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I most earnestly urge that the allotment titles provided for by treaty be forwarded for the 138 pames and descriptions forwarded by me for the Puyallups, a corrected list of which was forwarded a third time to your office under date of February, 28, 1877. The reception of these titles would do more to stimulate and eucourage the Indians of this agency in improve og their arms and in habits of ndustry and civilization than anything else that could be done.

SCHOOLS.

I had good industrial boarding-school buildings constructed at the Chehalis Indian reservation, and a good boarding-school opened there at the beginning of 1873, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1873, pp. 303 and 304,) but said school and all employés were discontinued at that reservation on the 30th of June, 1875, for want of funds, since which time there has been no school there, which is a calamity to civilization.

I also had good industrial boarding school buildings constructed at the Puyallup Indian reservation in 1873, and a good boarding-school commenced there in the fall of that year, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1873, p. 303,) which was continued up to June 30, 1876, when it stopped for a short vacation, but all employés at that place were soon afterwards ordered discharged for want of funds ; so there was practically no Indian school in this agency from the 1st of July, 1876, up to the 1st of July, 1877. The Hon. Commissioner Indian Affairs, under date of 28th of March last, informed me that I would be allowed $2,200 as an employé-fund for the fiscal year commencing July 1, 1877. So I employed the Rev. M. G. Mann and wife as teacher and matron to commence a day-school there the 1st of July, or as soon after as it could be got ready, and to continue the day-school till funds were sent me to purchase supplies for opening a boarding school, Mr. Mann's annual report accompanying this shows that he has been teaching over a dozen pupils, and that Mrs. Mann has been making clothing for them from material left over from the former boarding-school.

As stated in my last annual report, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1876, p. 139,) "a hundred Indian children could be had to attend an industrial boarding-school on that reservation if proper provision was made for school-room, teachers, boarding, and lodging.” But the Hon. Commissioner Indian Affairs informed me, under date of July in ultimo, that I could only be allowed funds sufficient to carry on a boarding-school “for, say, nine months, with from 20 to 25 picked boarding pupils, and as many day-scholars as you (1) can gather and teach.” I regret the inability of the government to provide for the maintenance of all that would come, as where so many desire to attend, it will unavoidably occasion some disappointment and ill feeling to discriminate in favor of some and against many others. The sunds for the maintenance of the boarding school not yet having arrived, it has not commenced.

MISSIONARY WORK DONE AND THAT SHOULD BE DONE.

The Rev. M. G. Mann, of the Presbyterian Church, came to the Puyallup reservation as a missionary at the beginning of 1876, and soon afterward organized a church there among the Indians. He was placed in charge of the boarding school there till it was discontinued, as stated. Since then he remained there as pastor of the Indian church, which has increased to 149 members, and has had a very marked and observable effect upon the moral deportment of the Indians of that reservation. Drunkenness, gambling, and other vices, formerly so common among them, have almost wholly ceased. Most of them attend church regularly every Sunday, well dressed, and as cleanly and as orderly in their behavior as an ordinary country congregation of whites. The elevating and purifying effect of Christianity was never more apparent among any people than among the Puyallups.

I am sorry to say that there has been no missionary work of any kind among any of the other Indians or reservations of this agency, with the exception of an occasional visit of a Catholic priest and some Christian people to the Nisqually reservation. With this little exception, the Nisqually, Squaxin, Chehalis, and Shoalwater Bay reservations are sadly neglected mission fields. The Indians of these reservations are teachable and easily accessible, and missionary labor is as much needed among them as among any people of Africa or India.

