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and thence prove that the perimeter of an isos- | The method which I have nsually adopted for celes, &c. (Exercise, No. 91.)
ohtaining skeletons of leaves has been to macerate 9. In any right-angled triangle, the square, &c. them in water, until decomposition has proceeded ( Euclid I. 47.)
to a sufficient extent; after which, to separate 10. The area of any two parallelograms, &c. and cleanse them by means of a small syringe (Exercise, No. 122.)--B. S.
and camel hair pencil.--J, W.S., Scarbro'. 253. A Scripture Query.-I think if “ Paul In answer to the question by W. S., Liverpool, Pry's" industry was equal to his “insatiable I copy the following from a "History of Invencuriosity, he would have searched the scriptures tions, Discoveries, and Origins,” by John Beckfor himself; which, to one of his prying nature, mann, translated from the German by William and apparently religious taste, would not have Johnston: -“The preparation is exceedingly been a very arduous task. The word he inquires simple, but tedious, and can only be well effected about is "fruit."-W. L.
by maceration in water, which frequently requires 253, I have no doubt that the word alluded to to be considerably prolonged. The pulpy halfby the author from whom “ Paul Pry" quotes, is decomposed portions are gradually removed by the Greek verb karapzéw, which is thus defined a camel bair pencil, or other means, with great in Liddell and Scott's Large Lexicon :-“katap delicacy and care; they are finally washed and géw, fut., now, to leave unemployed or idle ....; bleached, if necessary, with chloride of lime or k. tnv gnu, to make the ground barren, N.T. 11., soda. By washing in considerably diluted muriatic to make useless, void, abolish, N. T.; hence also, acid and water, all traces of this re-agent are reto set free, tevie úró Tivos, N. T.” The letters moved; they are then dried, and will keep for an N. T. refer to the New Testament, so that it indefinite period."—H. S. would appear that the use of the word in the W. S., Liverpool, inquires for the quickest and senses in which it is employed by Luke and Paul safest way to obtain perfect skeletons of plants. are peculiar to those writers. As P. P's. ques. By his attending to the following instructions, tion has been deemed worth a place in the "In. he will obtain perfect specimens:quirer," it may, perhaps, be worth while to record, Put leaves of a substantial and tough nature, for the benefit of the “ insatiably curious," the having woody fibres, such as the oak, apple, iry, passages in which the word occurs. I have been poplar, &c., avoiding those out fibres, into an able to trace twenty-three out of the twenty-six earthen or glass vessel, pour a quantity of rain usages of this word, and any reader who is water over them, aud expose them to the action possessed of or bas access to a Greek concoril of the air and the heat of the sun, adding addiance will be able to supply the three omissions. tional rain water, to make up for the evaporation, As being more interesting and intelligible to the so as to have the leaves always submerged. After generality of readers, I insert the translations they have remained in this state for about eight given in our bibles, instead of the various iuflec. weeks or more, they will be ready for cleansing, tions, moods, tenses, &c., of the original Greek To do this, put the leat on a flat earthen plate, word.
and the leaf being gently squeezed with the Luke xiii. 7, cumbereth it.
finger will cause the membranes to open, and the 1. Rom. iii. 3, make without effect. green substance to come out at the edges. The 2. Rom. iii. 31, do we make void.
membranes require to be taken off very carefully, 3. Rom. iv. 14, made of none effect. and great cantion must be used in separating 4. Rom, vi. 6, might be destroyed.
them near the middle ribs. When this operation 5. Rom. vii. 2, she is loosed.
is completed, the leaves must be washed and 6. Rom. vii. 6, we are delivered.
bleached, which is done by placing them, in a 7. I Cor. vi. 13, shall destroy.
damp state, in a close box, along with a little 8. 1 Cor. xiii. 8, they shall fail.
brimstone, burning in a pan or ladle. In about 9.
it shall vanish away. an hour they will become very white, when they 10. I Cor. xiii. 10, shall be done away.
may be taken out and laid on paper, to show the 11. I Cor. xiii. 11, I put away.
beauty of the fibres. There will be no success, if 12. 1 Cor. xv. 26, shall be destroyed.
the water is often changed. The more leaves 13. 2 Cor. iii. 7, was to be done audy. done at one time the better. 14. 2 Cor. iii. 11, is done away.
