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phantasms of the world. Yet how wide chiefly follow the very faithful transis the difference between the fierce Lu- lation published by Professor Eastcilius ( quoties Lucilius ardet') and wick; but the occasional verses we have the genial Horace, who

ventured to render into prose, unless his • Admissus circum præcordia ludit;'

verse (as is sometimes the case) is pe

culiarly terse and elegant, so as to be no between the stern declaimer with his rhe- mean equivalent for the original. torical indignation, and the kindly poet

The 'Gulistan,' as we said, consists with his human sympathies, which soft- of eight chapters, each of which (except en all the rough teaching of his know- the last, which consists of maxims) is a ledge of life. Can we not trace a some

series of apologues, all intended to illuswhat similar course in the highest trate, however remotely, some moral instance of all - Shakspeare ? It is, lesson which is the subject of the chapwe believe, a remark of Schlegel's, ter. These subjects are as follows: that Shakspeare's genius grew harder 1. The manners of kings; with years ; he passes on from the warm

2. The qualities of derwishes; and glowing world of "As You Like It'

3. The excellence of contentment; and "Twelfth Night,' to the colder re- 4. The advantages of taciturnity; gion of 'Lear,' 'Coriolanus,' and 'Ti

7. Love and youth; mon'— plays which, with all their 6. Decrepitude and old age ; splendor of poetry and thought, are 7. The effect of education ; yet deeply tinged with a subjective 8. The duties of society. gloom.

In none of these chapters have we In a lower degree it is the same with any labored disquisitions on the nature Sadi. The "Gulistan' in every page or grounds of morality; Sadi's philosobears the impress of a mind which had phy (like that of Horace's father) always long looked with a keen insight into teaches by example — not the dead genlife, and read its characters with an ex- eral formula, but the living man. When perienced eye. The picture is tinged we open the book, we step at once into with a somewhat sombre coloring; the life and action, far away from the dishue of youthful hope is gone, for gray putations and logic of the schools into hairs have come — to quote an Eastern the street and the bazaar; we are no poet, 'the messengers which bid cease longer talking of abstractions and shadto hope.' Yet this sombre hue is not ows; we are face to face with living unrelieved gloom, for the poet's warm agents - we are jostled in the crowd. heart is still alive, to soften the angry Behind Sadi's book rises in perspective satire with genial humor; nor has the Sadi's own long life of adventure and poet's eye forgot its power, but its self- travel; and it is this which gives to it created 'light which never was on land its freshness and reality. The old man, or sea 'still glows with something of its as he writes, fecalls the past scenes in ancient glory even on these sterner real- which he himself has felt and acted; ities,

every desert journey, every night adven* And colors Life's dark cloud with orient ture, every caravanserai's guests have rays.'

added some figure to the long succession We now turn to the volume itself of images which his memory calls up to support our remarks by extracts. from the past. His childhood and its Where these are in prose, we shall quiet home, his studious youth, his

restless manhood and settled age, are and Maud's projecting a marriage between their children :

summoned in turn to the sessions of "Is it an echo of something

sweet silent thought,' and each brings Read with a boy's delight,

its store of memorials. We cannot reViviers nodding together In some Arabian Night ?' frain from quoting from the ‘Bostan'

it up.

the following touching incident of his an incident as this from the second chapchildhood :

ter depict the dangers and hardships of "Well I remember my father's lifetime - the caravans, while the sturdy robustThe rain of God's mercy every moment be ness of the derwish stands out like the on him!

Antæus beggar in Elia's essay. How in my childhood he bought me a tablet and book,

"A man on foot, with bare head and bare And he bought me withal a ring of gold.

feet, came from Kufah with the caravan Lo suddenly a buyer came and won

proceeding to Hijaz, and accompanied us. I With a date that ring from off my hand.

looked at him, and saw that he was wholly Little the child knows the worth of a ring, unprovided with the supplies requisite for And a sweetmeat will bribe him to yield the journey. Nevertheless he went on mer

rily, and said : And thou too knowest little the worth of

VERSES. life,

'I RIDE not on a camel, but am free from load Who canst fling it away in sweet pleasure.'

