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THE BLUNDER IN THE MEDICINE CREEK TREATY. This blunder, by which the Indians of that treaty bave been defrauded out of at least $50,400, was mentioned in my lust annual report, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1876, p. 138,) also in my report as superintendent Indian affairs, Washington Territory, for 1873, page 303. In the name of justice, I demand that an appropriation be made for the payment of this money, out of which these poor Iudians were wronged by our government, through her officials, near twenty-eight years ago, and that this money be applied, as mentioned in my last annual report, to purposes of
The great truth that ignorance is the parent of vice, crime, and war, is amply proven by the statistics and history of our times to be as true with the Indians as with the white race, and shows that it is jutinitely more economical and better for government to educate and civilize, and thus prevent vice, crime, and war, than to provide penitentiaries for the repression of those who violate and dety hier laws and authority. Statistics show that each con. vict costs the state, on an average, $1,200, while it costs but $400, on an average, to educate each youth to be an in elligent, law abiding, peace-loving citizen. The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1868 says that single lodian wars bave cost our govern. ment from $30,000,000 to $40,000,000, and that in ihe Sioux war of 1852-'54, and in the Cheyenne war of 1864, it cost our government $1,000,000 and the lives of twenty men for every Indian warrior killed. I believe it can be shown that no Indian tribe in which education and Christianity have been introduced have given our government any trouble by war. The Modocs, who killed General Canby, had never been touched by education or Christianity, as I am informed ; and such was the case with the Sioux who killed General Custer; and the wild bands of the Nez Percés now on the war-path, and causing so much bloodshed and trouble, (unlike the large majority of their tribe, with whom they have refused to affiliate,) are without any education or Christianity. But aside from the expensive item of war, it is the highest interest and duty of our government toward the Indians within her limits-ber wards—to civilize them as speedily as possible to such an extent that they may be safely civilized and melted into the body politic of our nation, and thus end our Indian policy and bureau. This cau be done by our government in one generatiou, and our government alone has the right, power, and ability to do it. Civilization is wholly an artificial acquirement, and consists of culture, habit, and ideas acquired between infaucy and mature age. Adult Indiaus, therefore, wiib habits and ideas matured and fixed, like old trees, can be but little changed or civilized by any system of culture; but Indian children, being without fixed habits and ideas, like young twigs, can be cultured and trained into civilization by being placed under such teachers and in such schuols as are mentioned in Report of Commis. sioner of Iudian Affairs for 1876, pages 136 and 137. Their education should be compulsory, and not be left to their own or to the whims of their barbaric parents. As it is a matter of vast importance that our government should stop raising generations of costly and worthless savages, I ask for an appropriation for the support of iwo such industrial boarding-schools as mentioned in said report, at the page named.
CITIZINATION. As there is no law by wbich an Indian may acquire all of the rights and privileges of a citizen of the United siates, notwithstanding he may be possessed of the highest learning and Christianity, (see Report Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1873, p. 304,) I jespecta fully suggest the enactment of an Indiau citizenship law, fixing the requirements, terms, and conditions upon which Indians may become fully enfranchised citizens, fixing the stand.ard high. Such a law would do much to stimulate and encourage the Indians in efforts to pass through the rough breakers that intervene between barbarism and civilization, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. H. MILROY,
United States Indian Agent. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
QUINAIELT INDIAN AGENCY, WASHINGTON TERRITORY,
August 6, 1877. SIR: I have the honor to submit my annual report of the condition of affairs at this agency.
The past year has been to us one of peace and in some respects a good degree of prosperity. The only way by which I am able to form an idea of the results of the efforts made at civilizing is to go back a few years aud compare the condition of the Indians then with what it is now. I am convinced there has been a great improvement, morally and otherwise. We have now nine families living in houses built after the style of our ordinary country dwellings, furnished with stoves, chairs, tables, and other conveniences. I think I am safe in saying these families, who a few years since were living in a state of most wretched filth and indolence, are to-day keeping their houses and persons comparatively clean, and will compare favorably with the ordinary class of pivneer farmers. They are industrious in their way, endeavoring to make an honest living.