It may be interesting to W. S., and other read. 15. 2 Cor. iji. 13, is abolished.
ers of the Controversialist, to be informed how 16, 2 Cor. iii. 14, is done away.
to obtain skeletons of fruit. 17. Gal. iii. 17, make of none effect.
Take, for example, a fine large pear, which is 18. Gal. v. 4, is become of no effect. soft; let it be neatly pared, without being squeezed, 19. Gal. v. 11, is ceased.
und without injuring either the crown or the 20. Ephes. ii. 15, having abolished.
slalk; put it in a pot of rain water, cover it, set 21. 2 Thess. ii. 8, shall destroy.
over the fire, and boil it gently till it is very soft. 22. 2 Tim. i. 10, huth abolished.
Then take it out, and lay it in a dish filled with cold 23. Heb. ii. 14, he might destroy:
water, and, holding it in one hand by the stalk, The above list forms a striking illustration of the rub off as much pulp as you can with the finger very opposite character of the two finest lan. anil thumb, beginning at the stalk, and rubbing guages of man-those of ancient Greece and regularly towards the crown. The fibres are modern Britain. In the one, three and twenty most tender towards the extremes, and therefore different meanings are expressed by as many in these directions require greater care. Any inflections of one word; in the other, by a series pulp now sticking to the core may be removed by of short sentences. I fear that Paul Pry will not the point of a fine pocket-knife. 'In order to see be able to make much out of his “ latch-key."- how the operation advances, clear water should B.S.
be substituted as it becomes impure.-J. B., 254. How to obtain Skeletons of Leares.- Glasgow.
256. The Meaning of Names.- According to presented to be of German origin, and to mean one of the many fables of early British history, respectively "rich lord," and“ defending many." Brutus, the great grandson of the Trojan wan. Any reader skilled in the German language will derer, Æneas, led by divine oracles, landed at be enabled to give us an opinion as to the proTotness, in Devonshire, and finding our island, bability of these derivations; for myself, I am, " not yet Britain, but Albion," tenanted only by unfortunately, iguorant of that noble language.' a few giants, he destroyed them, and divided the -B. S. land between his followers. “After this, Brutus, The meaning of the word “ Henry" is “a rich in a chosen place, builds Troja Nova, changed in lord;" it comes from the German. “William," time to Trinovantuin, now London; Eli being “defending many;" also from the German. “Lonthen high priest in Judæa." Many ages alter- don"- there appears to be very different opinwards, a king named Lud came to the British ions about the derivation of the word. Some throne. “Lud was he who enlarged and walled | think it is from Lud and Ton, a town (Saxon), about Trinovant; there kept his court, made it q.d., King Lud's Town, by whom it is said to the prime city, and called it, from his own name, have been built. Others, from Liong, ships, and Caer-Lud, or Lud's Town, now London. Dinas, a city ; q.d., a ship-city. Others, Llawn, He was, saith Huntingdon, buried by the gate, populous, and Dinas, a city (Welsh); q.d., a which, from thence, we call Ludgate. Note.- populous city:-Joseph. Verstegan denies this, and says it was called so “Henry is derived from the German, and by the Saxons, from Lud, in our ancient lan- signifies rich lord. “ William " is also of Ger. guage' people' and 'gate,' quasi porta populi..." man derivation, meaning defender of many. The above quotations as to the origin of the “ This name," says Verstegan, the distinguished name “London are taken from the first book of French antiquary," was not given anciently to Miltou's “ History of Britain," which contains a children, but was a title of dignity imposed upon most interesting digest of the fables and traditions men from a regard to merit. When a German of ancient “Albion." This work, I believe, is had killed a Roman, the golden helmet of the but little known by the generality of readers, but Roman was placed upon his head, and the soldier is, I think, not unworthy of its immortal author. was honoured with the title of Gildhelm, or golden It extends from the first traditional beginning" helmet, and was hailed as a defender.” Wilhelm to the battle of Hastings. I see that in the dic is the present form of the German William.tionaries the names Henry and William are re- GROSVENOR.
The Vaung student and Writer's Assistant.
GRAMMAR CLASS. Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division contained in the June No. for 1854. Page 236.
