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rier that dams it, gushing out profusely If there were no compensation, there in whitish-blue streams from the ice- would be, notwithstanding the great grots, which it has excavated in some waste arising from the causes above instances to the height of a hundred, mentioned, a great increase in the glaand the breadth of from fifty to eighty ciers ; because the winter accession of feet, and which present a romantic va- snow and ice would largely predominate riety of picturesque scenes.

over the loss occasioned by summer and Nor do the waters form the only ele- other heat. But this is a compensating ment in action on this awful stage. A world, and, as far as human memory change of temperature liberates the and observation have gone, it has been glacier-blast, the gletschergeblase of the found that there is no sensible inGermans, from its frozen cavity; and crease. the rushing bitter cold air-current es- If during one, or even during a few, capes from the crevasses, driving the succeeding years, some of the glaciers frost motes like snow-dust before it, are observed to descend unusually low, and insupportable as the sarsar, the in the following years they are found to icy wind of death.

recede in proportion. Above, evaporaIt may be stated as a general prop- tion from the snow and ice is going on osition, that all the Alpine valleys are to a large extent even in winter, and inclined planes. Down these the gla- with great rapidity in the dry and rariciers must slip by their own weight fied air; below, subterranean heat is at whenever any cause loosens their adhe- work. But all the summer, winter, and sion to the sides and bottom of those subterranean causes would be inadequate valleys. The warmth of the earth con- to prevent a gradual but slow increase tributes to the diminution of this ad- of the ice, if it were not for the steady hesion by thawing the under surface of slow march of the glaciers into the lower the glacier. This, however, takes place valleys, where they have to encounter a in those parts only where the great warm atmosphere. The greater the inthickness of the ice shields the ground crease arising from the accumulations of from the operation of external cold; the preceding winter, the greater beand the mass, consequently, being only comes the pressure from above, and the partially disengaged, maintains its po- further the glacier descends into the resition. But where the penetrating rays gion of thaw. The lower it slips down, of the summer's sun have diffused a the greater is the space left behind to be general circumjacent heat, the ice is filled up, and the greater must be the thawed at its surface and edges; then time required before further accumulathe liberation of the glacier is rapid, tion pushes the mass forward. All aided as it is by the erosion of the this time the lower extremity subjected underflowing currents, and the abrasion to the heat, recedes as much at least as of the ice and stones which those cur- it had advanced, if not more. Thus is rents bear along, and the whole mass, the equilibrium kept up; and thus are obeying the great law of gravity, slips the cultivated lands of the lower valleys down into the fertile valleys below, and protected from excessive encroachment. presents the contrast of an ice-field ter- Glaciers, like other invading forces, minating in smiling meadows or among have their adjuncts. Masses of débris golden crops, as if the gigantic frost accumulate in the shape of long dykes genius had invaded the flowery realms or parapets along the anterior edge and of the fairies:

lateral margins of some of the larger exThe glacier's cold and restless mass

amples. These are the moraines of the Moves onward day by day;

Savoyard, the trockne muren of the TyBut I am he who bids it pass,

rolese, and the jokülsgiärde of the IceOr with its ice delay.

lander, to whom the glaciers are known under the name of jokül. The Savoyard exist. In the lower valleys they are name generally prevails.

found in succession at altitudes as high Moraines are thus formed. Schistose as twelve, fifteen, and even eighteen or stratified rocks, free from snow and hundred feet. In the neighborhood of ice in consequence of their slope, but St. Maurice they occur at two thousand bordering the glaciers, are exposed to feet above the bed of the Rhone; and all the atmospheric influences. Grad- they may be traced at a great height ually disintegrated by the alternations round the lake of Geneva. From such of humidity and frost, heat and cold, facts and other data, Agassiz comes to their detached fragments roll down to the sweeping conclusion that at one time the lateral edge of the glacier, where the whole of the plains of Switzerland the greater part is, in sailor's phrase,' were covered by glaciers to a height of 'brought up;' while some blocks are three thousand three hundred feet abové protruded onwards towards the middle. the level of the sea, or two thousand one

By the general inclination of the gla- hundred and fifty-five feet above the cier and its downward progress, a quan- present surface of the lake of Geneva, tity of these débris are collected along and that they extended as far as the the anterior termination of the ice-field. Jura. To support this grand theory, Thus, in some cases, the whole glacier which requires him to account for the becomes surrounded by a moraine. existence of such immense masses of

