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and the final discovery of the stolen sitions, which they called Moralities, sheep, are represented in the broadest and in which they sometimes introstyle of caricature, which is heightened duced real personages, and at others by the pointed allusions to contempora- allegorical personages, such as Good ry manners, and even to local circum. Advice, Instruction, Discipline, Luxury, stances and events. While the shepherds etc. These various productions, espeare rejoicing over the recovery of their cially the farces, soon became extremelost property, an angel suddenly enters ly popular in France, and great numbers on the stage, and announces the birth of them were printed in the earlier part of the Redeemer, and the play of the of the sixteenth century, and many of Mystery goes on as usual. Such are them are preserved, though they are rethe scenes to which the term farce was garded among the rare productions of first applied.

the popular literature of the age, and In France, these farces began to be fetch high prices among collectors. The separated from the Mysteries in the character of these farces was entirely course of the fifteenth century, a cir- identical with the humorous scenes cumstance which arose partly from the which had been introduced into the existence in that country of certain joy- Mysteries, and they were equally barous societies or clubs. One of the old- ren of invention. A popular story, an est of these societies was that of the ancient fable, a contemporary advenclerks of the Bazoche, or lawyers' clerks ture — any thing of this kind served of the Palace of Justice, who had their for a plot. Many of them are mere president, a sort of king of misrule, tavern scenes; others expose family and, among other ceremonies, performed quarrels and domestic mishaps. The drolleries of the kind we have been de- adventures of two rogues, one of whom scribing. This society had existed from steals a tart from a pastry-cook, while the fourteenth century. Early in the the other is caught in the attempt to reign of Charles VI., that is, about the follow his example, are the subject of end of the fourteenth century, there one farce. In another, the wives, diswas formed at Paris another society of satisfied with their husbands because young people of education and mirthful they were growing too old for them, disposition, who took the name of En- discover a method of making them fans sans Souci, (or Careless Boys) young again. Sometimes the scene is and chose a chief, to whom they gave laid in a court of law. But the most the title of Prince des Sots, (the Prince common subjects are love intrigues, and of Sots, or Fools.) While the Bazochi- these, as well as the general character ans, as the others called themselves, of these pieces, speak little for the moperformed their farces, the Enfans sans rality of the age in which they were Souci got up a sort of dramatic satires, composed. In one of these farces, the which they called Sotties, which had wife sends her good man to the tavern sufficient analogy with the others to ex- to fetch wine, while she enjoys the cite considerable jealousy, for it ap- company of her amoureux; and the pears that each had obtained a privilege repeated return of the husband to ask for the sole performance of their peculiar some frivolous question relating to his representations. The jealousy between errand causes many disagreeable interthem was finally appeased by a sort of ruptions to the confidence of the lovers, treaty, whereby the Bazochians gave in which the mirth of the piece consists. their rivals the permission to perform The Sotties and Moralities were more farces, and the Enfans sans Souci al- fanciful and extravagant in their plan, lowed the Bazochians to perform sotties. but they always combined more or less The Bazochians, meanwhile, had in- of satire on the character and condition Fented a new class of dramatic compo- of the age. The title of one of these

pieces will be sufficient to give a no- ment. Such was the play of King John, tion of their general character; it is: by the celebrated Bishop Bale, and other "A new Morality of the Children of similar compositions might be mentioned. Now-a-days, (Maintenant,) who are the These, however, were heavy and dull, scholars of Once-good, (Jabien,) who and they wanted that principal element shows them how to play at cards and at of popularity — the comic scenes — dice, and to entertain Luxury, whereby which had been the great support of one comes to Shame, (Honte,) and from the Mysteries. But the taste for draShame to Despair, (Desespoir,) and from matic performances was now so strongDespair to the gibbet of Perdition, and ly established, that, as these disappeared then turns himself to Good-doing. All from the stage, they were succeeded by these personifications, Now-a-days, Once- plays which differed from them only in good, Luxury, Shame, Despair, Perdi- subject, and which differed from the tion, and Good-doing, are personages in farces in the much greater extent of the play. This arbitrary personifica- their outline. They also formed a feation is sometimes carried to an extraor- ture of the new and more masculine dinary length. The three personages character of the literature of the age. in one of these Moralities are Every- It was, however, nothing more than the thing, (Tout,) Nothing, (Rien,) and Mysteries enlarged, and their subjects Everybody, (Chacun.) The idea of changed; for the new playwrights only personifying Nothing on the stage is took stories from profane history, or certainly ingenious, and could hardly from romance, or from the narratives of have entered the head of any body but the story-tellers, and arranged them so one of the Enfans sans Souci.