The number of families of the Quinaielt tribe is not over forty. Only a part of these are hear enough to the agency to be immediately under the civilizing influences. The country is rough and heavily timbered, and prevents communication with those living at a distance most of the year. Consequently, the number who are in a position to be benefited by receiving instructions is small.
The other three tribes, víz, Queets, Hohs, and Qui'lehules, live at such a distance from the agency as to be entirely out of reach. The two latter tribes are not on the reservation, and are not disposed to leave their old homes, nor will they give their children to the school as they would necessarily be separated from them. I am forced to adm.t this feeling of reluctance to part with their children is not greatly different from that of white parents were they placed in the same condition. The Indian is, as a consequence of his ignorance, entirely incapable of estimating the value of education, and instead of seeing a blessing in it for his child, he fears it will prove a means of placing an impassable gulf separating and alienating his child from hiin. This is one of the greatest obstacles to be met and overcome in the task of civilizing and educating the Indian).
The school is receiving a fair support from those Indians who come immediately under its influence. In fact, all of the children of proper age and health, within a reasonable dis. tance of the agency, are or have been scholars, and have received benefit. Since the organization of the school (nive years) there have been ten deaths, and two left the school and were married. When the bare fact is stated that the number of scholars on school reg. ister is only 15 out of about 160 children belonging to the four tribes, the attendance seems small; but when tle situation of these tribes show that not one-fourth of these can be reached, in consequence of impassable barriers as mountains and rivers isolating them from the agency most of the year, and our school has a constant attendance of not less than 13 regular boarding scholars for the year out of about 25 children of this tribe, the showing will compare favorably with other schools as to numbers. The advancement of the scholars in their studies has been good, several of whom read understandingly in the Fourth Reader and write a good band. They are generally obedient and contented, but are very diffident, and it is difficult to get them to converse or tell what they know. Another cause of this diffidence is the idea impressed upon then by their parents and the older Indians that if they become educated and adopt the babits of the whites they will be separated froin their old friends and associates. Efforts bave constantly been made to increase the altend. ance on the school, but have been unsuccessful, and our situation is such that I have not thought it prudent to attempt to fill the school by force, as I feel it would bring troublo, which at the present we are not prepared to meet.
In the treaty made with these Indians the following language is used in contemplation of their removing on to the reserve: “And the said tribes and bands agree to remove to and settle upon the same within one year after the ratification of this treaty, or sooner, if the means are furnished them. In the mean tune it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any lands not in the actual claim and occupation of the citizens of the United States," &c. [Treaty with Quinaielt and Quillehute Indians, July 1, 1855, art. 2.] No steps have been taken to comply with this agreement on the part of the United States, and the Indians are still occupying their old homes. Under these circhimstances we can only persuade those Indians to avail themselves of the benefit of school and other civilizing influences.
The present teacher and assistant are earnest Christians, honestly striving to do their duty. Their time is constantly given to the scholars both during and out of school hours, their home is the children's home, and everything is done that can be to make the children happy and to instruct them intellectually and religiously. For this they are rewarded by hearing these little Indians, boys and girls, sing praises to Jesus, and speak his pame in prayer. Two have died trusting in that Saviour who loves little children.
The cost of maintaining the school, with pay of teachers and supplies of provisions, clothing, and other necessary articles, for the past year, is $2,160.10. There is now on hand enough provisions and clothing to last the school about six months of the coming year, and 25 pair of new white blankets purchased from the above amount, and I return an unexperided balance of $339.90 to the United States Treasury, of school fund.
In managing the financial department of this agency I have made it a rule to spend no money unless it was required and could be made of advantage to the service. The appropriations for the current expense of this agency, with the exception of medicines, are suffi. cient, and I have returned an unexpended balance in all of $089.38 to the United States.
