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cussed purely and simply as “protection to screen to the corrupter, and an efficient mask the voter,” its general desirability would be to the corrupted. undecided, because it is possible to grant If “Irene's” notion, that the franchise is that the Ballot might be a protection to the not a “high and sacred trust,” rest solely voter, and, at the same time, the fruitful upon the fact that a young Tory lawyer said source of evils far outweighing its advan- it was, he has a singular and slender basis tages. The question, as it now stands, is for his opinion. As to constitutional definibroad in its significance, and to allow “his tion, what can he expect, when the law right,” would be to ignore all but one phase recognizes political power in one voter alone of it." Irene” graphically paints the various out of thirty individuals. The high and evils which affect our body politic in the sacred trust is essentially of a moral nature, stirring times of elections; and with him we —but not legal. If a spirit of patriotism is deplore their existence. But when he tells not evoked by electoral responsibility, better us that the Ballot would check them all, we that political power had never existed! need only offer to such pseudo arguments A high authority says, “Scarcely is any the trite reply, “assertion is no proof.” great virtue practised without some sacri
The popular belief is that the Ballot fice.” The Ballotists are a set of men glowwould check these disorders; but the popular ing with the love of England, and the love belief takes but little cognizance of the of virtue, but determined to hazard the most objectionable principles involved in the Bal- dangerous experiment in politics rather than lot, and the popular belief is a theory not run the risk of losing a penny in defence of yet experimentally put to the test, and must their exalted feelings. A brief answer might necessarily rest on vague and shadowy sup- be given to the interrogations of " Irene," positions. When such men as Lord John who asks, who confers this trust on the Russell and Macaulay oppose the introduction voter, &c., &c.?—His country! of the Ballot from conscientious scruples, The temporary possession of so much brick -men who have striven hard for a lifetime and mortar gives a man this precious privito develope and consolidate our constitutional tege, as “Irene" says. But is not the man liberties, we must be cautious how we join who owns these material comforts more likely in a popular clamour, before taking a com- to feel an interest in the welfare of the state prehensive view of this many-sided ques- than the man who has not such a stake in tion.
its destinies. It is but justice to our oppo“ Irene” says, the energies of our legislators nent to state that, while his patriotism seems have often been directed against electoral in an ague fit, starved and shivering, he is a vices; but if they had applied the remedy fair discusser, and a forcible and lucid writer. of equal electoral districts, and extended The negative side of the Ballot question suffrages, their penal enactments against would suffer no damage were we to pass by bribery and corruption would have been un- in silence the affirmative article of J. G. R, necessary.
but as that self-sufficient gentleman has The M.P.'s who represent two hundred condescended to assail our argument by the borough-mongers, will buy, cajole, and cor- same curious mode as certain old ladies of rupt in spite of the Ballot, or any such ma strong feeling but weak logic are wont to do, chinery to prevent them, since it is well who, in defence of their favourite belief, ply known there is no lack of gentlemen willing the castigating rod with unmerciful severity to pay a few thousand pounds for senatorial upon their unfortunate adversaries, instead honours. "Sharp electioneering agents” of attempting to refute the arguments and would know the unbiassed political sympa- upset the reasoning of the assailer. thies of every individual voter; they would We will give our pugnacious friend credit also know the exact quantum which would for the warmth and sincerity of his feeling disturb that bias of the corruptible portion. upon the Ballot, and grant him the same Supposing three-fourths of them to be men claim which the antique dames always have of stern principle and decided honesty, equally upon our urbanity and moderation. But it divided in their political faith,—the remain would be cowardly to let this tirade of ining fifty would be bought, driven to the vectives appear upon these pages without hustings, and the Ballot would be a useful some attempt at self-justification.