Him whom angels worship,
Wrapt in swaddling bands;
Upon his virgin mother's knees.
MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXV.
MATHEMATICAL CLASS. On the twentieth of next September, I shall have been at my place twelve months.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.-IV. I purpose visiting Edinburgh in a few days, and, after I have finished my business there, to
115 730 9 5039200000*
36.678 37. 1913337. 38. proceed to Glasgow
à 39.3121; 1634. It would have given me great pleasure to have
(b) 40. 38., 53., 7s. 41. 22, 7, 12 gals. 42. 300, seen him prosecute his studies with success.
350. 43, 160, 150. 44. 14, 17. We have done no more than it was our duty to
(c) 45. 280.112 feet. 46. 30.6305. 47.39.92437. do.
48. 394 feet. The man would have assisted one of his friends, if he could have done it without injuring the other; but as that could not be done, he avoided
QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-V. all interference.
(a) 49. A. sells to B. ; of} off of 30 sheep, for Was it not to be expected that the son would it or not of of £210; what was the average price defend the character of his father?
of each sheep? Joh said, “Man is of few days, and full of 50. If 3 lbs. of tea be worth 4 lbs. of coffee, and trouble."
6 lbs. of coffee be worth 20 lbs. of sugar, how It was, indeed, pleasing to receive the approba- many lbs. of sugar can be had for 9 lbs. of tea ? tion of such a person. It would certainly have 51. Divide £16 Os. 10d. among four persons, in afforded me greater pleasure to have received his the proportion of the following fractions,-1, j, approbation at an earlier period; but to receive it 1, . at all reflected credit on me.
52. A straight plank is 3; inches thick and 64 Amazement fills my soul,
inches broad; what length must be cut off so as And mystery absorbs my mind, . to contain 6 cubic feet of timber? To see the mighty God,
53. There is a number which, when divided by The mangered babe,
of of l, will produce l; find its square. Him who of days the Ancient is,
(0) 54. T'hree chickens and 1 duck sold for as An infant now become;
much as 2 geese; and 1 chicken, 2 ducks, and 3
geese were sold together for 258. Find the price of each, that of a goose being a fourth as much again as that of a duck.
55. What was the total amount of a person's debts, who, when he had paid a half, and then a third, and then a twelfth of them, had still 15 guineas to pay?
56. A workman is engaged for 28 days at 2s.6d. a day, but instead of receiving anything is to pay 1s. a day on all days upon which he is idle; he receives altogether £2 12s. 6d.; for how many idle days did he pay?
57. A man travelled 60 miles. If he had gone a mile an hour faster he would have taken three hours less for the journey. How fast did he travel ?
(c) 58. What is the area of a segment, greater than a semicircle, whose height is 66 feet, and the chord of the whole arc 60 feet 10 inches ?
59. The chord is 65, and versed sine, 15; what is the area of the segment?
60. Required the area of an ellipse whose two axes are 70 and 50.
61. Find the area of a parabola, the height being 2 and the base 12.
62. Required the area of the parabola whose height is ten, and its base 16.
EXERCISE No. XV.
2. The inland counties,
6. The names and locality of the principal manufacturing districts ?
7. The number of towns containing above 20,000 inhabitants ?
8. Above 2,000,000?–Name it.
LOGIC CLASS. Perform the Exercise on the Art of Reason ing," No. 4., in the May No., 1851, Vol. II.
PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS.
The Burieties” sertion.
REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES. Glasgow (Dundas Street) Young Men's Mutual through difficulties, but was now in a fair way of Improvement Society.-A few young men, wish- improvement; and he urged the propriety of the iug to aid each other in mutual improvement, young men of the late“ Wardlaw's" church joinhave formed the above society. The first annual ing the ranks for their own advantage. Mr. supper was held lately at Graham's Restaurant, Shaw read an essay on “Money," which did him Queen-street. The chair was ably filled by Mr. great credit. Other essays were read by young James Ken, who read an excellent address on men, as deputations from other churches; and
Duty." The secretary, Mr. Mallinson, then at intervals the audience were enlivened by some read his report, which showed the finances to be anthems, which were well sung. We would advise in a prosperous condition. Mr. H. F. Colquhoun, the other young men of this church to join the the croupier, then gave a spirited address on Wardlaw Literary Society, and thus improve Sociality." Addresses were delivered by Mr, themselves in composition and public speaking. McCoard, on “Wit and Wisdom;” Mr. Craigie, Liverpool Franklin Mutual Improvement on “Mutual Improvement Societies :" Mr. Bowie, Society.-The first annual soirée of this society on“ Language," and Mr. Smart, on the “Progress was held in Hope Hall, Hope-street, on Wednesday of the Age." Songs and recitations enlivened the evening, January 10th, 1855. After tea, the chair intervals. Essays are read every alternate week, was taken by Mr. Alex. Dewar, who, after a few while every week there is a debate. Most of the preliminary remarks, called upon Mr. Ellison, members are subscribers to the British Contro secretary, to read the report, from which it apversialist.-J. E. M., Secretary.
peared that in October, 1853, a few young men Glasgow “Wardlaw" Young Men's Literary met to consider how they might instruct and Association.—The members and friends of this improve each other, when it was agreed to form society recently held their second annual social themselves into a mutnal improvement society. meeting in the hall, 37, Renfrew-street.
Ru were drawn up and adopted, and the society were no clergymen present; the chairman, George consisted of ten members. Their first place of Thompson, Esq., had around him on the platform meeting was in Mr. Dewar's shop, 35, Dale-street, a group of very promising young laymen. The with which they were kindly favoured after busiproceedings commenced by discussing the tea, ness hours, and in this they continued to meet and we may mention that at a late stage of the for about five months, when they numbered fifteen. meeting a service of fruit was introduced. The They then obtained a more central and convenient chairman, after a few appropriate remarks, called room, when they improved their rules, and chose on the secretary to report the present state and their present designation. Since the commence. prospects of the society, which he briefly and ap- ment, not fewer than thirty-five papers have been propriately did, showing that it had struggled read, comprising essays in different branches of knowledge and literature. The following ques- voyage on the deep blue sea, is heedless of the tions have also been discussed :-Had England fearful storm that may wreck his bark. We all any right to interfere in the Quarrel between know that youth is a season of especial danger; Turkey and Russia?-Which is the most bene- many a promising young man of brilliant mental ficial for a Young Man to study, Mathematics or attainments, and heart of finest feeling, has been Languages ?- Which is the most berseficial for hurled from the pedestal on which he was firmly the State to possess, a Limited Monarchy or a planting his feet; many a flower of beauteous Republic ?- Is the present system of Governing bue has been vipped by the chilling frost, even Ireland the most beneficial for the People of before it has displayed all its wealth of glory, and Ireland ?-Is the use of Tobacco beneficial?-Is both mind and beauty have fallen a prey to the the moderate use of Intoxicating Liquors or Total numerous evils of youthful life. One of our carAbstinence from them the most beneficial ?- dinal objects is to save from a life so degrading Ougbt the Church and State to be united?- Is and an end so calamitous. But another of our War beneficial, right, or necessary ? &c. After the objects is to impart positive good. We adopt, as report had been read, the chairman called upon one article of our creed, the declaration that for the following gentlemen respectively to address the “soul to be without knowledge, is not good.” the meeting on the following subjects :--Mr. We know that “knowledge is power ;" at the Hughes, on “Mutual Improvement Societies;" same time we have heard that“ a little is a danMr. Watts,
“What Makes the Man;" Mr. Warm- gerous thing." By the quality as well as the by,“ How we Live;" Mr. Hawthorn, “ The In- quantity of the information imparted we strive to fuence of Social Gatherings;" and Mr. Moffit avoid the evils, and to grasp the lever of mental on “The Ladies ;" after which a vote of thanks power. The position we now occupy may be was returned to the chairman and secretary, and thus described. There are a few things we do the meeting broke up by singing the National know, more that we do but know imperfectly, Anthem.
