« PreviousContinue »
looked up with a sudden flush; she had hand. The door stood open which led scarcely ever heard him name Charley's to the kitchen, where the tall old clock name, since his last letter came.
was ticking in the silence. The door They had a quiet wedding; a few leading in from the porch opened with a friends of Colonel Hermance, the fath- sharp click as the latch fell. Steps er, and Rose. Pure and delicate, Mary heavy, uneven, came through the kitlooked in her simple bridal dress, with chen. "Some of the guests must have rose-buds in her braided her. More forgotten something,' thought Mary. A beautiful to me than even the Mary Wil- tall figure stooped to enter the low doormerdings of old,' Colonel Hermance way; the group stared at the intruder. had whispered, as she came from her 'Don't you know me? Father! Mary! chamber to join him, just before the I've written, but I was in prison ; perceremony. The guests went away early haps my letters did n't come! I escaped with the clergyman, leaving the family at last. O father ! father!' and he knelt to themselves. The room was very quiet, down before the old man. The gray a faint scent of roses everywhere. The head was bowed over the dark curls ; two were happy-so was the little child. the father's heart sang 'Te deum laudaThe father sat apart, a mist gathering in mus ;' the lost was found, the dead was his eyes; while his thoughts went back alive again. For it was Charley. into the past, one hot tear fell upon his
PROVINGS OF CURRENT THEORIES IN SCIENCE.
Lunar Origin of Meteoric Stones. LAPLACE, in support of his doctrine that have fallen. Of course it will not that meteoric stones have their origin in be presumed that any volcano upon the lunar volcanoes, calculated that the pro- moon is capable of giving such a force. jectile force necessary to throw them In the March and May numbers of without the moon's sphere of attraction Silliman's Journal of Science for 1855, within that of the earth, would be only Professor J. Lawrence Smith has an about four times that of a ball from a elaborate and very interesting memoir
advocating the lunar theory. The ProTo find the diameter of the moon's fessor seems not to have examined for sphere of attraction, compared with that himself “the difficulty that there appears of the earth's sphere, say as the moon's to be in the way of the moon's projectmass (1) is to the earth's mass, (80) so ing masses of matter beyond the central is the square of the diameter of the point of attraction between the earth moon's sphere (v2 miles) to the square and herself,' but to have, instead, relied of the diameter of the earth's sphere, for decision in the case upon Laplace, ([two hundred and forty thousand —~]" who, he says, with all his mathematical miles) making the diameter of the acumen, 'saw no difficulty, although we moon's sphere' twenty-four thousand know he gave special attention to it at miles. It would require many thou- three different times during a period of sands of times, instead of only four thirty years, and died without discovertimes, the force of a cannon-charge to ing any physical difficulty in the way.' hurl so far stones of the weight of some We think no one, not even Professor
Smith, will question the correctness of earth. So it is an impossibility-an imour calculation indicating the volcanic possibility such as contradicts the very force necessary to project a stone thus laws of thought—that the moon should, beyond the lunar influence, nor hesitate by any force or any combination of to conclude with us that there never forces she can ever generate, cast a mecould have been a volcano upon the teorite beyond the influence which has moon capable of supplying so great a served to bind it to her, be this influence force. Then we might take for granted great or small. that there is already a verdict declared A word, in passing, touching the folagainst the claim that meteorites do at lowing passage from Professor Smith's all originate at our satellite. However, memoir : “No mention will be made of we offer for consideration one other point the phenomena accompanying the fall of objection to the Professor's claim. of meteorites, since the omission will
It is an axiom that the whole of a affect in no way the theoretical views thing is greater than any one of its under consideration.' parts. So it is a truth, which is fully One of these phenomena' is the dientitled to be received as axiomatic, that rection – whether forward with, or conthe undivided power of any self-control- trary to the earth's rotation — in which ling machine cannot be overcome by the meteorites pass while falling. In whatever power may be brought to bear order to show them to have had a lunar by any separate part of the same ma- origin, it is indispensably necessary to chine. For instance, no man is able to show also, first, that the direction of lift his whole person by the force, acting each meteorite is the same with that of directly, of one of his arms. Neither