But wherever mountain-slopes are ice, he supposes the alternate heating protected by what we have heard term- and cooling of the globe at distant but ed their private glacier, or where the given periods, appeals to fossil remains, rock is composed of compact and all and endeavors to explain the erratic but indestructible granite, there is no blocks of the Jura by viewing them as moraine. And thus it happens that on the transported moraines of his enoreach side of some glaciers a moraine will mous glaciers. be found; others present a moraine on But, besides the fringing or bordering one side only; and some none at all. moraines, glaciers sometimes exhibit

Again, a moraine is sometimes found central banks, and long and high ridges where it could not have been formed. composed of fragments of rocks, bouldIn such cases the nature of the debris ers, sand and earth, at some distance shows that it must have been brought from the margins, to which, however, down from a higher station by the mo- they generally run parallel. These, the tion of the glacier.

guferlinien of the German-Swiss canThe height of moraines varies; some tons, are sometimes numerous and high. reach an altitude of one hundred feet. De Saussure crossed four or five of As a general rule it will be found that, them, thirty or forty feet high, in trawhen the glaciers have undergone dimi- versing the great ice-field above Montannution, the moraine is above the ice; vert. This elevation is due partly to but in those cases where they have in- the quantity of debris, and partly to the creased, the moraine is lower than the sinking of the surrounding ice which ice-field. In others the moraine and the thaws, while that sheltered from the ice are on a level.

sun under the heap remains unthawed. The well-known work of M. Agassiz Rosboden glacier is rich in the number on glaciers, moraines, and erratic and dimensions of these ridges. blocks — in which he embodies the bold The following is the explanation given reasonings of Venetz and De Charpen- of the formation of these banks: Sliptier — points to the existence of mo- ping down upon the inclined bottom of raines at an altitude of several hundred the valley, the glacier recedes from the feat above the bottom of the superior side, carrying with it and upon it part Alpine valleys, where glaciers no longer of the lateral moraina This operation

often leaves a considerable space, in the may observe that the evidence indiwider valleys especially, between the cates but few glaciers in the direcfoot of the mountains and the edge of tion of east and west. the glaciers, and this space, -during the In the north, Spitzbergen, Iceland, succeeding winter, is filled up with and Greenland, present numerous and fresh snow which is converted into ice, magnificent glaciers ; and though it and on which a new moraine is accumu- seems to be the general opinion that lated. This in its turn recedes like the they are formed in the same manner first, and is succeeded by others, so that as those of the Alps, the superior if it did not happen that the moraines of compactness and beautiful transparthe opposite sides are sometimes con- ency of the northern examples, and founded into one, and that the motion of of the icebergs detached from them, the ice on the irregular slopes of the are universally acknowledged. valley disturbs the order and parallelism The glaciers of the south-west coast of the banks, they might serve as marks of America, the Strait of Magalhaens, to determine the age of the glaciers. and Tierra del Fuego, are extensive.

Whatever may be thought of the If we turn to Upper Asia we are grand notion of M. Agassiz, enough of struck with the extensive range of the ice remains in the shape of glaciers. Altai mountains forming its northern Those of the Tyrol, Switzerland, Pied- border. The formation and motion of mont, and Savoy, present a superficial their glaciers appear to be the same extent which has been calculated at with those of the European Alps; and fourteen hundred and eighty-four square those who study the subject will not miles. Some of them are from ten to find much variance between the obserfifteen miles in length, and from one to vations of Gebler and De Saussure. two miles and a quarter in breadth, and To enumerate all who have contributed some attain a thickness of from one to to the stock of information on this intersix hundred feet. In these icy reser- esting subject would border upon the voirs the copious supplies of the princi- endless. The names of Henderson and pal European rivers are contained. Graah will immediately occur to the in

The Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada itiated reader in connection with Iceland have glaciers, nearly all of which occur and Greenland, and of Forbes with on the porthern slopes ; and here we those of Norway.

POLARICE.

The green of the turf old Erin doth show,
The green of the Ocean the Undines know,
The green of the flood that gracefully rolls,
And falls into white, mysterious folds,
To shroud Niagara's body of power,
To crown his achievement in Victory's hour,
Are dim revelations of what may be seen
In the shades of that pure and exquisite green
Which dwells in the Ice that lies round the Pole,
And gives its cold body a life-shining soul.
Unearthly, supernal that verdure appears,
And crystalline summer the frozen world cheers.

