still not introduce the doubtful features of the usual certificate systems.

In 1901, 1902, and 1903 there entered Columbia College 253 students who have complete, or nearly complete, records of standings in entrance examinations and who stayed in college thru the freshman year. I have complete records of

62.5

62.5

100

100

the standing thru senior year of 56 of these and complete records thru junior year of 130. Detailed reference will be made here only to the 130 students whose college history can be investigated for three years or more, tho the facts concerning the remaining 123 have been studied in detail and give abundant corroborative evidence. For each of the 130, I have a record approximately such as the following:

INDIVIDUAL X
Entrance-
English.... .Reading

Credited
Study

80
Latin....

.Grammar
Composition

60
Cicero
Vergil

95
Sight Translation

95 Greek.... ..Grammar

73 Composition

75 Xenophon

73 Homer

90 French...... Elementary

78
Mathematics.. Algebra to Quadratics

Quadratics
Plane geometry

97 College

Freshman
English

с
Latin

D
Mathematics

B
German

С
Physics

D
Sophomore
English

C&D
Latin

B
Mathematics

с
History

C
Physics

с
Junior
English

D & C
German

F
Economics

F
History

A & B
Senior
English

B & B
Philosophy

с
History

D & A
Psychology

C
Economics

с
Sociology

B

The important facts concerning the relationship of success in entrance examinations to success in college work are given in the tables at the end of this article. They prove that we cannot estimate the latter from the former with enough accuracy to make the entrance examinations worth taking or to prevent gross and intolerable injustice being done to many individuals.

For instance, 6 students out of the 130 received the same average entrance mark–61. In their college work of junior year, 1 averaged a trifle above D; 1 half-way from D to C; I a little above C, and 2 received A in four subjects out of five, and B in the other. In freshman and sophomore year, the range was nearly as great.

Eleven students of the 130 received in the entrance examinations marks averaging 70 in each case. In their college work of junior year, they averaged all the way from D to A.

Of the students who were in the lower half of the group in the entrance examinations, nearly 40 per cent. are found in the upper half in the last three years of college.

Of the dozen students who ranked highest in entrance, some were in the lowest fifth of the class by junior year.

If, knowing that 50 individuals ranked in the order Jones, Smith, Brown, etc., in their entrance marks, one were to wager that in the college work of, say, junior year, they would rank Jones, Smith, Brown, etc., as before, he would lose his bet in 47 cases out of the 50.

The record of eleven or more entrance examinations gives a less accurate prophecy of what a student will do in the latter half of his college course than does the college record of his brother! The correlation between brothers in intellectual ability is approximately .40, but that between standing in entrance examinations and standing in college of the same person is only .47 for junior year and .25 for senior year.

The entrance examinations also bear internal evidence of their inadequacy as measures of fitness for college. If a student who fails in his first trial of an examination gets a vastly different mark a few months or even a year later, it is clear that the examination in so far does not test capacity so much as the

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