as to be represented by personages, and For some reason or other, the Morali- they followed so closely the old plan ties and Sotties found more imitators in that they introduced into these histoEngland (when at the beginning of the ries and stories the same sort of comic sixteenth century these compositions scenes, and in the same manner, which, were introduced there) than the farces. indeed, had been preserved in the Sotties Perhaps this arose in a great measure and Moralities, where, in consequence of from the general preoccupation of peo- these comic scenes being given ordinaple's minds with the religious and social rily, as in the Mysteries, to the more revolution which was then in progress, vicious or the more foolish of the perand the aptness of a morality or a sottie sonages of the piece, these characters for conveying instruction or reproof. were termed, technically, the Vices, or The fashion for this class of dramatic the Fools of the play. The Moralities compositions did not, however, last very themselves, which in England took the long in England, and, as the Mysteries more scholastic title of Interludes, which also went out of repute at the time of had, indeed, been sometimes given in the Reformation, their place was sup- the previous period to the Mysteries, plied gradually by a new class of plays. gradually ran into this new form of The reformers saw at once the advan- composition. The struggle between the tage which might be taken of the stage Interlude, or Morality, and the new in spreading in a popular form their class of drama, was going on during the principles and opinions, although they earlier part of the reign of Elizabeth; were shocked by the irreverence and and although several attempts had alprofanity of the representations which ready been made, the latter was not had previously occupied it, and they brought to its perfect form until the introduced in place of these, plays in middle of her reign. Soon after that which were acted by personages histo- period it was raised to its most glorious ries of different kinds which illustrated and elevated point by the genius of the crimes and evils of the Papal govern- Shakspeare. But even in Shakspeare himself we still see the influence of the derful development. In Germany, the old mediæval forms, the boldness of the same kind of development was showing personification, the carelessness of the itself more feebly, and there was there, dramatic unities, the reckless anachro- contemporary with Shakspeare, a drama nisms, and, especially, the interweaving which differed from his mainly in its of the favorite comic scenes with the want of energy and vitality. In fact, it most serious and even tragical plots — did not live long. In France, the devel. those characteristics, indeed, which the opment itself was wanting. The Moralforeign critics of Shakspeare have so ities and other plays of that class gradoften misunderstood. It may be added, ually became obsolete, and had no that the old Mysteries were still per- successors but the mere routine of formed to the lower classes in a debased masques and court pageantry. The form by mountebanks in booths at fairs, French can hardly be said to have posthough they had lost all their former sessed a stage of their own, until, in the importance; the memory of which, how- following century, they formed one upon ever, was still preserved in the use of the model of the ancients, which was the term @ play, a farce, etc., and in formal and cold; and though France such phrases as to play, to bring on the has since had her great and perfect stage, and the like, which we still pre- dramatists, she cannot be said to posserve.

sess, like England, a national drama, Our sketch of the history of the which has grown up and firmly rooted English drama ends with the close of itself in the genius of the people, and the mediæval period; but we may cast the first seed of which, as before oba glance at what was going on in the served, was sown in the Mysteries of literature of neighboring countries while the middle ages. in England it was experiencing this won




The times in which we live are emi- girdle round the earth in forty minnently progressive Science awaking utes.' Astronomy, so long at a standfrom her slumber of ages is pressing on- still, has advanced of late rapidly ; no ward with giant strides towards a sooner have modern experiments shown goal which an eternity is too short to the close analogy between electricity reach, because the mind of the INFINITE and magnetism, and discovered the part must ever remain even to the highest these subtle forces play in the animal and most intellectual of created beings, and vegetable economy of our globe, an unfathomable mystery.

