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promoting the researches of these subordinates as they are in developing their own. But when we go over the list of these men it will be found that they are just the ones who have the teaching instinct; the ones who are most ready to combine instruction with research; the ones who would most earnestly repudiate the suggestion that the investigators formed a separate class from the teachers, and a higher one. They are the men who are looking, not only for new results, but for new men to produce the results.

As John Morley well says, the essential thing for progress is to leaye all ways open for the advent of your hero, for no man can possibly know by which road he will come; and this is as true in the affairs of science as it is in the affairs of government. Every university, as soon as it has money enough to pay men for anything besides classroom work, should see that the opportunities for research are developed as widely as possible among its teaching force. Some will use these opportunities badly; a much larger number will use them well. The aggregate result of such a policy will, I am confident, be profitable to the students and to the teaching force; profitable to the reputation of the university and to the progress of science as a whole. Every instructor who is devoting his time and strength to university work should have the opportunity to give at least one course on a department of his subject for which he really cares—a course which he gives not because the university needs that particular subject or branch of the subject in its schedule, but because he himself wants to study and teach it and believes that he can make something more out of it than others have done before him. In connection with such courses the younger instructors should be given every facility to use the research laboratories in the way that they think they ought to be used, rather than in the way the head of the department thinks they ought to be used. I do not mean that we should go so far as to introduce the German system of docenten. The arrangements of our classes and the demands upon our teaching force are such that a radical change of this kind seems impossible. But it is perfectly possible and exceedingly important to give our younger instructors some of the advantages which the German system affords.

Of course this will not be an easy thing to attain. There are financial obstacles, and there are also administrative ones. The number of students to be taught in the regular classes is so great that faculty committees will want to use the whole time of the younger instructors for regular work, and will begrudge every hour that is spent in methods which they regard as irregular. The laboratory space is so limited in proportion to the demands upon it that the heads of departments will be inclined to use it all for the researches in which they have confidence, and will doubt the wisdom of putting any part of this limited space under the control of younger men whose work is avowedly experimental, and of whose good judgment the older men are not sanguine. But it is worth while to spen! the effort necessary to overcome these obstacles. The real freedom of teaching which exists in a place managed for the young men and not for the old ones makes it far more attractive to progressive and ambitious students. The reduction in quantity of classroom work on the part of the younger instructors is more than compensated by the improvement in quality. The gain from the successful experiments more than compensates the loss from the unsuccessful ones. The existence of a spirit of independent research on the part of a large body of young men makes such a university a better place in which to teach and study than one where a few men of more advanced years, and perhaps more cautious temperament, are engaged in carrying out their own preconceived ideas. Over and over again it has been proved that an atmosphere of independent thought and independent discussion counts for more in stimulating discovery than perfection of instruments or scholarly guidance by those who have already made their reputation. Look back at the history of scientific investigation, and you

will find it most active, not where large sums of money are placed in the hands of a few men to facilitate their individual researches, but where those sums, or even very much smaller ones, are distributed among a considerable body of young men working side by side in independent activity.

Some universities will find it relatively easy to give the younger instructors freedom necessary for making discoveries and experiments of their own, and others will find it very difficult; for some have money to spend upon research and others have little. But I am convinced that whether the sum thus available be one thousand dollars, or ten thousand, or a hundred thousand, it is best used by distributing as widely as possible the opportunities which it gives and the chance of using those opportunities in the manner that each man may desire for himself.

But the younger instructors are not the only ones who need more freedom. The older ones also have their burdens, tho of a somewhat different kind. The pressure of routine often lies as heavy upon the experienced man as the pressure of authority lies upon the man who has his career before him; and the better a man teaches, the more his routine duties crowd upon him as he gets older. It is the duty of the university authorities to relieve this pressure. It is suicidal for them to allow a successful instructor to be swamped by the number of students who wish to hear him. He should be given increased time for research, by the diminution of his lecture hours where that is possible, and in any event by the appointment of readers, quiz masters, demonstrators, and other assistants who can relieve him of burdensome parts of his work. It is not necessary that the services of these men should be very expensive. In a university which has a large force of graduate students there are always men on fellowships who can be asked to do this, or men without fellowships who are willing to do it for comparatively small compensation. If a fellow refuses to give this help, holding that he is employed for research and that his time is too valuable for such work, the remedy is simple. Send him away from the university. The more promptly you get rid of him the better. A vigorous policy of this kind is necessary in order to prevent men who have proved their capacity to teach from being overburdened with teaching duties and placed at an actual disadvantage as compared with those who do not teach so well. I have a case in mind where there are two men working side by side in the same subject, one of whom can teach classes and the other cannot. Under the financial limitations of the department the man who can teach classes has to spend all his time in this way, while the man who cannot teach classes is given time for research; and the man who is thus turned into research because he cannot teach believes that this fact is a badge of superiority instead of inferiority. By giving liberal assistance to our teachers, and by that policy only, can we protect the men who are able to study and to instruct also from the encroachments of those who, being unable to instruct, claim superior facilities for study.

Do not let me be misunderstood in all this. I recognize that there is a great deal of teaching, and of very'valuable teaching, which is not done in the classroom and which does not take the form of lectures, of recitations, or even of laboratory supervision. There are some men who naturally teach in these ways; there are others who more naturally teach by their writings, by their conversations, or by their intelligent suggestions for the work of others. These latter forms of teaching are as important as any; and a man who can make his researches available in these ways is as useful an instructor as anyone in the university. A failure to recognize this fact has prevented some of the best men from finding the employment or receiving the salaries which their real work as teachers merited. Those who have seen the value of these men in a university, and have not seen how much teaching they could do outside of the classroom, have supposed that the only way in which to pay them full salaries was to make them

research” professors. Pay them full salaries, by all means; but pay them for their teaching. Let them understand that they are part of the teaching force, and are simply doing their teaching in a different way from some other men. Let them understand that they are not employed for research as distinct from instruction, but for the development and teaching of new truth as distinct from the development and teaching of old truth. Let them see that they are not set apart from their colleagues to be guarded and perhaps sterilized. Let them feel that their research is not valuable until it is made useful to others. Let them understand that withdrawal from the lecture room and relief from the duties of supervising elementary students carry with them a larger obligation to publish as fully as possible the results of all discoveries; to organize departments intelligently; to train up young men who can teach; and to make liberal room for such men, instead of trying to get in their way when their work becomes popular.

Impress upon the research men an obligation to teach others, and demand that they give evidence that they are meeting that obligation. Free the best teachers from the unnecessary burdens due to their popularity, and insist that they shall avail themselves of the chance thus afforded to make researches of their own. Give to our younger men, who have still to prove what they can do both in teaching and in research, the widest opportunity for independent investigation and independent management of their classes. Thus, and thus only, can we avoid the dangers to which we are exposed at the hands of those who would separate research from instruction.

ARTHUR T. HADLEY YALE UNIVERSITY

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