and trammel, Nor can the lines have a fitter accompa

To no subjects am I lord, and I fear no mon

arch's word: niment than the following parallel from I think not of the morrow,

nor recall the the 'Gulistan,' (ii. 7:)

bygone sorrow, 'I REMEMBER that in the time of my

Thus I breathe exempt from strife, and thus childhood I was devout and in the habit of

moves on my tranquil life.' keeping vigils, and eager to practise morti

One who rode on a camel said to him, fication and austerities. One night I sat in 'O derwish, whither art thou going? turn attendance on my father, and did not close back, or thou wilt perish from the hardships my eyes the whole night, and I held the of the way.' He did not listen, but entered precious Koran in my lap while the people the desert and proceeded on. When we around me slept. I said to my father, ‘Not reached the palm-trees of Mahmud, fate one of these lifts up his head to perform a

overtook the rich man and he died. The prayer ; they are so fast asleep that you derwish approached his pillow and said: 'I would say they were dead.' 'Life of thy have survived these hardships, and thou father,' he replied, “it were better if thou hast perished on the back of thy drometoo wert asleep, rather than thou shouldst dary.' be backbiting others.'

'A WATCHER wept the livelong night beside a

sick man's bed; * The braggart sees only his own self,

When it dawned, the sick was well, and the For he draws close the veil of conceit before

mourner, he was dead!' him; If they but gave him an eye to see God, Sadi delights in such antitheses as He would see no one weaker than himself.' these those unexpected contradictions Or this from the sixth chapter :

of life, which mock the calculations of One day, in the ignorance and folly of prudence, and so often force on us the youth, I raised my voice against my mother. conviction that life has an element of Cut to the heart, she sat down in a corner,

time and chance' which we cannot and, weeping, exclaimed : “ Perhaps thou eliminate ; that in spite of all our forehast forgotten thine infancy that thou treat- casting, the race is not to the swift nor est me with this rudeness !''

the battle to the strong.' Sadi ever seems to turn with a pecu

Another story from the third chapter liar zest to the various scenes which he gives a different phase of these contrahad witnessed in his days of travel; dictions of life, and will remind the the figures of old companions in the reader of the scene in ‘Robinson Crucaravanserai rise up before his mind's soe,' where he finds the doubloons on eye, and bygone hours of social inter- board the wreck. course are recalled in the silence of

'I ONCE met an Arab amid a circle of thought. Thus how vividly does such jewellers at Basrah, who was relating the




following story: Once on a time I had enter into His presence, while those near at lost my way in the desert, and not a particle hand, who have no vision, are kept aloof!' of food was left, and I had made up my mind to 'perish, when suddenly I found a 'If the hearer comprehendeth not what is purse full of pearls. Never shall I forget

spoken, my joy and ecstasy when I thought that Look not for vigor of genius in the speaker. they were parched wheat; nor again the Wide be the field of the willing attention, bitterness and despair, when I found that That the orator may strike over it the ball they were only pearls.''

of eloquence.* From the second chapter we extract

Sadi's narratives often wear such an the following very interesting glimpse of air of life and reality, that they almost his own derwish life, for Sadi himself

involuntarily stamp their essence into a was a wandering derwish; and in the proverb; in Persia many of them have picture adjoining his tomb, Colonel become ‘household words.' How comFranklin found him represented as wear

pletely the following is a proverb dising a derwish's thirkah, or long blue guised : gown, * with a pilgrim's staff in his

ONCE a king of Persia had a very prehand.

cious stone set in a ring. On a certain oc'I once, in the principal mosque of Baal- casion he went out with some of his favorite bek, addressed a few words, by way of ex

courtiers to the Musella of Shiraz to amuse hortation, to a cold congregation, whose himself

, and he bade them suspend the ring hearts were dead, and who had not found

over the dome of Azad, that the ring might the way from the material to the spiritual be his who could send an arrow through it. world. I saw that my speech made no im- It chanced that four hundred professed archpression on them, and that my fire took no

ers of the royal train took their aim, but effect on their green wood. I grew weary

all missed. But a stripling at play on the of instructing brutes, and holding up a mir

terrace roof of a monastery was shooting ror in the district of the blind; still the his arrows at random; and lo! the morning door of utterance continued open, and the breeze carried his shaft through the circle of chain of my discourse kept lengthening, as

the ring. They bestowed the ring upon I dwelt on that text of the Koran, “We are

him, and loaded him with numberless gifts; nearer to him than the vein of his neck.'t and the boy forthwith burned his bow and I had brought my discourse to this point,

arrows. They asked him: 'Why did you do when I exclaimed:

so ?' He answered: "That my first glory

might remain unchanged.' The Beloved is closer than I to myself; Yet strange to say, I am still far off.