Yet man

than it has come to our knowledge that has controlled the great steam-power; the solar atmosphere, that great source making it subservient to ends of indus- of light and vitality, comprises in a try and pleasure; he has arrested the state of vapor most of the known and rapid lightning in its course, and now some of the hitherto unknown metallic converses, in words that burn, with the ingredients of our globe. And we inNorth, the South, the East, and the deed have little doubt that that which West. Like Puck, he can 'place a was termed by the great Newton at

traction of gravitation will one of these actuated in His dealings with mankind days be proved synonymous with mag- by revenge, anger, and cruelty! How netic or electric affinity; for all true far more divine is M. Renan's Jesus than science tends towards unity, as does the God of orthodoxy !! the truth in each religion ever point to- The one great exception which may wards Him who is truth itself.

be taken to this book is on account of Not the least important sign of these the author's obstinate and irrational perprogressive times is the inner or spirit- sistence in ignoring all that may be ual movement which pervades each sect termed supernatural or miraculous. or branch of the great Catholic church This fixed idea causes him occasionof Christ. Scarcely has Anglo-Saxon ally to speak in a manner if not actualorthodoxy recovered from the shock ex- ly ridiculous, certainly puerile, of the perienced from the sacrilegious attempts miracles of Jesus. For instance, referof the authors of ' Essays and Reviews' ring to the raising of Lazarus, he admits to throw doubt upon the infallibility of that something took place at Bethany the thirty-nine articles, when there ap- which was regarded as a resurrection.' pears no less than a Bishop - Colenso –

'It seems that LAZARUS was sick, and who makes a daring attack on the ve- that it was indeed in consequence of a mesracity of the letter of the sacred text sage from his alarmed sisters, that Jesus left itself, boldly denying plenary inspiration Perea.* The joy of His coming might reto Moses.

call Lazarus to life. Perhaps also the arAlmost simultaneously, too, from dent desire to close the mouth of those who amid the well-nigh pagan darkness of furiously denied the divine mission of their a rival sect, the Church of Rome, has friend, may have carried these enthusiastic arisen in the person of M. Renan, a

persons beyond all bounds. Perhaps LAZAbright light, and we believe in very truth Rus, still pale from his sickness, caused hima better Christian than many who swing

self to be swathed in grare-clothes, as one censers of incense to the sound of silver dead, and shut up in his family tomb. bells in adoration of the bread they the rock, into which they entered through a

These tombs were large chambers cut in profess to believe is the actual body of our blessed Lord, forgetting that while square opening which was closed by an

enormous flat stone. MARTIA and MARY clothed in His divine humanity the

came out to meet Jesus, and, without perSaviour trod the earth, He never per- mitting Him to enter Bethany, conducted mitted His disciples to worship 'Him as Him to the sepulchre. The emotion which GOD.

JESUS experienced at the tomb of His M. Renan (notwithstanding the unfair friend, whom He thought dead, t may have prejudices existing against his work) has been mistaken by the witnesses for that done great service to the cause of the groaning, that trembling † which accompaMASTER he so dearly loves. He has nies miracles ; popular opinion holding that proved incontrovertibly a fact strenu- the divine virtue is in man an element, as it ously denied by Strauss and other were, epileptic and convulsive. Jests (still learned infidels, the great fact of the following the hypothesis above enunciated) existence and real personality of Jesus. desired to see once more him whom He had True that in words he denies the divini- loved, and, the stone having been remored, ty of the Lord; but this does not pre- and his head bound about with a napkin.'