In the lengthy extract from Jeremy Ben-, is consoling to know that J. G. R. will never tham, standing at the head of his article in seek my services, for I think they would all its solitary magnificence, we see about as fail to place his article in a favourable light, much connection between it and his subject- and redeem it from its chaos of absurdities. matter as we should between a grenadier's While sincerely hoping, in the spirit of huhat upon a gate-post - both looking very mility and painful compunction, that the ornamental, but not at all appropriate. majority of men are not " so bad as myself,"
J. G. R. hopes that “I may atone for the contrary to J. G. R.'s expectations, I trust I little credit attached to human nature;" but shall not be puffed up by the uncharitable how can an individual atone for an opinion system of putting other men down. he sincerely believes ? I certainly cannot Thanks for the little breathing space attach more credit than formerly to human J. G. R. grants us in admitting that the nature, after reading the lucubrations of our Ballot is “un-English.” It may also be friend, but receive, however reluctantly, an true that “bribery, intimidation, &c., are impulse in an opposite tendency.
un-English;” but it does not follow that by As J. G. R. offers some severe reflections grafting an un-English remedy upon an unon the offending “Gray," on the score of English vice, you get naturalized fruits. In principle and morality, the more honourable chemical science one poison is an antidote to course would have been to have informed us another, but the facts of chemistry are not from what source he has derived his inform- suitable to illustrate political and moral ation—whether it was from the revelations science. Our opponent asks, “Why, on the of a spirit-rapper, or the discoveries of clair- same score, do we not object to Masonic voyance.
lodges, and other societies adopting the Bal-. J. G. R. completely misinterprets the lot?” Surely, he does not wish to draw a meaning of the remarks he quotes; they parallel between such organizations and the are defined philosophical facts, based upon representative institutions of our country ;the well known frailties of human nature. anything more dissimilar could not be comNo one would attempt to deny them as such, pared. A number of individuals, co-operaand even J. G. R. tacitly admits them to be ting for a specific purpose, personal and abstract cases.
That they were intended to private, from the clubs in Pall Mall to the represent the general character of English · free and easy” in the shabby parlour of our electors, is a supposition which could not village inn, have a perfect right to adopt any have entered the imagination of a reasoner expedient they choose to screen themselves with the acumen our opponent possesses- from the personal malevolence of those who though we do not estimate that very highly, are frustrated in the attempt to force themwhen he admits his total incapacity to com- selves into membership. These societies have prehend how an honest man can take a no functional or recognized influence in the bribe, and then act as an honest man alone public weal; they are merely a union of would, in accordance with the wishes of the individuals, beginning and ending with those briber. Would not the man be a consum- for personal objects. The national choice of mate rogue, to receive a bribe, and act con- representatives to form a governing power trary to the stipulations agreed upon? As must be seen and known of all men. They to the turpitude attached to the bare fact of must be men of avowed principles, requiring taking a bribe, it depends entirely upon the no Ballot to screen them from the inconabsence or presence of conscientious scruples venience of an open declaration. Your regarding the object for which he is bribed. elector, whose endorsing vote manufactures Nine-tenths of our lawyers and barristers the simple candidate into a M.P., requires are daily taking bribes, in the shape of fees, no Ballot to screen bim in the profession of as a compensation for assistance rendered to his principles; then why should he resort to their clients.