. It may sometimes chance that the clearWhat shall I do, and to whom shall I tell it? He lies on my bosom, and still --I am part

Shall offer mistaken counsel : ed from Him.'

And at times peradventure the untaught

stripling 'I was drunken with the wine of this dis

By mistake may hit the target with his course, and the remainder of the cup was

shaft.' yet in my hand, when a traveller passed by the edge of the assembly, and the last barb of keen worldly wisdom at its

Nor is the next story inferior with its round of the cup which I handed went to his soul. He gave such a shout that the close. In the plates of the first volume others also in sympathy joined in the excite- of Sir W. Ouseley's "Travels in Persia,' ment, and the most apathetic shared his en

there is a curious representation of the thusiasm. "Glory to op!' I exclaimed, scene, copied from a Persian ns. in his *those afar off who have knowledge of Him collection.

* The outer mark of a Derwish is a patched gar- 'A CERTAIN man had become a master in ment and shaven head, but his essential qualities the art of wrestling ; he knew three hundred are a living heart and mortified passions.'-Gulist. ii. 47.

* Alluding to the game of Chugan, like the Golf † Koran, ch. 1. v. 15.

in Scotland, but played on horseback.



headed sage

and sixty first-rate sleights in this art, and We trace in the above story, what in every day he wrestled with a different truth is so common in all the practical throw. But a corner of his heart conceived moral writings of the East, that deep a liking for the beauty of one of his pupils, sense of the need of caution and suspiand he taught him three hundred and fifty- cion which long ages of irresponsible nine of his sleights, all he knew save one, despotism have branded into the very the teaching of which he continually de heart of the people. It was indeed no ferred. In short, the youth was perfect in

casual equivocation through which, 'by skill and strength, and none could stand up against him, until at length he boasted be- degrees, the name Frank, which may fore the Sultan, ‘My master's superiority is originally have indicated merely a nabut from his superior years, and my rever- tional, came to indicate a moral, distincence for all he has taught me; else in tion as well ;' * the personal freeman strength I am nowise his inferior, and in stood out from among a degenerate race skill I am fully his equal.' This want of re- by an independence of character and spect displeased the king, and he bade them proud scorn of deceit; it is not in the wrestle together. A vast arena was select- East, amid a world of slaves, that the ed, and the great nobles and ministers of chivalrous generosity implied in Frank the king attended. The youth entered like takes root. Tyranny and oppression a furious elephant, with a shock that had

run down from rank to rank; concealhis adversary been a mountain of iron ment and suspicion darken and chill would have uptorn it from its base. The master perceived that the youth was his every heart, and the finer feelings are

stifled by their influence. superior in strength. So be fastened on him with that curious grip which he had

It is strange to note how all Persian kept concealed, and the youth knew not poets feel bound, on every plausible ochow to foil it. The master lifted him with casion, to convey indirect exhortations both hands from the ground, and raised him to the governors against tyranny and exabove his head and dashed him to the earth. tortion towards those beneath them; A shout of applause arose from the multi- and if we view these passages in the tude. The king bade them bestow a robe light of the poet's present, how deeply of honor and reward on the master, and affecting is their significance. The everheaped reproaches on the youth, saying: reïterated praises of Nushirwan the 'Thou hast presumed to encounter him who Just will come home to us with a new taught thee, and thou hast failed.' He an. meaning and power, if we think of the swered: Sire, my master overcame me not living viziers and pachas whom the poet by strength or power, but a small point was

would have branded by name had he left in the art of wrestling, which he with

dared. held from me; and by this trifle hath he to

We have one or two curious stories day gotten the victory over me.' The master said: 'I kept it for such a day as this; for in the 'Gulistan’ which exemplify the the sages have said: Give not to thy friend mode of admininistering justice in the such power, that, if he one day become thy East, and show that the law's delays' foe, he will prevail over thee.' Hast thou are not found only in the highest states not heard what once was said by one who of civilization. had suffered wrong from a pupil of his own ?