FARMING AND LABOR OPERATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

On the Puyallup reservation the farming improvements during the year, like those in morals, are very apparent. The season for farming operations has been very favorable, and crops of ail kinds bave given or will give an abundant yield where they have been properly cultured. On the Puyallup reservation, 1,048 acres are under cultivation, wbich is an increase of 333 acres over last year. The agricultural products of the Puyallup Indians during this season are estimated as follows: Wheat, 635 bushels ; corn, 140 bushels ; oats, 3,465 busbels; barley, 75 bushels; potatoes, 6,745 bushels ; turnips, 2,260 bushels; onions, 337 bushels ; beans, 440 bushels ; melons, 14 tons; pumpkins, 44 tons; hay cut, 723 tons. The Indians of this reservation now own 335 head of cattle, wbich is an increase of 111 head over Nisqually, and Squaxin reservations, (the latter is the only remaining original treaty reservation,) all rightfully and legally belonged to this agency, which includes Indians and res. ervations, parties to said treaty, also all of the non-treaty tribes and bands of West Washington. But from the fact that in 1860 the Muckleshoot reservation had been assigned, without legal authority, by Agent Simmons to the Point Elliott or Tulalip agency, (see report of Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1860, pp 193 and 194,) which assignment had been blindly acquiesced in for many years, Agent Chirouse believed he bad rightful jurisdiction over the Muckleshoot reservation.

After repeated applications by me to have a decision upon this matter, the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, under date of March 14, 1877, answered me, somewhat tartly, that he was "not aware that any question exists upon the point indicated, except as made by" myself, &c., and that the reservation belongs to the Tulalip agency.” So that matter is at last settled, and I am relieved from reporting as to the Muck leshoot reservation and Indians

PUYALLUP RESERVATION.

As your said circular of instructions of July 10, 1877, requires that annual reports "should contain such general information, heretofore reported, as in itself to afford to one who inquires for the first time respecting your (my) Indians a fair picture of their condition," I feel that I am not only licensed but, to some extent, commanded to draw upon my last annual report and those of former years to fill out a truthful picture of the condition of the Indians of this agency for general information.

The Puyallup reservation is altogether the most important of the five now belonging to this agency. There is fully as much good agricultural land upon it and about as many Indians belonging to it as to all of the other four reservations combined. It contains in all 18,0611 acres of land, at least two-thirds of which is very rich agricultural land, but it is all heavily timbered, except what has been cleared and between 200 and 300 acres of tide-flats.

HOMESTEADS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

Over 150 homestea is have been taken by Indians on this reservation, mostly in 40-acre lots ; an increase of 30 over last year. The aggregate of land now under cultivation upon all their claims is 945 acres ; an increase of 130 acres over last year.

TITLES TO HOMESTEADS.

Soon after coming to this Territory as superintendent of Indian affairs, I discovered that the bane of our Indian system and the prime cause of its failure was the fact of communing tribes upon reservations like herds of cattle in fenced pastures, without any individual property in the soil. (See Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1872, pp. 329 and 330.) 'So I set to work and succeeded in getting twelve of the fifteen Indian reservations in this Territory, including all in this agency, surveyed into 40-acre lots, for the purpose of having the Indians to take homesteads and obtain individual titles to the same like white men.

As soon as surveys were completed, I encouraged Indians to take claims on their reservations in accordance with the surveyed lines, build houses on and improve them, and I would see that every one who would do so would get a title or "paper" from the government for his claim. From the fact that the sixth article of the Medicine Creek treaty provides (see Revision of Indian Treaties, pp. 562 and 563) that the Indians of said treaty should have the privilege of taking separate permanent bomes on their respective reservations “on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are required in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable;" and from the fact that said sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas provides (see Revision of Indian Treaties, p. 639) that the “ President may issue a patent to such persons or families" as “have made a location on land for a permanent home," I supposed that the faith of the government thus plighted would cause the Indians to receive the deeds thus promised as fast as the names of the Indians with the numbers and descriptions of their selections were reported. But I bave been sadly disappointed so far. Either the sixth or seventh articles in each of the other five treaties with the Indians of this Territory contains the same provision as that quoted from the sixth article of the Medicine Creek treaty; but I believe that none of the agents of said treaties have yet succeeded in obtaining any titles from the government for their Indians. Most of the Indians of this agency, especially those of the Puyallup res. ervation, took claims soon after the survey and built dwellings, made" permanent homes" on and improved their claims, and have procured their subsistence by the cultivation of their farms like white men. Many complied with the requirements of making "permanent homes" and improvements four years ago, and have been looking to me for the fulfillment of my promise to get the “papers" for their claims. Some few of them have lost faith and aban. doned their claims, but the mass of them have great faith in my promise to them, and are still working away on their claims, believing that “Wasbington” will not let them lose their homes and labor.