And if we stigmatize the the Ballot, when he gives the only proof the whole of the lawyers who take fees, and the world can have that he honestly acts up to whole of the public who pay them, as dis. his opinions? If a M.P. is in total ignohonest individuals, we should need, like the rance (which he would be under the Ballot) old Grecian, a candle and lantern to find out of the portion of his constituency that voted an honest man in this land of litigation. It for him, how could he meet their general wishes, or shift his course in accordance erroneous. An impartial observer might with their desires ? It would be in vain for justly remark, that perhaps “Gray” was them to remonstrate, as he could have no erroneous in his deductions, though not means of knowing that the remonstrances guilty of the conceit of erecting a superand supporting votes came from the same structure without a foundation. parties; his political foes might sanction, We could have spared our worthy oppoand his friends might censure, his proceed- nent from the painful sense of duty which ings; and he might take the cue from the prompted his apologetic regrets. We can wrong quarter, much to the satisfaction of assure him (doubtless to his relief) that his the genius of misrule, who would always "condemnatory terms” fell quite harmless, find plenty of sport in an election by Ballot. and that we never for one moment made the
If this were a colloquial debate we would egregious blunder of mistaking his bark for ask our friend what he means by "the Bill”? a bite. Is “the Bill ” one of his own pet schemes, He falls into a lamentable error when he or that of some of bis quondam school- states that logic does not sanction the applifriends? Is it something supplementary to cation of abstract cases to universal ones: the simple proposition of the Ballot, or is it had he been familiar with the rudiments of a compromise between the Ballot and no logical science, he would not have hazarded Ballot? Before we can discuss the merits such a remark. Why, it is the very backof “the Bill,” we must be made acquainted bone of all logic and deductive reasoning, with its provisions, and to do that we should the starting point of the Baconian system, trench upon the patience of our Editor, who, and the principle which Whateley so laborias master of the ceremonies, is perfectly ously developes, and separates from more justified in preventing the debate from de- ambiguous methods. generating into a mere party squabble. It would be very uncourteous to leave
The appeal to our sympathies and affec- J. G. R.'s parting words unresponded to; he tions, is a species of reasoning which J. G. R. does not leave us with a blessing, but with speers at. It is not made use of because a wish, which is nearly as good, and a argument fails, because it naturally belongs little advice, which is much better. Let to a higher order of volition than mere argu- me in return recommend him in future to ment. The best authorities which the content himself with a refutation of his opancient or the modern era produced as per- ponent's argument-never imputing personai suaders, offer conclusive testimony to the motives, and leaving individual morality an fact that this species of rhetoric did not arise open question. The use of such weapons from the poverty of argument, but formed might provoke wrath in an old and skilful a climax, where all argument converged to assailant, while they only excite ridicule in a focus, animated by the glow of lofty feel the mind of a novice. ing and exalted thought. The orations The position upon which we take our of Demosthenes and Cato, Chatham or stand is, that the Ballot would be productive Brougham, would have been “as unrefresh- of greater evils than it could possibly cure: ing as the mist wind which whistles through it would engender a universal mistrust; no the withered leaves of autumn,” deprived of man's word could be relied upon; political their appeals to passion and sympathy. opinions would masquerade under every form, History proves that senates were ruled by as changeable and captious as the Italian these rhetoricians, and before their impas- maskers at the carnival; the voter's desioned words nations bent, throbbing with the claration would be as worthless as the declapulsations of their thought, and waiting for mation of a mountebank. “If the Ballot be its impulse and guidance.
established, a zealous voter cannot do justice When J. G. R. speaks of statements being to his cause; there will be so many false "gratuitous assertions,” he is bound to prove Hampdens, and spurious Catoes, that all that his own counter opinions are better men's actions and motives will be mistrued."* founded, by laying before the reader the pre- All men would be the objects of suspicion, mise from which he derived his conclusions. An argument is never disproved by calling
* This and some following extracts are from it a gratuitous assertion, and pronouncing it Sydney Smith's anti-Ballot Essay.
and all men would suspect; instead of find- unsubstantial as those upon which despotism ing honest bold politicians we should roam rests. through a world of political ghosts, After all, the Ballot would not shelter a shadowy region, as full of gin-traps and voter from the personal influence which a snares as the valley which Bunyan saw in man of popular manner and wealth had upon his dream. As it would be impossible to his constituency; and to vote from gratitude, know what men really thought, how could or mere personal affection, is as bad as to public opinion be fostered ? The clapping vote from intimidation; because a man ought hands, and the loud huzzas, would be as to vote for political principles alone. delusive as the mirage. A healthy public The peculiar hardships to which the opinion could hardly be formed under such tenant-farmer is exposed, when his principles a system; the natural guides and leaders of differ from those of his landlord, is often the people could make but little headway urged as a weighty argument why we should against the cross current of human purposes, adopt the protection of the Ballot. In reply and the ambiguity of human actions. A we can state that the class of bigoted land race of empirics would flourish-men who proprietors is fast diminishing. But where could suit the spirit of the age by flattering that remnant of feudal spirit still maintains all its sportive and erratic phases. Is not its ascendancy in the baronial hall or the public feeling created by the torch being manor house, it is impossible that the Ballot lighted up first in the souls of genius, who could check the evil by sealing up the eyes add consistency to their zeal? But, under of the proprietor against the act of the occuthe Ballot, suspicion would occasionally gather pier. “The single lie on the hustings would to a storm, and break on the head of some not suffice; the concealed democrat who voted unfortunate wight, as unmerited as the against his landlord must talk to the wrong mob outrages upon the corn dealers, in those people, subscribe to the wrong club, huzza days when Adam Smith was still a school at the wrong dinner, break the wrong head boy.
