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ics, and professional people who themselves live in the country, and are in moderate circumstances. This agreeable homogeneity tends, of course, to diminish, if strong differences of condition are developed among the population on the natural watershed of the institution, or if the college site, once thoroly rural, becomes citified thru the advent of successful manufactures or of active trade.
“There are certain more subtle differences between the American colleges, which it is easy to feel but hard to describe. Some of them have a characteristic tone, or common sentiment, towards some particular religious organization or institution, as, for instance, towards the Protestant Episcopal, or the Congregational, or the Presbyterian, or the Methodist church; in some there is such an amount of agreement among teachers, graduates, and students on some political dogma, like protection, for example, or bi-metallism, or State rights, as to make rejection of that dogma a real difficulty for any discordant individual. Some exhibit a predominant interest in the applications of science; others maintain a strong interest in literature and history—an interest manifested in a striking degree by former generations of teachers and students at the same place, and also by eminent graduates. Others continue to exhibit an affectionate respect for some ethical or religious movement of former times. There is no doubt that the institutions of the North, the South, the East, and the West, respectively, have somewhat different effects on the manners and bearing of their students, just as these students show slight common differences of voice and speech. These local differences are tolerably persistent, altho there are now many American colleges to which students come from all parts of the country, bringing with them their own local manners, voices, and pronunciations. In spite of these recognizable differences, it is to be observed that the American speech from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, presents no such strong local variations as little England presents, or as distinguish the North German from the South German.
“There seems to be a considerable difference among the American colleges and universities in regard to charging a tuition fee; but this difference is really not so great or so important as it seems. To be sure, some of the state universities charge no tuition fee, while most of the endowed institutions charge a tuition fee varying from $50 to $200 a year; but it is to be observed, on the one hand, that many of the endowed institutions remit tuition fees with liberality, or possess numerous scholarship funds the income of most of which is sufficient to meet the tuition fee and leave a balance applicable to board or lodging, and on the other, that the state institutions have established the custom of charging various fees for entrance, incidentals, graduation, and laboratory courses. Some of the state universities make a distinction between the college and the school of agriculture and mechanic arts, on the one hand, and the law school and medical school on the other, charging no tuition fee in the first group, but an ample tuition fee in the second. In the state institutions fees for some of the objects just mentioned are invariably collected; and the older the institution the larger these fees are apt to be. Thus, in the University of Michigan the matriculation fee is $10 for a citizen of Michigan, and $25 for a person who comes from any other state or country; the fee for incidental expenses in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts is $30 for Michigan students and $40 for all others; and in the Departments of Engineering, Medicine, Law, Pharmacy, and Dentistry this fee is $35 for Michigan students and $45 for all others. Fees are also required from all students who pursue laboratory courses; and in all departments there is a fee of $10 for graduation. The state universities which maintain summer sessions habitually charge a tuition fee for that session. At the University of Michigan this fee is $15 in the Department of Literature, Science, and Arts. In the University of Illinois fees analogous to those of the University of Michigan are charged; and in addition there is a regular tuition fee of $50 a year in the College of Law, and of $120 a year in the College of Medicine. The State of California has been liberal to its university and to its schools, and tuition in the colleges at Berkeley is free to residents of the state; but nonresidents of California are charged a tuition fee of $20 a year,
and there is the usual charge for laboratory supplies, this charge amounting to from $5 to $30 a year. The Law School has a fee of $10 a year for incidental expenses, and the Medical Department has a tuition fee of $150 a year, beside a matriculation fee, a graduation fee, and large fees for dissecting material, the rental of microscopes, and laboratory breakage. When we consider, further, that the tuition fee, even where it is large, is seldom more than one-third of the total cost of remaining one year in college, and that foregoing the productive labor of the boy is the real difficulty to be met by a poor family in sending a boy to college, we shall perceive that the varying amounts of the annual fees charged for tuition do not present a very serious difference among the American institutions of the higher education. Moreover, the tendency in the state institutions is to enlarge their annual fees under various names; and in the endowed institutions the tendency is to provide more and more scholarships and other aids for poor students, and to offer to competent undergraduates who need to support themselves during their college life better and better opportunities for earning money. Such opportunities are, of course, more easily procured in colleges situated in or near large cities. There they are so abundant that hundreds of young men go thru these colleges chiefly on resources which they themselves earn, and graduate without having incurred debt. It is hard to do as much in an institution situated in a village or small town, even tho no tuition fee be demanded of the student.