I most earnestly urge that the allotment titles provided for by treaty be forwarded for the 138 names and descriptions forwarded by me for the Puyallups, a corrected list of which was forwarded a third time to your office under date of February, 28, 1877. The reception of these titles would do more to stimulate and encourage the Indians of this agency in improvng their arms and in habits of ndustry and civilization than anything else that could be done.

SCHOOLS.

I had good industrial boarding-school buildings constructed at the Chehalis Indian reservation, and a good boarding-school opened there at the beginning of 1873, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1873, pp. 303 and 304,) but said school and all employés were discontinued at that reservation on the 30th of June, 1875, for want of funds, since which time there has been no school there, which is a calamity to civilization.

I also had good industrial boarding-school buildings constructed at the Puyallup Indian reservation in 1873, and a good boarding-school commenced there in the fall of that year, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1873, p. 303,) which was continued up to June 30, 1876, when it stopped for a short vacation, but all employés at that place were soon afterwards ordered discharged for want of funds ; so there was practically no Indian school in this agency from the 1st of July, 1876, up to the 1st of July, 1877. The Hon. Commissioner Indian Affairs, under date of 28th of March last, informed me that I would be allowed $2,200 as an employé-fund for the fiscal year commencing July 1, 1877. So I employed the Rev. M. G. Mann and wife as teacher and matron to commence a day-school there the 1st of July, or as soon after as it could be got ready, and to continue the day-school till funds were sent me to purchase supplies for opening a boarding-school. Mr. Mann's annual report accompanying this shows that he has been teaching over a dozen pupils, and that Mrs. Mann has been making clothing for them from material left over from the former boarding-school.

As stated in my last annual report, (see Report Commissioner Indian Affairs for 1876, p. 139,) "a hundred Indian children could be had to attend an industrial boarding school on that reservation if proper provision was made for school-room, teachers, boarding, and lodging." But the Hon. Commissioner Indian Affairs informed me, under date of July il ultimo, that I could only be allowed funds sufficient to carry on a boarding-school “for, say, nine months, with from 20 to 25 picked boarding pupils, and as many day-scholars as you (1) can gather and teach.” I regret the inability of the government to provide for the main. tenance of all that would come, as where so many desire to attend, it will unavoidably occasion some disappointment and ill feeling to discriminate in favor of some and against many others. The funds for the maintenance of the boarding-school not yet having arrived, it has not commenced.

MISSIONARY WORK DONE AND THAT SHOULD BE DONE.

The Rev. M. G. Mann, of the Presbyterian Church, came to the Puyallup reservation as a missionary at the beginning of 1876, and soon afterward organized a church there among the Indians. He was placed in charge of the boarding-school there till it was discontinued, as stated. Since then he remained there as pastor of the Indian church, which has increased to 149 members, and has had a very marked and observable effect upon the moral deportment of the Indians of that reservation. Drunkenness, gambling, and other vices, formerly so common among them, have almost wholly ceased. Most of them attend church regularly every Sunday, well dressed, and as cleanly and as orderly in their behavior as an ordinary country congregation of whites. The elevating and purifying effect of Christianity was never more apparent among any people than among the Puyallups.

I am sorry to say that there has been no missionary work of any kind among any of the other Indians or reservations of this agency, with the exception of an occasional visit of a Catholic priest and some Christian people to the Nisqually reservation. With this little exception, the Nisqually, Squaxin, Chehalis, and Shoalwater Bay reservations are sadly neglected mission fields. The Indians of these reservations are teachable and easily accessible, and missionary labor is as much needed among them as among any people of Africa or India,