[blocks in formation]

We have seen a birth and burial in the deadest watch of night;
We have lost a friend endeared to us by sorrow and delight;
We have laid away the father, and by some ancestral right,
Crowned his only son

a king

We saw our old friend failing at the twilight of the year,
When the trembling trees shook off their robes to cover o'er his bier,
And the wailing winds of Winter, and the tearful clouds were here,

To sorrow o'er his tomb.

As the savage chief is buried with his hunting-knife and gun,
So we've laid with him our idols and our pleasures one by one;
But our hopes have all been given to the keeping of his son,

Of his only son — the king.

We have placed the old king's record in the open hands of Time ;
O the blots upon its pages that have hidden deeds sublime !
O the bonds of Truth unwritten! O the marks of fraud and crime !

O the pages that are torn!

Time has banded up the book to Him to whom the hours belong;
Let our souls cry out for mercy while the pulse of life is strong ;
Ere He maketh up the last account, and finds our footings wrong,

And His righteous sentence gives.

In the narrow reign behind us, for the lifeless love of pelf,
We have martyred Truth and Justice, and have scorned each better elf.
In the wider reign before us let us martyr Sin and self,

For the living love of God.

Let us all before we stumble grasp His mighty hand once more ;
Let us follow Peace through battle 'neath the flag our fathers bore;
Let us fight for Right and Freedom as we never fought before,

For the life of our dear Land.

ON LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN.

BY LIEUTENANT WILLIAM L. ENGLISH, ONE HUNDRED AND FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

A CAMP at best is but a dull place, which held the western slope of the full of monotony and sameness. But mountain. when there are numerous companions Leaving the battery to our left, we around, one possessed of a social dispo- climbed a little higher, and came to a sition can contrive to while away the road, which we followed around the time not passed on duty with some de point until we reached a large shelf, gree of pleasantness. But to be left where we found a fine farm-house. behind, while the regiment or brigade is There is a splendid spring lodge, made off on a march, with only two or three of rock, connected with it. I took a companions, selected on account of ill- drink out of the large rock basin, and health, is extremely irksome. The days it was cool and refreshing better far seem long, very long, and the only than any draught of champagne or pleasure consists in going to bed at sherry ever made. Resting here for night, if any thing that we are fortu- a while, we nerved ourselves for the nate enough to possess can be dignified grand slope, which has at least an in. with the name of bed. Worn out with clination of about forty-five degrees. this monotony, a party of us concluded, We pulled ourselves along, however, one day, to visit the peak of Lookout stopping occasionally to hold our hands Mountain, whence 'Fighting Joe Hooker' over our ears, for the keen, cold air had just compelled the rebels to exhibit' fairly made them tingle. At last we their prowess in the art, somewhat fa- reached the top of the slope, and miliar to them, of skedaddling.' It here a perpendicular wall of rock stared was a beautiful Sabbath morning, some- us in the face. Passing, however, around what cool, but bright with pleasant sun- the point, along the western side, we shine. We first went along the railroad soon found a ladder, which we scaled, for nearly half a mile, until we crossed and then stood on the crest of Lookout Lookout Creek, which washes the foot Mountain. We passed out to the edge of the mountain; then we turned our of the rock, and gathered some pine course up the slope of the mountain, boughs for relics. I cut a nice cane, winding our way for some distance amid and some of us gathered laurel-root, the rocks and huge boulders that we from which to whittle out pipes. I had often mistaken for rebel tents. have seen several very fine pipes, made Some of these boulders could not have of laurel-root, gathered on the mountbeen less than forty feet in perpendi- ain, and provided with neat cherry cular height, and possessed sufficient stems, cut from the trees that sur. bulk to have furnished stone enough for round the farm-house. The atmosphere several large houses. Passing by these, was somewhat smoky, which prevented we soon gained the crest of the slope our enjoying the full extent of the scene, running down to the river, just at the Almost directly in the front is Chattapoint where a rebel masked battery had nooga, surrounded by an army of tenantbeen, which, however, never had much less tents, their late occupants far opportunity to prove its efficacy, owing away in victorious pursuit of Bragg's to the suddenness of our attack and the routed army. To the left, stretching as complete capture of the rebel brigade far as we can see, meanders the beauti. VOL. LXIL

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