every other ; secondly, that no one mecan a wheel, which is revolving in a cer- teorite ever changes its course before tain direction, beneath the pressure of a reaching the earth. Then the Professcolumn of water, be made to turn in an or's omission does affect most essentially opposite direction by half of the same his theoretical views. column falling back upon it from a height How is it with regard to the two equal to the height from which the whole points named ? Certainly, no one will is falling. Neither is it possible to bring be presumptuous enough to attempt a together, and to bear, the elements of maintenance of the first; for all the power existing in any – the largest facts are against it. The second will be portion of our earth, even though this disposed of differently, according to the portion should consist of all the powder. difference in the preconceived opinions producing materials capable of being of those who take it upon themselves to gathered from the entire face and bow- decide in the case, some receiving for els of the globe, and of the whole cir- testimony what others would throw out cumambient atmosphere whirled into a as not to be depended upon fully. For tornado, and of all earth's fires, external ourselves, we incline to the belief that and internal, surging forth in one mighty the directions of meteorites may be, and volcano. Neither is it possible to bring are sometimes, changed, partially at to bear the elements of power existing least; and we rely for evidence mainly in any such portion of the earth, so as upon Professor Upham Shepard's Report to carry a mass of matter -- whether a on Meteorites, referred to in the memoir bullet, or a stone, or any other-outside under notice. It appears from that Reof the influence which the whole earth port that the stone which was found to exerts upon it to hold it in her embrace, have struck the south-western side of a nor so as to give it a motion away from tree in Little Piney, Missouri, had been the earth swifter than the motion with observed at Potosi, eighty miles east of which it rotates as a part of the rotating Little Piney, moving westerly, indicating VOL. LXIII,
its route to have been along circuitous (twenty-eight millions,) so is the square atmospheric currents, rather than direct of the diameter of the moon's sphere from the moon.
(x * miles) to the square of the diamSuppose it possible for a lunar volcano eter of the sun's sphere, ([ninety-five to throw a stone beyond the lino divid- millions — 2] miles) making the diing the moon's and the earth's attrac- ameter of the moon's sphere eighteen tions-namely, a line twenty-four thou. thousand miles, only three fourths of sand miles distant from the moon. The what it is, reckoned in relation with the stone, in rising to such height, then in diameter of the earth's sphere. Then, falling through the remaining distance a stone cast from the moon beyond the which the moon and earth are apart, limit of her attraction, whether this (two hundred and sixteen thousand limit be distant the eighteen thousand miles,) would take three hours, (accord- or the twenty-four thousand miles, would ing to the law of falling bodies name- seek, not the earth, but the sun, as its ly, the law that a body will fall sixteen centre of gravity. The earth could not feet during the first second, three times govern it, unless when in a line between sixteen feet during the second second, it and the sun, or when so near such five times sixteen feet during the third line that it would, in passing, intersect second, and so on,) gaining by its fall the line bounding her sphere of attrac(according to the same law) a velocity of tion. In order to this, the stone must one hundred and eighty-four thousand come from the moon at or very near the miles per hour. The moon passes time of her full. in her orbit at the rate of twenty- The moon, in her passage with the two hundred miles per hour, which rate earth round the sun, has an average Fe. of motion the stone would carry with it locity of sixty-eight thousand miles per in its departure, receiving thus a direc- hour. So a stone, sent from one of her tion, not in a right line towards the cen- volcanoes within the sun's attraction, tre of the earth, but in advance of this would have a speed of sixty-eight thouline, so that, at the expiration of the sand miles per hour, which would make three hours, it would be sixty-six its path a curve forward of the sun, inhundred miles forward of the earth's stead of a straight line cutting his centre centre. Now, with the projectile force It would be fifty hours in falling through imparted to it by a speed of the distance of ninety-five million miles, hundred and eighty-six thousand miles at the end of which time it would be at per hour
that acquired in falling, a point three million miles away from united with that received from the the sun's surface, having a velocity of
it could not, upon the principle thirty-eight thousand miles per hour. of the Newtonian theory, come to the Such velocity would give it an hundred earth at all, but must revolve about her times the projectile force-(this force bein an orbit so elliptical as to have its ing as the square of the velocity)—an apogee a million miles farther outward hundred times the projectile force need. than that of the moon's orbit, while its ed, according to the gravitation doctrine, perigee would be two hundred and thir- to retain it in a planetary orbit. So it ty-three thousand four hundred miles must be driven into a cometary orbit — farther inward than that of the moon's one so elliptical as to have its aphelion orbit.
three hundred and fifty million miles The diameter of the moon's sphere of from the sun's centre-further outward attraction, compared with that of the than the orbit of the outermost asteroid; sun's sphere, is less than it is, compared while its perihelion would be not three with that of the earth's sphere. As the million five hundred thousand miles moon's mass (1) is to the sun's mass, from the same centre, as shown already.