Lazarus came forth with his grave-clothes vent him from eulogizing in the most glowing terms the divinity of His char

Truly having read this page of peracter and mission. And how much bet- haps's, one is tempted to exclaim with ter, is it not, to raise 'a mortal to the Arago : 'None are so credulous as the skies' than, as is daily done in the incredulous !' In this place we trust it churches, to drag the Deity down to a

* John 11 : 3 seqq.

+ John 11 : 35 seqq. level with ourselves -- to suppose HIM

#John 11:33.

will not be considered an unprofitable in prayer believing, ye shall receive.' digression if we stop to inquire : What 'Ye shall cast out devils in My name.' is a miracle? A miracle is defined by 'Go forth — heal the sick, cleanse the Hume to be : 'A transgression of a law lepers.' These are the words of Him of Nature by particular volition of the who is called the Son of God, and they Deity, or by the interposition of some are either true or meaningless. Why, invisible agent.' Yet this definition is then, has there been so much doubt scarcely philosophical, for it takes for thrown on the accounts of gifts which granted that we poor finite creatures have ever been the portion of the faithful perfectly comprehend all the laws of followers of Christ of all denominaNature; and which of us can say that tions? And if now we cannot receive we do so? Or even granting, for argu. this sacred legacy, does not Jesus Himment's sake, that science has laid bare SELF give the reason for our impotence ? before us — up to a certain point — the “Because of your unbelief.' 'O thou of laws which govern material forces, are little faith! wherefore didst thou doubt?' not those which hold in subjection mind Space will not permit a reference to these or spirit almost entirely hidden from seers, prophets, and physicians of the us? Are we in a position to decide church — their name is legion. Suffice whether in performing what we term a it to mention a very few of these chosen miracle, the Deity, instead of suspend- vessels of honor: Jacob Behmen, ing His own laws, is actually fulfilling Jung Stilling, Oberlin, Wesley, Swedena higher law with which we are unac- borg, Madame Guyon. If we then ourquainted? Butler, in bis · Analogy of selves are not so favored, does not the Religion,' says most philosophically: fault lie in us alone? Is it not that a • There is a real credibility in the sup- dark cloud of unbelief and worldliness position that it might be part of the has come between us and the golden original plan of things, that there future, so that our eyes behold as should be miraculous interposition.' through an almost impenetrable veil And Tillotson, speaking on this sub- the beauties of the kingdom of heaven? ject, asserts that ; 'It is not the essence Verily says Jesus: "Blessed are the of a miracle (as many have thought) pure in heart, for they shall see God.' that it be an immediate effect of the Di- We can here do no more than touch on vine Power. It is sufficient that it ex- this subject, but an extract from a Lonceed any natural power that we know don daily paper of late date — the of to produce it.' Whether, however, 'Sun' —may prove interesting, and the miracles of our Lord were really su- convey a deeper lesson than even an pernatural, or the effect of partial or gen. example extracted from any religious eral laws, matters little. There is no publication : doubt these signs and wonders served 'AN UNLUCKY Smp.-In the early part of to confirm the faith, bringing home the last year the 'Usk' was brought back by gospel of peace and good will to the her captain to Cardiff, the port from which hearts and understandings of the igno- she had sailed, after a six months' voyage, rant bigoted Jew and semi-barbarous without having reached her destination. She Gentile. Admitting then in common

was in good seaworthy condition, and the with orthodoxy — the miracles of captain told the owners that the reason he CHRIST — we will now take one step

had returned was that, when he got as far in advance, and boldly assert that if which warned him not to proceed any fur

as Cape Horn, he saw a vision on the ocean, the chronicles of the churches are wor

ther on the voyage, and that in the event of thy of belief, that which is termed the his persisting both he and the ship would be supernatural has always existed, and sent to perdition. A Board of Trade instill exists. "Greater works than these quiry was instituted into the captain's conshall ye do.' Whatsoever ye shall ask duct. The crew were examined, and spoke

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