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PREFACE.

THE" Annual Cyclopædia” for 1879 has grown into a larger volume than usual from the multitudinous events of a year unusually prolific in legislative action and political changes, and teeming with vitality in the various fields of scientific progress and mechanical development, religious activity, industrial advancement, and commercial transition, which come within the scope of a work which aims to be a complete record of the current history of the United States and of the world, and a register of every fact or occurrence which forms an influential factor in modern civilization.

The articles on the States are lengthened beyond their usual compass by exceptionally important legislation transacted and pending upon the regulation of railroad, insurance, and other corporations; upon temperance, convict-labor, tramps, Chinese immigration, and the different elements of the labor question; upon the regulation of the ballot and the question of the Federal control of elections; upon the question of paying or not paying State and municipal debts, and other subjects of moment. The Legislatures of the individual States are the arenas in which most of the socio-political questions, which in other countries make the great national issues, are fought out; and as the “ Annual Cyclopædia” is the only full and comprehensive chronicle of this most momentous portion of the country's history, it must not allow any important acts of legislation, nor any decision of the courts concerning them, or subjects of political agitation, to pass unrecorded. Full and interesting data are given this year upon the industrial and agricultural condition of many of the States, as well as the usual reports of public affairs, statistical information, and record of party action. In CALIFORNIA a synopsis of the new Constitution is found. In Maine and in Public DocuMENTS the documents relating to the election difficulty are given at length. In TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, and VIRGINIA, the debt questions are unfolded ; in MinNESOTA and FLORIDA, the question of railroad land-grants; and in other States, whatever subjects are uppermost in the public mind. In separate articles the EXODUS OF THE COLORED PEOPLE and the YELLOW FEVER are thoroughly discussed. In CONGRESS the debates on the anti-Chinese and election investigation bills, and the conflicts over the army and judicial appropriation bills in their successive phases, are very fully reported, with the entire texts of the President's vetoes. The NationAL BOARD OF Health is explained in a timely article.

The high value and authority of the exhaustive monographs on the MARINE HOSPITAL SERVICE, the Signal SERVICE, the RESUMPTION OF SPECIE PAYMENTS, and REFUNDING THE PUBLIC DEBT will be appreciated by every reader. Every

of

word in these articles carries the weight of the authority of men who are best qualified and best entitled to speak upon these important institutions and achievements of the national Government—who themselves were magna pars in their development. The historical account of the marine hospitals is from the pen Surgeon-General Dr. John B. Hamilton, the head of the service. The clear and full exposition of the workings of the Meteorological Division of the Signal Service was prepared under the supervision of General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal Officer. The succinct but complete expositions of the great fiscal achievements of refunding and resumption have for their author J. K. Upton, the present Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

The “Cyclopædia” is as full as ever of religious information. In EvANGELICAL ALLIANCE the acts of that association are recounted ; in BRAHMO SOMAJ the reform movement among the Brahmans is explained; and a review of each Church is given under the name of the denomination.

The political history and statistical survey of the different nations of the earth are as complete as in former years. The Ferry laws in France, the tariff reform in Germany, and the leading questions and legislative results in other countries are amply discussed. The Nihilistic troubles are recounted and explained in Russia and NIHILISM. The origin and events of the war in Zoolooland are described in CAPE COLONY, and the rise and growth of the Zooloo nation in Zooloos; the history of the South American war is narrated in Bolivia and PERU; of the Afghan war, in AFGHANISTAN and INDIA ; of the Russian expedition into Turkistan, in Russia; of the Burmese horrors, in BURMAH. In EGYPT the developments of the debt question and the deposition of the Khedive are related. The visitation of the plague in Russia is given in Prague, and a description of the Isthmus Canal scheme and of the various plans and routes in INTEROCEANIC CANAL. The newly erected autonomous states in Turkey are described in BULGARIA and EASTERN ROUMELIA, and sketches of their rulers under their names.

This volume is behind none of its predecessors in the department of biography.

The articles on COMMERCE and the commercial statistics presented under the several countries afford a survey of the trade of all nations, and a mass of information upon commerce and industry which can hardly be found elsewhere.

Besides the customary comprehensive scientific articles, there are special ores on the more prominent subjects of recent research and discovery. The article on GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION is more detailed than usual; the portion relating to Arctic discovery is a valuable contribution from the pen of Captain Howgate.