(if he wished to escape from the watchful “And would not this demoralizing system eye of his landlord), lead a long life of lies of the Ballot draw a veil over human actions, between every election; and he must do this, to say to the mass, Be base, and you will not only eundo, in his calm and prudential not be despised; be virtuous, and you will not state, but redeundo from the market, warmed be honoured?” History affords no example with beer and expanded with alcohol. And of human liberty being established by a sys- he must not only carry out his seven years' tem of craft and deceit. The battles of dissimulation before the world, but in the liberty have been fought and won by the very bosom of his family, or he must expose open and manly attitude of the people against himself to the dangerous garrulity of wife, A piece of machinery, children, and servants
, from whose indiscrewhich taught them to accomplish their noble tion every kind of evil report would be carried work by trick and concealment, would have to the ear of the watchful steward." based their institutions upon pedestals as
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. comes from the Saxon willi, meaning many. Is
it so?-J. S., Birmingham. 254. Will any reader of the British Controver- 257. In the year 1836, there was in Russia a sialist oblige me by saying which is the quickest religious sect who called themselves Anti-ceremoand safest way to obtain perfect skeletons of nialists. Can any one inform me if they are still leaves ?-W. s., Liverpool.
in existence, and, if so, in what manner a com255. Would any person inform me how to ob- munication from England would reach them? tain a thorough knowledge of Latin arraugement, For any particulars relating to them I shall feel so as to translate Latin into English, and English obliged.-F. T. A. into Latin, easily and correctly -R. CLARK. 258. Can any of the readers of the Controver256. Will any student of words inform me of sialist inforin me how to construct a fresh water the origin or ineaning of the names, Henry, Wil. “aquarium," from their own experience? The liam, London? Some think that “ William discoverer, Mr. Warington, mentions a particular
kind of snail as requisite, and also a water plant 246. Glasgow University.-In answer to the called, I believe, “ Valesneria Sperelea.' Are questions propounded by the “ Young Student," these indispensable? Would not any other water in the January number, I may state that there is plant do?
While on the sea coast, this summer, no formal examination prior to entering Glasgow I attempted to form a marine aquarium: for this College; that is, if you begin with the Junior purpose, I placed a “sea-anemone," 4 winkles, Classes in Humanity and Greek. You cannot, I 2 small fish, and several pieces of rock, with sea- believe, stand as candidate for a degree, unless weed attached, in a glass vase, containing nearly you have studied in a College. If you are a 3 quarts of sea water. In about 36 hours the poly- Scotch student, in order to stand for B.A., you pus had “swallowed up" one of the fish. After must have attended the Glasgow University, or this, everything seemed to go wrong; the other some other, for three years, or three sessions; and fish died, the water became turbid, and began to if for M.A., four sessions. Students from Engemit a not very pleasant odour, which obliged me land and Ireland are allowed to be candidates for to terminate the existence of the swimming win- B.A., after having completed two sessions; and kles, by throwing the whole (the vase, of course, for M.A., after having completed three. The fees excepted) away. Will any one kindly explain the for the Latin, Greek, Logic, Mathematics, and cause of this disastrous termination of my experi- Moral Philosophy, are £3 3s. each. Natural Phiment?-A WELSHMAN.