and a many more of which we know nothing at Retford Mutual Improvement Society.-The all. Our aim is to become more thoroughly confirst annual soirée of this society was held on versant with those things we already know, to Thursday, February 1st, in the Town Hall, which increase our acquaintance with those things we was brilliantly illuminated and tastefully deco- do but know imperfectly, and to bring within the rated with a profusion of flowers and evergreens. range of our observation and reflection those The entertainment of the evening was greatly things of wbich we have hitherto known nothing. enhanced by the performances of several amateur Our object is to unlock the treasures of science, to vocalists of local celebrity (who gave their services explore the fields of literature, to trace the propratuitously), under the management of G. Dixon, gress of nations; in fact, to shed an electric light Esq., B.M., Oxon, who presided at the pianoforte. upon our mental being. Our aim is to freight Upwards of 400 members and friends sat down to the vessel with treasure ere she finally sets sail tea, after which the president (the Rev. A. Brook) on the troublous ocean of active life. We do not took the chair, and expressed the extreme gratifi- for a moment suppose that all this will be accomcation he felt in seeing the society's first annual plished without efort-effort long.continued and meeting attended by so large and influential a por- untiring. “Truth lies at the bottom of the well.” tion of his townspeople; and he could also refer The descent may be deep and perilous, but with with pleasure to their weekly meetings, from steady eye and self-reliant heart we shall eventwhich much good had already resulted. Mr. ually succeed, and clasp the precious jewel to our Tirrel, the hon. secretary, read the report, which breast. We remember that the pathway of knowstated that the society was one of the first-fruits ledge is oftentimes rugged and steep, and the of the extension of the early closing movement,
ascent difficult and toilsome; but, impelled by the and might be said to date its origin from the 28th glorious prospect obtainable, we reach some lofty of June last, a meeting being held that evening plateau, and gaze with wondrous emotion upon for the purpose of organizing “a Mutual Im- the landscape filled with beauty presented to our provement Society," at which eleven young men view. We are miners; with single aim and untiring attended, and enrolled their names as members, search we prosecute our enterprise, regardless of a number which had since increased to seventy- the privations we may have to undergo, until at one. Eighteen original essays had been read by length our object is attairied, and we secure the the members of the society. Classes had been pure gold of knowledge. We are soldiers in this formed for the study of mathematics, geography, holy war; we are crusaders : our battle-cry is, and phonography. After dwelling upon the great “No quarter to ignorance." We have just entered advantages the society offered to yonng men, the upon our campaign, with perfect discipline and hope was expressed that they would be appre. steady courage; the "glorious line of red that ciated by them, and lead to a large accession of never yields" will fearlessly encounter the foe. members. Mr. John Plant (vice-president), after The Rev. H. C. Mitchinson referred to and anmaking a few preliminary observations, said swered the objections some had to such societies, Our objects and aims may be divided into two as tending to foster int lectual pride, and to sap classes : first, we seek to protect from evil; and, the foundations of religious belief. The Rev. secondly, to impart positive good. We are aware Arthur Brook (brother of the president) expatiated of the dangers that beset the pathway of youth, at length on the influence of mutual improvement the gilded form that pleasure takes; and, per- societies in the formation of opinjon. He strongly chance, the glorious sunlight that usually falls adverted to the too common habit of adopting upon that pathway, may so dazzle the eye of the opinions without proper inquiry. Mr. Councillor unsuspecting traveller, that he may fail to per- Wilkinson said these societies would improve the ceive the snares and pitfalls that intersect the social condition of the people, and tend to qualify way: The young man may be fitly compared to the young men of the present day for positions an inexperienced mariner, who, taking his first of honour and distinction; they would teach them