With the unusually profuse illustrations of this volume it is hoped that nowhere will be felt the want of a map, a diagram, or a drawing which would make the text clearer. There are steel portraits of President Grévy of the French Republic, Speaker Randall, and Secretary Sherman. A glance through the index will show that the present volume is not merely a larger, but that it is a fuller book than usual. As indicated above, uncommon pains have been taken to render the “ Annual Cyclopædia,” as far as possible, rounder and more cyclopædic in character.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

А. ABD-EL-KADER (properly SIDI EL-HADJI fore the Sultan had made up his mind what to ABD EL-KADER ULED MAHIDDIN), a distin- do, he had involved. Morocco in a war with guished Arab chief, and one of the most promi- France, which was short and decisive. In the nent representatives of Mohammedanism in the battle of Isly, August 14, 1844, the Moors were nineteenth century; born near Mascara in Al- completely defeated, and, fearing Abd-el-Kageria about 1807, died in Damascus in Novem- der's influence in Morocco, the Sultan conclud. ber, 1879. By á pilgrimage to Mecca, which ed peace with France, and Abd-el-Kader was he made together with his father, who was a again a fugitive. Stirring up revolt in Morocco marabout (Arab seer), as well as by his studies itself, he defeated the troops of the Sultan in at the University of Fez, he gained a reputa- several battles. The power against him was tion for piety and the title el-Hadji, the pil- too strong, however, and on December 21, grim. The conquest of Algeria by the French, 1847, he was forced to enter French territory, however, made of the future priest a warrior. and on the following day surrendered to Gen. Upon the recommendation of his father the eral Lamoricière. The General promised to people elected him Ameer of Mascara, and he send him to Egypt or to Syria, and the Duke soon, by his perseverance, indomitable courage, d'Aumale confirmed this promise. This pledge and patriotism, gained the love and confidence was broken by the Government of Louis Phiof the Kabyles to a high degree. In 1832 and lippe, and he was retained in captivity for 1833 he was engaged in a war with France, many years. President Louis Napoleon, howand, although repeatedly defeated, finally com- ever, released him in 1852, after he had sworn pelled the French to conclude the treaty of on the Koran not to oppose the French rule in February 26, 1834, by which his sovereignty Africa. He then took up his abode in Brussa, was acknowledged, and he was permitted to buy and afterward in Damascus, where he exerted arms in France. He next subjugated the na- himself strongly in favor of the Christians at tive tribes, extending his authority over the the time of the Syrian massacres of 1860, for entire provinces of Titeri and Oran. In the which he received the grand cross of the Lefollowing year he again waged war against the gion of Honor. Louis Napoleon allowed him French, defeating General Trézel on the Mak- å pension of 100,000 francs, which was reduced ta, June 28, 1835, and General d'Arlanges on in 1879. He visited the Paris Exposition and the Tafua, April 25, 1836; and he continued England in 1867, and in 1870 offered his serhis guerrilla struggle with such success that vices to France against Germany. In 1871 the French, who were then contemplating Abd-el-Kader submitted to the Government the capture of Constantine, in order to gain of Thiers some suggestions relative to retime for this undertaking, made another treaty forms in the administration of Algeria. Since with him on May 30, 1837, in which they that time but little has been heard of him. He recognized his authority under the nominal was known to live a retired life in Damascus, sovereignty of France, and by which he was devoting his time to religious duties, the eduintrusted with the administration of the prov. cation of his children, and literary pursuits. inces of Oran, Titeri, and Algeria, with the Though one of the boldest, bravest, and most exception of the capitals and the Metidja of intrepid defenders of decaying MohammedanAlgiers

. In 1839 he renewed the war against ism against the victorious advance of Christian France; but this time the French were more nations, Abd-el-Kader was by no means an saccessful, so that in 1842 he was compelled obstinate opponent of modern civilization, but to seek refuge in Morocco. Abd-er-Raham, showed an eagerness to learn from his victors. the Sultan of Morocco, received him; but, be? Ever since 1852 he was on the best terms with

VOL. XIX.-1 A

France; he became an advocate of the princi- The third expedition, consisting of over 20,000 men, ple of religious toleration, and joined the or- magnificently equipped and provided with a large der of Freemasonry. He did not renounce driven from the land. Soon after the defeat of this

European and American staff, was also defeated and polygamy, but in his retirement at Damascus third Egyptian army, Menelek, King of the Shoa coun: had three wives. Most of his numerous chil- try, broke out into revolt in the south, and was aided dren died before their father, and one of his by King Wold-Mikail in the north. King John hastdaughters became a Christian. A religio-philo- ened to put down these formidable revolts, and in the sophical work, which he wrote in Arabic in country. But now Menelek and Wold-Mikail ara his retirement, was well received, and trans- friends with King John, and have taken wives from lated by Dugat into French under the title his family; and, mark well my words, King John will “Rappel à l'Intelligent, Avis à l'Indifférent" get back the Bogos country (a fertile district on the (Paris, 1858).

north and northwest frontiers of Abyssinia) by fair Special works on Abd-el-Kader have been Who will prevent him? Egypt can not, and King

means or by foul, or he will perish in the attempt published by Laménaire, “ Vie, Aventures, John does not believe that England and France will Combats et Prise d'Abd-el-Kader” (Paris, go to war with him to prevent his taking back from 1848), and Bellemare, “Abd-el-Kader sa Vie Egypt what rightly belongs to him. Politique et Militaire" (Paris, 1863).