losophy, £4 4s.-J. P. 259. Although I have read and studied Blair's 251. Hyperion=Apollo, the god of day, dis“Lectures," Campbell's “Rhetoric,” and other tinguished for his beauty. The origin of the works of that nature, I am unable to distin- work may be as interesting to “Fanny" as the guish the style of one author from that of another, meaning of the word. About the year 1837, Longor to say of a composition that it is well or ill fellow, being engaged in making the tour of Europe, written.' I cannot perceive the richness and ful- selected Heidelberg for a permanent winter resi. ness of Burke, the stateliness and graudeur of dence. There his wife was attacked with an illJohnson, or the beauty and harmony of the kindness which ultimately proved fatal. It so hap hearted Oliver Goldsmith. This you will admit pened, however, that some time afterward there is truly pitiable; an I should, therefore, feel came to the same romantic place a young lady much obliged, if one of your talented correspon- of considerable personal attractions. The poet's dents would give me such advice, together with a heart was touched-he became attached to her; few examples, as would enable me to pronounce but the beauty of sixteen did not sympathize with judgment on an author's style.-ENDEAVOUR. the poet of' six-and-thirty, and Longfellow returned
to America, having lost his heart as well as his ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.
wife. The young lady, also an American, re
turned home shortly afterwards. Their resi208. The Cause of the Apparent Size of the dences, it turned out, were contiguous, and the Moon when Rising and Setting.-(Vol. V., pp. poet availed himself of the opportunity of prose154, 195.)— The explanation offered by J. L. of cuting his addresses, which he did for a considerthis phenomenon, accords with the result of specu- able time, with no better success than at first. lations to which I was led by the following cir- Thus foiled, he set himself resolutely down, and cumstance:-I had repeatedly noticed, when at instead, like Petrarch, of laying siege to the heart Deal and Dover, in the summer months, that the of his mistress, through the medium of sonnets, opposite coast of France appeared, in peculiar be resolved to write a whole book-a book which states of the atmosphere, much clearer and larger would achieve the double object of gaining her than usual, and, considering the distance and affections, and of establishing his own fame. Hy. height of tide, than it ought to have done; and perion was the result. His labour and his conwhen (August, 1853) I passed over to Calais in a stancy were not thrown away; they met their due sailing yacht,' I was surprised to observe, that reward. The lady gave him her hand as well as when much nearer Calais, I could see the coast her heart; and they uow reside together at Cammuch less distinctly than I had often done at Deal. bridge, in the same house which Washington This appearance, which it occurred to me must made his head quarters when he was first aphave been owing to unusual refraction, was noticed pointed to the command of the American armies. more than once last summer; and, singularly --D. M. W. enough, at the very period when the unfortunate 251. The word "Hyperion," usually derived from Prince, the Hannibal, and other English vessels, nép iúv, signifying “walking above," was the with French soldiers on board, were anchored in name of a Titan, son of Uranos and Ge (heaven the Downs; and the Deal boatmen asserted that and earth), and father of Helios, or the sun; and it was the precursor of change of wind and rain. is used by Homer and other Greek poets, someSince then, I have found that the celebrated times joined with Helios, as a patronymic of the French astronomer, Arago, after stating the theo- sun. The propriety of the term as a title to a ries of C. C. F. and W. C., with others, gives that book of travels “ beyond the sea," abounding in of refraction the preference.-F.J. L.
poetical descriptions of natural scenery, is evident. 241. Works on Oratory.- We know of no work it may be remarked, that the use of significant exactly answering to the descriptiou given by Greek and Latin names for books, as figurative J. B., but we would direct his attention to a of their contents, is not uncommon. Thus we series of volumes, announced by Griffin and Co., have “Hermes," by Harris, and “Mercurius," by on“ British Eloquence," and intended to present | Le Mesurier, two cognate works on the origin and specimens of the “Literary, Political, and Sacred unity of language; also Donaldson's New “ CraOratory of the Nineteenth Century." Also to the tylus," Bulwer's New “ Phædo," &c. I have “Modern Orator," published by Aylott, contain searched the usual sources (Greek, Latin, and ing the speeches of Burke, Erskine, Fox, and English) in vain to find the origin of the 'name Pitt.-C.A.