to speak in public with ease and fluency. Dr. English grammar. The first speaker, Mr. James Channing had observed that speech was the grand Sugden, spoke on the “Claims of the Society." distinction of man over the brute, and the facility The Rev. W. Walters addressed the meeting on of giving a free, graceful, and forcible expression “ Habit;" showing that to be able to perform the to ideas and opinions was considered a mark of necessary duties or life, good habits must be acsuperiority, and distinguished one man from quired, and evil ones avoided. William Brook, another. This acquirement was desirable for all Èsq., gave a description of the “ Banetul Indu. the purposes of domestic, social, and public life. ences of Opium Eating, and Immoderate Drink. It qualified a man for conversation, debate, and ing;" revertiug in his address to the immortal oratory, and into whatever sphere of life or action Coleridge and his son, the father falling a prey to he might be called, it would enable him to act the former evil, and the son to the latter. The his part with influence and power. As regarded Rev. W. Tatlock spoke on the “Advantages of the the effect of these societies on the political con. Present Age compared with Preceding Ones." dition of the people, he expected great results. Mr. John Sugden spoke on the “Individual and There was one subject which he would press upon Social Advantages of Mental Culture;" Mr. S. the notice of the young men who were present. Wimpenny on the “ Pleasures of Education." However careful they might be in the formation After the usual complimentary votes of thanks of opinion and the composition of their speeches, to chairman, ladies, and others, the meeting con and however varied their attainments of know- cluded in a very joyous manner. ledge, all would be comparatively useless for Walthamstow Mutual Improvement Society.public purposes without the habit of self-posses. The fifth annual meeting of this society was sion. They might link thought to thought, idea recently held in the Lecture Room, Wood-street. tu idea, word to word, picture to picture, illus. About six o'clock, the friends assembled partook tration to illustration, fact to fact, and argument of tea ; after which, the chair was taken by Ebeto argument, with the nicest precision and logical nezer Clarke, Esq., who, in opening the meetaccuracy, but if their nervous system should ing, warmly congratulated the members on the happen to be disturbed or shaken by the presence cordiality of feeling existing among them, and of a numerous audience, the composition, with all the apparent prosperity of the society. The its beauties, would be useless. They might de- secretary stated that the members had met and pend upon it that self-command was indispen. transacted the annual business, so that the presable to a public speaker. Mr. Hawkesley Hall sent meeting might be the more of a festive and Mr. Wager also addressed the meeting. After character; and announced a syllabus of lecthe usual complimentary votes, the proceedings tures and debates to be delivered during the were brought to a close by the singing of the ensuing quarter. The remainder of the evening National Anthem. We are happy to learn that was spent in the delivery of addresses and recisince the meeting thirty-two members have been tations, and in the singing of glees, and other added to the society.
pieces suited to the occasion. Mr. T. W. Talbot Stainland Mutual Improvement Society.-On recited “Serjeant Buzfuz' address to the Jury, Tuesday, February 20th, the annual festival in ou the Trial of Bardell and Pickwick,"“Patience," connection with this society was held in the Wes- &c. Mr. Wilkins recited“ Hallowed Ground," leyan schoolroom, which was kindly lent for the and “Pairing Time Anticipated." Recitations occasion. In the afternoon, an excellent tea was and addresses were also given by Messrs. W.E. provided, of which about 270 persons partook. Whittingham, Rowbotham, Caparn, and others. After tea, the audience, which had then greatly Among the pieces sung by the choir, which gave increased, was presided over by the Rev. John great satisfaction, were “ Evening,” and “ Spring's Eglinton, Wesieyan, and addressed by the Rev. Delights." Mr. Edward Nottingham sang, “ Look W. Walters, Baptist; the Rev. W. Tatlock, Incum- Always on the Sunny Side," in which he was bent of Barkisland; the Rev. W. S. Ball, Congre- unanimously encored. The chairman, in acknowgationalist; Samuel Wimpenny, Esq., of Holm- ledging a vole of thanks, expressed his confident firth;
Mr. John Sugden, of Oakworth, and Wilo belief that meetings of the character of the preliam Brook, Esq.; and Mr. James Sugden, of sent were well adapted to keep up the vitality Stainland. The report, read by the secretary, of the society, and promote its objects. The stated that the society was in a very favourable National Anthem was then sung, and the meeting position. The library contains upwards of 200 broke up, being one of the pleasantest meetings, volumes. The classes meet three nights a week, and the most numerously attended, of any che for reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and society has held.-W. B. W.
LIST OF NEW BOOKS,
ON EDUCATIONAL, LITERARY, AND SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS. Arthur's (T. S.) Advice to Young Ladies, Is. 6d. Black's (C.) Pathology of the Bronchio Pulmo. Bailey on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, 8s. nary Mucous Membrane, Part 2, 3s. 6d. Barker's (W. B.) Short Historical Account of the Bohn's Brit. Clas., “ Addison's Works, by Hurd, Crimea, 3s. 6d.
vol. 4.," 3s. 6d. Bell's English Poets, "Thomson, vols. 2 and 3,"
“De Foe's Novels, &c., vol. 4," 2s, 6d.