King Menelek of Shoa, the southern part of ABYSSINIA,* a country of Eastern Africa, Abyssinia, in August informed the British Anthe boundaries of which continue to be unset- ti-Slavery Society that he had abolished the tled. The area of Abyssinia proper, which slave-trade throughout his dominions. In Dewas formerly said to comprise the three im- cember the relations between Menelek and the portant states of Tigré, Amhara, and Shoa, is King of Abyssinia were reported to be critical, estimated by Behm and Wagner (“Bevölke- because Menelek has failed to pay bis annual rung der Erde," vol. v.) at about 158,000 square tribute. miles; the population is believed to be from ADULTERATION. The Governments of 3,000,000 to 5,000,000. The larger portion Germany, Belgium, and other European counof this country is governed by King John (for- tries have in recent years taken active steps merly known as Prince Kassai), while Shoa is to suppress adulteration and the use of deleunder the government of King Menelek. The terious snbstances, more particularly in foods son of the late King Theodore, Prince Alma or in articles where a direct noxious effect yoo, who after the death of his father was sent upon the public health results. In Great Britto England to receive there a careful education, ain the health authorities are empowered to died at Leeds on November 24, 1879.

suppress the sale of articles of food containing As the King of Abyssinia lays claim to large injurious ingredients. In the differeni Ameriterritories which have of late been annexed to can States special acts have been passed relaEgypt, especially the port of Massowa, the two tive to debased or adulterated food articles. countries have been for years on unfriendly In the State of New York dealers in artificial terms. In 1879 the Government of Egypt sent butter are compelled to label it as such, and Gordon Pasha on a special mission to King strict measures have been taken to put a stop John to settle the pending difficulties peace to the adulteration or reduction of milk. No ably. The King refused to accept the proposi- general laws have been enacted, however, to tions made by Gordon Pasha, and threatened suppress the debasement or falsification of to invade Egypt. (See Egypt.)

commercial commodities, or even of food prod. An Egyptian functionary, Zobir Pasha, who ucts, a kind of fraud to which the larger porwas ruler of Darfoor before the annexation of tion of the mercantile community are themthis country to Egypt, gave in September to an selves unwilling parties. This subject has been American writer the following account of the called to the attention of the public frequently situation of affairs in Abyssinia:

of late by chemists, microscopists, and physi. King John has now reduced to obedience his two cians; but the deadly effects of some of the vassal kings, Menelek and Wold-Mikail. The King materials from wbich articles of daily use are knows well that by order of the Sultan at Constanti- manufactured, and the extent to which the nople the Egyptian army is reduced to 18,000 men. The King knows also that Gordon Pasha has left Cairo is carried on, according to the testimony of

adulteration of foods, beverages, and medicines with papers from England and France forbidding Abyssinia to make war with Egypt. But will not expert analysts, is bardly conceived of by the England and France also prevent Egypt from going general public. Dr. Kedzie, President of the to war with Abyssinia ? Munzinger Pasha stole for State Board of Health of Michigan, has offiEgypt the country of the Bogos. King John then cially warned the people of that State of two took back by force a part of this territory. Ismail Pasha then sent three expeditions against Abyssinia. very dangerous sources of disease and death in The first, commanded by Munzinger Pasha and con

the reckless employment of poisonous mate"sisting of 2,000 men, was annihilated by King John, rials in manufactures-arsenic to color walland Munzinger himself killed. The second, consist papers

and to dye clothing materials, and lead ing of 1,800 men, shared a like fate, and its command in the sheet-tin of which cheap cooking vessels er, Colonel Arendrup, was killed, together with Count Zichy and Arakel Bey, the son-in-law of Nubar Pasha. are made. In the report of the Canadian Com

missioners of Inland Revenue for 1877 it is See “ Annual Cyclopædia” of 1877, art. ABYSSINIA. On the stated that out of 180 specimens of groceries former history of King Jobo, see "Annual Cyclopædia" of 1678 and 1876.

93 were found by analysis to be adulterated.

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