FARMING AND LABOR OPERATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

On the Puyallup reservation the farming improvements during the year, like those in morals, are very apparent. The season for farming operations has been very favorable, and crops of all kinds bave given or will give an abundant yield where they have been properly cultured. On the Puyallup reservation, 1,048 acres are under cultivation, wbich is an increase of 333 acres over last year. The agricultural products of the Puyallup Indians during this season are estimated as follows: Wheat, 635 bushels ; corn, 140 bushels; oats, 3,465 bushels ; barley, 73 bushels; potatoes, 6,745 bushels ; turnips, 2,260 bushels; onions, 337 busbels ; beans, 440 bushels; melons, l} tons; pumpkins, 44 tons ; hay cut, 723 tons. The Indians of this reservation now own 335 head of cattle, which is an increase of 111 head over last year. There has been some decrease in the number of horses owned by the Puyallups, which is a good indication, as they had too many ponies for profitable use. They have in. creased in the number of hogs owned from 60 last year to 230 this year. But few sheep are owned by them, only 8. They have built 51 new houses on this reservation during the year, and bave cut and sold 2,035 cords of cottonwood bolts. Over 100 of them were engaged in working on a 25-mile branch of the Northern Pacific Railroad, which was constructed through this reservation up to the coal mines, which is now about completed.

A very strong proof of the improvement of the Indians of the Puyallup reservation in morals is the fact that during the construction of said branch railroad through their res. ervation (over six miles) not one Indian was guilty of drunkenness or any disorderly conduct, notwithstanding there were many bad and demoralized white men engaged in said work.

THE INDIANS OF THE SHOALWATER BAY RESERVATION

have manifested a strong desire for improvement during the past year. Upon my recommendation they raised funds and hired a surveyor to lay off the agricultural portion of their reservation (a little over 100 acres) into lots of from one to six acres. Over 30 have each taken one of these lots. About half of them have built houses on their lots, and others are preparing to build on and improve their lots; and all want deeds or “papers" for their lots, which I have promised them. Their reservation is situated on Shoal water Bay, about 75 miles southwest of this place, and contains about 340 acres in all.

THE NISQUALLY RESERVATION,

situated 12 miles east of this place, contains 4,7177 acres, about one-eighth of which is good agricultural land. About 280 acres of it is under cultivation this year; no increase over last year worth naming. They have their whole reservation surrounded by a good fence for the purposes of a pasture, and have their little fields and gardens separately inclosed inside the reservation inclosure. The statistical table herewith inclosed shows a small increase in the number of domestic animals and of agricultural products over last year on the Nisqually reservation.

THE CHEHALIS RESERVATION

is situated on the Chebalis River, about 20 miles southwest of this place, and contains 4,2244 acres of land, over half of which is excellent agricultural land. I had a good school. house and commodious boarding-school buildings constructed there in 1872, in which a good school of from 20 to 40 pupils was kept two and a half years, but was discontinued from July 1, 1875, for want of funds, since which time there has been no Government employé there. I rented the school-farm there again last spring on the same terms as the year previous, for the purpose of having it kept in good repair, and for the purpose of having feed enough from the rent to feed the cattle and horses there belonging to the government, and in the hope that funds would be allowed to reopen the school there for Indian children, of whom 30 or 40 could be readily had. It will be seen by the statistical table of the Chehalis reservation, herewith inclosed, that there has been a falling off this year in the amount of land cultivated by the Chehalis Indians as compared with last year and a considerable fall. ing off in agricultural products.

THE SQUAXIN INDIAN RESERVATION

is an island of 1,494 acres in Puget Sound, 10 miles north of this place. For reasons stated in my last annual report, (see Report Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1876, p. 140,) deterioration and decay is still going on among the Indians of this reservation. Beyond a few garden-vegetables, no agricultural products worth mentioning have been raised this year by them. The table of statistics for this reservation, herewith inclosed, makes a meager showing:

REASONS FOR THE FALLING OFF IN THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND IMPROVEMENTS

IN SOME RESERVATIONS AND NOT IN OTHERS.

No seed of any kind was distributed among any of the Indians of this agency last spring, as on previous years. The Indians of the Nisqually, Squaxin. Chehalis, and Shoalwater Bay reservations have had no employés or missionaries among them, por any civilizing influences or advice except the occasional efforts and direction on visits by the agent.

Industry not being natural, but an artificial habit very difficult to be acquired by adult Indians, and civilization being an exotic among them, each requires the watchful nurture of one or more of those possessing both in a high degree on every reservation in order to promote progress and prevent retrogression. The effort of the Shoalwater Bay Indians at industry is spasmodic, occasioned by their newly acquired or discovered title to their reserva. tion and my visit to them. (See Report Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1876, p. 141.)