“ The American colleges and universities differ among themselves considerably in regard to admitting women to common residence and equal standing with men; but here again the differences are not as great as they at first sight appear to be, and they are diminishing. One may say, in a general way, that the leading Eastern institutions are not coeducational, and that the leading Western institutions are coeducational; but many of the Eastern institutions, even those considered most conservative, are partially open to women, and others have entered into more or less intimate association with separate colleges for women placed in the same town or city. Among Western
endowed institutions there are several that have ceased to be thoroly coeducational and have decided to segregate the women apart from the men. Leland Stanford Junior University, one of the newest and now one of the richest of American universities, has given notice that it will not under any circumstances admit more than a specified number of women. In the Eastern part of the country the wholly separate college for women thrives, and gives evidence of present strength and increasing vitality. The probability is that, with the growth of educational resources and the increasing heterogeneousness of the population in the newer parts of our country, the practices of the West will be assimilated to those of the East in regard to the education of young women with young men—that is, some institutions will remain frankly and thruout coeducational while others will detach the groups of women more or less from the groups of men, and others again will be coeducational in their Graduate Schools and Summer Sessions, but not elsewhere. Moreover, both separate colleges for women and colleges for women affiliated with universities for men will probably arise in the West.
" A significant distinction among American colleges is based on their terms of admission, some requiring examinations but the great majority admitting on certificates from secondary schools. Almost all the colleges use each method in some measure; but there is an important group of Eastern colleges which admit regular students only on examination. Both methods have been improved and extended in recent years; so that there is now a good chance to test fairly the relative merits of the two methods. That method will ultimately be preferred by schools and colleges alike which delivers to the colleges the ablest, best trained, most ambitious, and most efficient boys and girls. Between the two groups of colleges the decisive test will be the success of their graduates in after life. The differentiation among colleges on this basis may turn out to be quicker and more decisive than most experts have imagined, or on the other hand the results may be obscure and hard to demonstrate. Again, a third method, like that of Germany, may supersede both of the existing methods.
Another distinction among the leading universities of this country depends on the proportion which the work they do for undergraduates bears to the work they do for young men who already hold a bachelor's degree. The graduate schools in Arts and Sciences are increasing rapidly in number and in size; but the number of universities which require a bachelor's degree for admission to their other professional schools is still very small. Here again a sound experiment is in progress under fair conditions, and in ten years more it may be possible for judicious observers to determine what the interest of the universities is in this matter, and what the interest of the community. At any rate, it is certain that preparation for the professions is growing more and more elaborate, and that the influence of the professions steadily increases.
“There is an important difference in the organization and management of the American institutions of higher education which has not attracted much public attention, but which really affects strongly the present management of these institutions and their future prospects. In many of the institutions, particularly the older and stronger ones, the president of the college or university is a member of the governing board, or boards, with the full powers of a member. In others, the board of trustees or regents elects its own chairman; and the president of the university, tho invited to attend the meetings of the board, is not a member thereof, much less its head. The position of the president who is a member of the governing boards is, of course, stronger than that of a president who is not, provided that his personal quality and his experience are such as to give him influence with the boards. A board of trustees which invites the presence of the president who is not a member by right is inclined to look on the president as one of its numerous employees, with whose service they can dispense, if they like, as they would with the services of a professor, instructor, or secretary. Such a relation to the governing board impairs the dignity and stability of a presidency, and therefore the influence of the incumbent. This is not a local or sectional difference in American universities. Some of the newer endowed institutions in the East have a president who is not a