The farming operations this year are more favorable than last. A good crop of hay has beeu saved, and we have a few acres of oats that promise well. The vegetable crops are also better than last year. Only about 20 acres are cleared fit for farming, as the land is all heavily timbered, and it is the work of years to open a farm. A good garden is cultivated
by the teacher for the use of the school. The Indians have raised about eight tons of hay, and have some gardens.
The carpenter has been employed in assisting Indians to build, and in general repairs. One dwelling-house has been built for an Indian and another commenced; also a barn for agency use will be finished this fall. The only expense of the buildings to the Government is for nails, doors and fixtures, with windows, and the pay of the carpenter at $900 per annum. The lumber is procured by the Indians and employés. The employés are employed as the interests of the service demand, and, I am pleased to say, take an interest in assisting to carry out the wishes of the department to benefit the Indians.
The amount of appuity funds was $700, which has been expended for clothing and other articles required by the Indians, and the greater part was issued in compliance with act of March 3, 1875. The road leading over Point Granville Mountain, a distance of about one mile, which was rendered impassable by heavy land-slides, has been repaired with these funds, and is now in good order. All supplies for agency or Indians must come in over this road, and it is of vital importance that it be kept in repair. It is damaged more or less every year by the surf dashing against the bluff, causing land-slides. For this reason I en. deavor to bave all supplies, sufficient for six months, into the agency by the 1st of October. No safe transportation can be had from Portland, Oreg., or other points during the winter months, and it is very difficult to obtain at any time, as there are no regular facilities further than Tenino, on the Nortbern Pacific Railroad, distant about 150 miles from this agency. For transportation over this distance I have to depend upon the farmers, or any one I can obtain. It is done in wagons, canoes, and sail-boats, there being no steamboats on the route. The distance from Portiand to this agency, via Tepino, is 259 miles, and the average cost of transportation is about $45 per ton coin to Point Brown, where all agency goods are landed. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. A. HENRY,
Special Indian Agent. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
S'KOKOMISH AGENCY, WASHINGTON TERRITORY,
August 10, 1877. SIR: I have the honor herewith to transmit my seventh annual report of Indian affairs under niy jurisdiction.
It gives me pleasure to be able to say that the present condition of the agency and reser. ration farm is very good. The buildings are in a good state of repair, and the fences, dikes, and bridges are well kept up. During the year an office has been built for the use of the physician, which was much needed. A school-room has been erected and is in process of completion, 20 by 26 feet, with spacious chamber-room above for sleeping apartments for the boys. An addition to the barn has been built, 18 by 45 feet, in which to store hay, and other repairs have been made to the dwellings of the employés. There has been about 12 acres of grass-seed sown on the farm, and, when well-rooted, the annual product of the farm will, I think, be about 75 tons of hay. There has also been some clearing done on the high land, by the farmer and school, for potatoes, which is needed, as the low land about the agency does not raise potatoes of a good quality.
Owing to the delay of Congress in passing the appropriation bill a number of iny em. ployés left in July, 1876, and I was unable to supply their places until late in that year, or more work would, of course, have been done.
The same cause compelled me for a time to reduce the number of scholars in the school. The amount allowed for support of schools bere bas been reduced $300 for the past year, also custailing my ability to enlarge educational advantages. In March last circumstances compelled tbe teacher, who bad labored so faithfully here for the past five or six years, to resign, and a new one was appointed in April. It has been my good fortune to secure the services of an excellent teacher of long experience, but it takes time for the Indians to get acquainted enough to place confidence in any one, and he has this obstacle in bis way, wbich time only will overcome. Notwithstanding all this the school is in a healthy ccndi. tion and doing very well. Might have done better bad it not been for the aforementioned drawbacks. During the fall and winter months school sessions have been kept six hours a day, and during the spring and summer months there has been school one-half a day, and the scholars have been taught to work the other half. The average attendauce during the year has been about 28.
The S'Kokomish Indians who live on the reservation, and that part of the S'Klallam Indians who live at Dunginess, who also cultivate their own land, are well advanced in the modes of civilized life. They own and occupy good, comfortable houses ; many of them hare fur. niture and cooking utensils the same as wbites ; aud they obtain their living by their labor, either on their own land or working for the wbites in their vicinity. They have during the year increased the acreage of their tillable land and improved their dwellings and fences to a considerable extent. They attend religious services as generally on the Sabbath, are as industrious, temperate, and well behaved, as the average white population in their vicinity.