This spasm will soon pass off and not probably recur soon, unless some one with authority, intelligence, and Christianity goes to reside with and push them along. The Nisquallies have barely been prevented from falling back from the fact that they are near by and easily accessible. I see some of their chiefs or headmen almost daily. My interpreter and his wife belong to that tribe, and that reservation is occasionally visited and the Indians talked to by Christian people. The Squaxin reservation can only be visited by water, and is therefore difficult of access. The Chehalis reservation being over 20 miles distant by a rough road, much of the time almost impassable from mud and water, is also difficult of access; and both of these reservations being without government employés, missionaries, Christian visitors, or other civilizing influences, save the occasional visits of the agent, are retrograding. The Indians of the Puyallup reservation, though 40 miles distant from the agency and without government employés for the year previous to July 1, had the constant oversight of a devoted missionary and of a church of near 150 members, with regular preaching and Sabbuth school, and were stimulated in physical matters by the construction of a railroad through their reservation, which brought them in contact with energetic industry and afforded remunerative employment. There is, therefore, progression among them.

SUGGESTIONS, ETC.

The honorable Commissioner, in his said circular of instructions of the 10th ultimo, requests agents, in their annual report, to “make suggestions freely as to any changes con. sidered desirable in methods employed in treatment of Indians," &c. The wise and excellent recoin mendations of the bonorable Commissioner in his last annual report, as to the necessity for a fixed and permanent Indian policy, and in regard to the "concentration of all Indians upon a few reservations," "allotment to them of land in severalty," and extension over them of United States laws and the jurisdiction of United States courts," meet my most hearty approval in every particular, with the exception of his suggestion of the Yakama reservation as the one upon which to consolidate the Indians west of the Rocky Mountains and north of California, though this district of country is specified only by implication.

The Yakama reservation is east of the Cascade range of mountains, and is a large and excellent reservation, being 40 by 60 miles in extent, and mostly composed of good agricultural and pasture land; and Agent Wilbur, who has been with the Indians of that reserva tiou some fifteen years, has been splendidly successful in civilizing them ; but the climate east and west of the Cascade Mountains in this Territory is very dissimilar, and there is nearly as much dissimilarity in the habits and modes of living of the Indians of these two regions.

The Indians west of the Cascades resiile almost wholly around the shores of Puget Sound, the Straits of Fuca, and the Pacific Ocean, and on the streams emptying into these waters, and subsist largely upon fish and shell-fish. Hence the change of climate and modes of living would be no greater in moving them from west of the Cascades than to move them at once to the Indian Territory, where good policy requires that all the Indians belonging to our government should be gathered and permanently located as speedily as possibly.

In my annual report, as superintendent of Indian affairs Washington Territory, for 1874 (not published) I suggested that if it was intended to reduce the Indians west of the Cascades in this Territory to one reservation, as contemplated by Gov. I. I. Stevens, when making treaties with them, (see Revision of Indian Treaties, p. 380, art. 3,) for reasons stated, the most suitable reservation for this purpose would be the district of country in tbis Territory bounded by the coast range of mountains on the east, the Pacific Oceau on the west, the Straits of Fuca on the north, and Gray's Harbor on the south. Before this matter of concentration is fixed, I respectfully suggest that what is said in said last-named report, under the heading " Consolidation of all Indians of West Washington on one reservation," be looked at and considered.

ALLOTMENT TITLES.

On all of the reservations of this agency Indians have more or less made improvements of a permanent nature for the purpose of fixed homes. In all such cases I recommend that, when the reservations are abandoned or vacated, the Indian, at his option, be allowed to retain his home with land enough to embrace his improvements, in no case to be less than 40 acres or more than 160, for which he shall receive an allotment deed for twenty-five years, and only transferable to and inheritable by Indians; and as all the Indian treaties made in this Territory require that allotment titles shall be made in accordance with the sixth article of the treaty with the Oinahas, which requires as one of the conditions of the patent "that the tract shall not be aliened or leased for a longer term than two years," (see Revision of Indian Treaties, p. 639,) to this should be added, “nor without the consent of the Indian a gent in charge." Those acquainted with the gullibility of the Indian and the cupidity or the white man will see the necessity of this restriction.

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