• Two derwishes of Khurasan travelling "EITHER gratitude itself, there is none in together united in companionship. One the world,

was weak, and used to break his fast after Or none in our generation practise it; every two nights. The other was strong, None ever learned from me to shoot the and made three meals a day. It happened arrow,

at the gate of a city that they were seized Who in the end made not me his target.'

There cometh a true friend into our world : * Compare with this the beautiful lines of another

He came, and I had not risen from nothingness ; Persian poet :

He shall come, and I have lain down in sorrow.' They say that once in a thousand years

* Trench, 'Study of Words,' p. 12.


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on suspicion of being spies, and were both On me hath fallen Death, the enemy of de imprisoned, and the door closed up with sire, mud. After two weeks it was discovered And you, O my friends! must at last pass

from me. that they were innocent. They opened the

All my days bave passed in folly, door, and found the strong man dead, but

I have failed, and do you by me take warnthe weak man safe and alive. They were

ing!' still wondering thereat, when a wise man said: “The opposite of this would have The old legendary splendors of Persia been strange; for this man was a great are ransacked to bear a similar testimoeater, and could not bear the want of food, ny, in the inscription over the portico of and so perished. But the other was in the King Feridun's * palace. habit of controlling himself; he endured, as

The world, O brother! abides with none, was his wont, and was saved.'

Set thy heart on the world's MAKER — let

that suffice thee. 'Wuen to eat little is one's natural wont,

Rest not thy pillow and support on this If hardship cross us, we easily bear it:

world's domain, But if we pamper ourselves in our hour of

For many a one such as thee hath she fos

tered and slain. ease, When want comes, we of hardship die.'

When the pure soul prepares to depart,

What is death on a throne, or death on the We have many stories to illustrate the bare ground?' vanity of worldly grandeur, the nothing

He reads also a like warning, written ness of earthly prosperity, even at its in letters of gold, upon Kai-Khusraw's highest estate; and thoughts like these

crown.' must indeed have often forced thémselves on Sadi's mind when he saw the 'What generations of mankind shall tread, devastations of Asia by the scourge of

What ages roll above my buried head,

For hand from hand to me descends the the Mogul invasions.


And hand from hand to others shall go One of the Arabian kings was sick in

down!'t his old age, and the hope of surviving was cut off. Suddenly a horseman entered the We have the following wild story portal, and brought good tidings, saying : about the great Mahmud of Ghazni, the * By the auspicious fortune of my lord we conqueror of India, and the iconoclast have taken such a castle, and the enemies hero of the temple of Somnath : are made prisoners, and the troops and peasantry in that quarter are entirely re

One of the kings of Khurasan saw, duced to obedience. When the king heard dream, Sultan Mahmud Sabuktagin, a hunthis speech he heaved a cold sigh, and said: dred years after his death, when all his body “These joyful tidings are not for me, but for hade dissolved and become; dust, save his my enemies, that is, the heirs of my crown.'

eyes, which, as heretofore, moved in their sockets and looked about them. All the

sages were at a loss to interpret it, except a 'In this hopo, alas I hath precious life been derwish, who made his obeisance, and said: passed,

• He is still looking about him, because his That what was in my heart might enter in kingdom is in the possession of others.'

at my gate; My long-bound hope hath come — yet what profit withal,

* Many are the heroes whom they have buried Since hope is none that life passed can re

under the ground, turn!

* To this ancient hero of Persian romance, the • The hand of death hath struck the drum of discoveries of comparative philology have lately departure,

added a new and deeper interest. He has been

identified with the Traitana of the Veda, and forms Eyes of mine, ye must bid adieu to my

one great link between the ancient Persian and head;

Hindu mythologies. Palm of my hand, wrist, and arm,

+ We have given these fine lines in a friend's Ye too must bid farewell to each other. translation.

in a



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