The other S'Klallam Indians, who work at the saw-mills or gain their living by fishing, are not so far advanced, but I can see improvement also in them. They wear better clothes and have neater houses than formerly, but their constant contact with low whites has a deleterious influence over them.
Among their needs for further advancement in civilization is, first, a law to govern their intercourse with each other. At present the Indian customs of law govern in trivial matters, and in more serious ones the agent adopts a quasi-martial law, which he enforces with the means in his power. Indians should have laws to govern them as well as any other class of persons, and would readily submit to any well-digested, simple code of laws that should be enacted.
Another subject upon which legislation is needed is the granting of titles to their lands to those disposed to cultivate and improve them. As has been repeatedly urged heretofore, this causes them much uneasiness. Could they be sure of their homes they would, of course, work with much more interest than with the uncertainties under which they now operate.
In connection with this it is but just and fair to them that they should have all the benefits arising from the reservation, which are but small at best, including the right to cut and sell all the timber that grows upon it. This would afford them remunerative occupation, prepare the land for further use, and in their view but carry out ihe terms of the treaty.
The sanitary condition of the Indians is better than in former years. The present physi. cian is an active and successful practitioner, and is fast gaining their confidence. .
The labors of a missionary have been constant and faithful during the year, and the results are seen more in the general moral improvement of all the Indians than in the addition of membership to the church. At Dunginess the Indians keep up regular religious services on the Sabbath among themselves, with no teacher, except occasional visits from the missionary stationed here.
In conclusion, I would say that the improvement of the Indians is marked and apparent, though their obstacles to overcome are many. There is no reason to believe that their civilization or christianization is unattainable by any means, but it is unreasonable to expect them to make more improvement in three or five years than our own ancestors did in two hundred. Steady, faithful labor will have its reward as surely with them as any otber class of people. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
United States Indian Agent, Washington Territory. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
TULALIP SPECIAL AGENCY,
Tulalip, Washington Territory, August 18, 1877. SIR: In compliance with instructions, I respectfully submit this as my report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1877.
The fast that I have been in the Indian country less than a year, and have been all the time overwhelmed with pressing duties incident to my office, must be my excuse for not preparing as interesting a statement of the condition of this agency as would be desirable.
The ludians of this agency were formerly the possessors of that immense extent of country, now embraced in Washington Territory, bounded by British Columbia from the Cascade Mountains to the Gulf of Georgia, and the straits of Juan de Fuca, on the north ; by a line through the middle of the great peninsula in Puget Sound on the west ; by the country of the Nisqually and Puyallup Indians, situated immediately north of the forty-seventh parallel of north latitude, on the south ; and by the Cascade Range of mountains on the easi. The United States, through its representative, Governor Stevens, of Washington Territory, concluded a treaty with them in 1855, at Point Elliott, a locality near this reservation. The treaty is cited as the “Point Elliott treaty," and the Indians are officially spoken of as the “ Dwamish and other allied and subordinate tribes."
By the terms of the treaty which was ratified by the United States Senate in 1859, the Indians agreed to cede all their lands to the United States, acknowledge their dependence on the Goverument, and live on terms of amity with all its citizens; to remove to four reservations which the Government reserved for their “present use and occupancy;" to free all their slaves; to abstain from trading in British Columbia.
The Government promised the Indians to pay them the sum of $150,000 in twenty annual payments, the payments to be made in goods; to provide a smithy and carpenter shop, and to furnish said shops with the necessary tools; to employ a blacksmith, carpenter, and farmer to instruct the Indians in their respective occupations, also to einploy a physician to attend the sick ; to establish and support an agricultural and industrial school xt Tulalip, 10 be free to all the Indian children of the district of Puget Sound, and to provide said school with instructors. The Government also secured to the Indians, in common with all citizens of the Territory, the right of taking fish at the usual grounds, together with the privilege of hunting and gathering berries upon open and unclaimed lands. It reserved to itself the right of giving the Indians titles to homesteads on the reservations, or of removing them to other Government lands. In case of removal, however, payment would be made for substantial improvements abandoned in consequence of such reinoval.