Query: Whether our little, modest ma- -was sufficient to cancel its increase of tron of a moon is not the mother of the gravity produced by its fall, and to di. comets, after all ?
rect it into a circular orbit seven million Suppose a stone to have fallen out of miles in diameter. But it acquired, in the earth's orbit—that is, from the moon falling, ten times the speed -- three milrevolving with the earth — into an orbit lion eight hundred thousand miles per of its own about the sun. It was fifty hour—therefore an hundred times the hours in falling, which time, multiplied projectile force; by means of which by the hourly velocity of its passage force the orbit was lengthened from while a part of the moon, is the meas- seven million to three hundred and fiftyure of the distance from the sun's cen- three million five hundred thousand tre forward to the point where its de- miles, taking thence the shape of a parscent from its old annual path termi. allelogram with its ends rounded, rather nated, and where its new annual path than that of a regular planetary ellipse. commenced. A line from this point The circumference of such an orbit is forms, at the centre of the sun, a right equal to that of a circular one of two angle with a line from the point at which hundred and forty million miles in diamits descent began; so that, when it eter; and the stone, governed by Kepstarted in its new course, (from the peri- ler's law, (that is, decreasing its speed helion point of its orbit,) it was one of three million eight hundred thousand quarter of the whole circle of the zodiac miles per hour, at three million five hun. in advance of the position which it left dred thousand miles distance from the in its original course. The breadth of sun's centre, according to the distance its new orbit, also, is measured by its which it passes outward to reach its velocity in its old orbit multiplied into aphelion,) performed a revolution in this the time occupied in falling therefrom, orbit in forty-six days, crossing the being twice the length of its perihelion earth's path both on its course outward line--that is, seven million miles. The and on its return inward. The distance, elongation of this orbit is measured by in a straight line, between these two the stone's excess of projectile force points of crossing, is seven million miles. above what was needed, according to The earth, at the time of the stone's the Third Law of Kepler, to balance its departure from her orbit, wanted half excess of gravitating force obtained by this distance of being three quarters of its near approach to the sun. Kepler's the extent of her circuit behind the first law increases the velocity of a body re- of those points; then she will reach it volving about the centre of gravity in at the expiration of two hundred and proportion to the square root of the dis- seventy-two days from that time, when tance towards that centre passed through the stone will lack six days of having by the body. Thus, the stone in the completed its sixth revolution, and will earth's orbit — ninety-five million miles be a day and an half's journey behind from the sun — had a velocity of sixty- the other point of intersection. By the eight thousand miles per hour; then its time of its arrival at the latter point, velocity in an orbit three million five the earth will have passed along her orhundred thousand miles from the sun bit to within four or five million miles will bear the same proportion to the of it, at which position the stone, supother, as the square root of the latter posing it to be partially vaporized, theredistance bears to that of the former dis- fore enlarged, by the heat to which it is tance, making the new velocity three subjected in its near and frequent aphundred and fifty thousand miles per proaches to the sun, as is supposed of hour. The projectile force imparted to the comets, night be seen as a 'shootthe stone by this additional speed — be- ing star,' moving in the direction of the ing according to the square of the speed earth's movement on her axis. The
earth, in her second subsequent revolu- subject in its passage among the planets tion, will have passed the same crossing- and asteroids, it might come so near the point two or three hundred thousand earth, in the second case especially, as miles when the stone has arrived there to fall a meteorite into her embrace. in its twenty-first revolution; so that Question: Whether we shall not be this will be seen shooting in a direction claimed as supporters of the Lunar contrary to that of the earth's rotation. Theory, notwithstanding our demonNow, allowing for the deviations from a strations of its falsity ? direct line to which the stone must be
"As that new grave was covered, the beauty of a sunset of extraordinary splendor was poured over it as a last farewell; and as the sun went down over the Rockland Hills, and the gold of the clouds faded into gray, and the glory of the rolling river died in the leaden dulness of the night, there were few of the thou sands returning homeward from that day's pilgrimage whose hearts were not moved within them._Paper of the day.
They have laid him at rest, and that sun-gilded hill
And his beautiful grave tells his story;
And as gentle, their heart-warming glory,
They have laid him at rest, and his spirit has filed,
In the light of his genius shine o'er him;
As a loved and a lost one, deplore him.
Rear o'er him no column, no vainly-carved stone,
They bloom in the beams of his glory;
And his beautiful grave tell his story.
O. W. L.