Such are the principal features of the Point Elliott treaty, as understood by the agent.
The Indians interpret the treaty differently. They say that the reservations were reserved by themselves as the permanent homes of themselves and children, and that the cession was of their lands other than the reservations. They therefore claim that the reservation lands belong to tthem absolutely, and it need not be added that the proposition to consolidate them with other tribes at another ageney does not meet with their approqation.
The reservations provided for in the treaty were located in the vicinity of the most namerous and powerful tribes. The Dugh-dwabsh (D'wamish) tribe, with the subordinate tribes, viz, Swo-Kwabish, Sk-Kbabish, S'tsa-babsh, and Rha-cho-abish; the Etak-bush with its subordinate tribes, viz, S'hak-tabsh, Dugh-sokum, and Ska-hak-bush; and the Sko-pabsh with its subordinate tribes, viz, S'yi-lal-ko-absh and St-ka-bish, were assigned to the Port Madison reservation. The Sko-pabsh tribe with its subordinate tribes were, however, afterward assigned to the Muckleshont reservation, which was established for their benefit during the Indian troubles of 1859. The Swe-debish (Srcingmish) tribe with its subordinate tribe viz, Sak-bush; and Scad-jat (Skaget) with its subordinate tribes, viz, Sba-lush, Ki-kia-loos, Do-qua-cbabsh, Squa-dabsh, Bes-he-kwe-guelts, Dugh-wa-ba, Cho-ba-abish, and Sac-meugh were assigned to the Swinamish reservation. The Nugh-lemmy (Lummi) tribe with its subordinate tribes, viz, Nugh-sahk, Sabsh, No-ah-ba, and Swa-lash were assigned to the Lummi reservation. The s'do-ho-bish (Snohomish) tribe with its subordinate tribes, viz, Sto-lo-qua-bish, Nugh-kwetle-babish, Sdo-do-ho-bish, and Stak-ta-le-jabsh; the Sdo-qual. bush with its subordinate tribes, viz, Svbet-damsh and Stak-tabsh were assigned to the Tulalip reservation.
The name of this reservation is derived from the Indian word Dugh-la-lap, signifying the bay that is larger inside than at its entrance; this, from the fact that the bay upon the banks of which the agency buildings are erected is almost in the form of a horseshoe. Tulalip is the central reservation and the headquarters of the agency; it is here that the employés reside and the shops and schools are located. Such are the Indians of the agency and the reservations to which they belong.
At the time of the making of the treaty the Indians numbered about 7,000 or 8,000 souls; now they number less than 3,000. They have been swept away by diseases imported into the country by whites, by plıysical disorders occasioned by the change from a barbarous to a civilized mode of life, and by natural causes. About one-eighth of the present population are of mixed blood.
Fewer than one-half of the Indians live on the reservation; whole tribes bave persistently refused to remove to the reservations assigned them.
During the year the ageut received the following-named amounts for the use of the agency, viz: To pay the seventeenth installment of the $150,000 promised the Indians....... $4,250 00 To purchase materials for reparing houses...................................
300 00 To purchase necessary tools, &c., for the shops..............................
500 00 To support the schools and pay the teachers..................................
3,000 00 To meet the incidental expenses of the agency...............................
609 85 To pay the transportation on supplies .......
500 00 To pay the salaries of the agent, interpreter, physician, blacksmith, carpenter, and farmers..................
................... 5,784 24
................. 14, 944 09 The sum of $4,224.68 was expended for annuity goods, consisting of agricultural imple. ments, tools, flour, groceries, blankets, dry goods, and other useful articles. These were issued to the Indians who habitually live and perform some labor on the reservation. The following statement will show the number of Indians who received annuities at the several reservations: