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are a number of Blackbob Shawnees, aud Citizen Pottawatomies, who properly belong elsewhere, but who are temporarily residing bere.
The Quapaws, numbering about 235, occupy a tract of 56,685 acres in the northeast corner of the agency. The majority of the tribe have long desired to remove to the Osage agency, and become incorporated with that tribe; this desire, together with their dissipated habits and the proximity of their present location to the border, bas materially retarded their progress. The principal chief 'aud at least half the tribe removed to the Osages over a year ago, and have remained there since.
Early in the spring, in accordance with instructions of Hon. Superintendeut Nicholson, I apprised those upon the reservation of the intention of the Government to remove the Ponca Indians to the reservation, and to allow them to carry out their wishes by joining the Osages; this arrangement was entirely satisfactory to a majority of the tribe, but has been bitterly opposed by a few, backed by some unscrupulous, intermeddling whites, who desire, for the advancement of their own interests, to thwart the wishes of the Government. I am, lowever, of the opinion that the best ir terest of the tribe will be subserved by the proposed removal. It will be remembered that in the spring of 1875 the tribe entered into an agreement to relinquish about two-thirds of the reservation whenever wanted by the Government. Should they be permitted to retain the remainder, it would be impossible to get any considerable number of them to stay on it, the greater portion baving already abandoned their homes. Those that remain have not sufficient energy to keep up a tribal organization and make improvements, none having been made by them the present year, and all their old ground has not been planted; most, however, who remain on the reservation have planted more or less. All the children on the reserve of a suitable age, 25 in number, have been in school during the year, and nearly all regularly. I believe if these children can be prop. erly educated and cared for, for a few years longer, a brighter future is in store for them.
The Confederated Peorias and Miamis, numbering about 202, occupy a fertile tract of 50,301 acres. The consolidation of these tribes, so far as their lands are concerned, has been effected, and all uncertainty in regard to their homes removed. The good effect of this has been seen in the energy with which they have engaged in enlarging old and making new improvements. These people are thoroughly energetic and enterprising. They have good houses and barns, and many large farms well stocked with cattle, horses, and hogs. Their children have attended school with regularity, the attendance at the two schools on their reservation aggregating 87.
The Ottavus of Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Bæus, numbering about 140, have a reservation of 14,860 acres. They are energetic iu farming, nearly every head of a family in the tribe having an improvement of his own, ranging in size from a few acres to 160. There has been an aggregate attendance of 36 children at the school for this tribe during the year. Their condition and progress are very encouraging.
The Eastern Shuwnees, numbering 85, have 13,088 acres. They have some very fine improvements, and are adding to the size of their farms each year. A disposition is shown by some of their leading men which is very commendable. Thirty-one children belonging to this tribe and the Blackbob Shawnees residing among them, have been in school this year.
The Wyandotts number about 250, and occupy a reservation of 21,706 acres. They are, as a rule, enterprising and energetic. All are engaged in farming, some of them having fine, large farms with all the conveniences of civilized life about them. They have a considerable amount of stock, some of it of good blood, and many are much interested in improving its quality. They have had 65 of their children in school during the year.
The Senecas number 235, and occupy a reservation of 51,958 acres. These people are rapidly acquiring habits or industry and economy, which will soon enable them to compete favorably with the surrounding whites. They have good improvements, and are adding steadily to their size from year to year. The feeling of hostility to education and civilization, to which I have heretofore alluded as existing in this tribe, has almost entirely given way. This is evidenced by the unusual number of their children (46) in school during the past year. They have also shown unmistakable signs of a disposition to more and more adopt the ways of civilization and give up their old Indian customs. I believe this tribe has an unusually bright future before them.
The Modocs occupy 4,000 acres of fine farming and grazing land; they number 112. They are actively engaged in farming, and have been quiet and easily managed. All their children of suitable age (32 in number) have been in school almost continuously during the year. I have had 160 acres of new land broken for them this summer, a large portion of which will be sown to wheat this fall. They have this year 30 acres of wheat, 170 of corn, and about 8 acres of potatoes, garden vegetables, &c. Their wheat, though sown late, after the grasshoppers left last fall, has made a very good crop. The corn is excellent, promising as fine a crop as is often seen. I have purchased for them 61 cows and their calves, they already having about 30 head It is my wish to get this tribe engaged in stock raising as much as possible, as I believe their natural disposition and the nature of their reservation are both well adapted to this mode of life. They made during the past winter and spring about 15,000 new rails. There have been no cases of intemperance among them. The sickness which has been so prevalent among them since their settlement here appears to have abated to a great exteni, and their health during the past summer has been compard
tively good. They must, however, still be subject to sickness until they can be induced to take better care of themselves. It has been impossible to get them to understand the del. eterious effects of exposing themselves to inclement and wet weather unnecessarily; but I think as they continue to advance they will be more careful in these respects.
The stray Blackbobs, Pottawatomies, &c., who are living here, are not, as a general rule, a very progressive class of Indians. They are, with few exceptions, intemperate, lazy, and thriftless. Three-fourths of the cases of drunkenness that occur within the limits of the agency are among this class, and many of the others are through their influence. There are, how. ever, some honorable exceptions to this rule, a few being industrious, well-behaved men.
Taking all the tribes together, their condition is very encouraging-health has been un. usually good, and the season has been more favorable than common. They have worked well during the year; have raised a very large crop of corn, and have made many additions to their improvements. The amount of wheat raised is small. This was caused by the rave ages of the grasshopper last fall. There are within the agency (exclusive of the Government farm on the Quapaw reservation, cultivated this year by Government for the benefit of the Poncas,) 6,613 acres of land in cultivation, and 7,909 acres under fence. There have been during the year 763 acres of land broken ; 603 by the Indians, and 160 by the Govern. ment. The Indians bave made and put into fence 123,600 rails, besides about 15,000 made by the Modocs, but not yet put up. They have built 29 new houses, and have 891 horses, 1,254 cattle, 4,256 hogs.
The educational interests of the agency have never been in a more prosperous condition than during the past year; five schools have been in operation nine months each, with & total enrollment, as follows: Senaca, Shawnee, and Wyandott mission...
149 Quapaw and Modoc mission..
59 Ottawa mission ..
36 Confederated Peoria, &c., day-school..
56 Miami day-school
31 Total .....
331 The attendance has been more regular than ever heretofore, and the progress correspondingly better. Orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, written and mental; geograpby, physical and descriptive; English grammar, physiology, and bistory have been taught, and the children in each school have regular daily instructions in the Holy Scriptures. In ad. dition to this, both males and females in attendance at the missions have been regularly taught industrial arts. The boys are employed out of school in caring for stock, milk. ing, and farm and garden work. The girls, in attending to ordinary household and kitchen work, cooking, sewing, cutting garments, &c. They all take kindly to such work, and their parents, almost without exception, are pleased to have them so employed and instructed. The large proportion of females in attendance at such schools (over one-half of the enrollment) is an encouraging feature of the work; when any people among whom the degradation of woman has been so complete as it has been among the Indians, become so far advanced as to consent to and encourage the education of their girls, thus lifting them to an equality with the males, they have taken a very material and important stride toward civilization and Christianity.
The Quapaw and Modoc, Ottawa and Seneca, Shawnee and Wyandott missions are run by contract; the contractor furnishing teachers, boarding, and caring for the children, and receiving therefor $2 per week for the time actually attended by each child.
The Seneca, Shawnee and Wyandott, and Quapaw and Modoc missions, and the Con. federated Peoria, &c., day-school are now in operation, having been continued without any vacation at the close of the tiscal year. The Ottawa mission and Miami day-school had to be closed on account of changes in employés at these points. It is the expectation, bowever, to bave them reopened September 1.
The Peorias and Miamis have school-funds sufficient to carry on their schools, but the other tribes have to depend upon the liberality of the Government. I must urge upon the Department the importance of securing ample appropriations for school purposes. There should be at least $10,000 available for the support of the Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyan. dott, and Ottawa missions. This may seem like a large sum for two schools, but when the number of children educated, and the great good which is thereby being accomplished is taken into consideration, I do not think the amount can be deemed unreasonable.
Religious meetings and Sabbath-schools have been kept at each of the missions and school-houses, and a Sabbath-school and occasional meeting at the agency. These have all been well attended as a general thing, and much interest evinced. A series of union-meetings bas also been held at various points in the agency during the spring and summer. , These have been attended by large numbers of each tribe in the agency. At the last one which was held on the Ottawa reserve, June 29, 30, and July 1, there were at least 500 persons present. At all these meetings a prominent part bas been taken by many of the Indians, and the quiet, respectful attention given by alınost all has shown that a deep interest bas been awakened in the minds of many in their future welfare.
General temperance work bas been done at every opportunity. The habits of the people
in this respect have much improved during the last few years. Drunkenness has now become much more rare than formerly, especially among the leading men, many of whom were formerly much addicted to drink. While this is the case, it was never easier for an Indian to obtain whisky than at present. They can at all times command sufficient money, and men are plenty who will sell it to them for the sake of the paltry gain there is in this soul-destroying traffic.
I beg leave to again call the attention of the Department to the necessity of having a law enacted making it a criminal offense to sell intoxicating liquor to an Indian when off his reservation as well as on i. This, together with one to compel any Indian found in a state of intoxication to testify against the person furnishing the liquor, would be of great benefit, both to the Indians and to the whites with whom they come in contact. Without such legislation it will be impossible for those having charge of Indians to effectually break up their intemperate babits.
I am of the opinion that the time has fully arrived when the interests of the Indians of this agency would be best subserved by the allotment of their lands in severalty, with proper restrictions to prevent alienation. By this course the attachment of allottees to their homes will be strengthened, and the inducements for them to beautify and improve them will be increased with the feeling of security in their individual ownership, which can never be had while all lands are held in common.
In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the earnest and efficient aid which has been given to the cause of Christianity and civilization in this agency by the contractors and employés in charge of the varions missions and schools, and also the valuable pecuniary assistance which bas been rendered by Friends of Philadelphia and New England yearly meetings, Very respectfully, &c.,
H. W. JONES,
United States Indian Agent. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
OFFICE UNITED STATES INDIAN AGENT,
August 27, 1877. In compliance with instructions of circular letter of July 10, 1877, I have the honor to submit the following report of the condition of this agency and the Indians under my charge, in which are included the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi, numbering 405 ; the Absentee Shawnees, 661; Mexican Kickapoos, 317, and the citizen Pottawatomies, numbering about 250 ; and, after an acqnaintance with them for near two years, I can speak with assurance, and it is a source of gratification to be able to testify to their general quiet, peaceable, and friendly disposition, as the year has passed away without any act of violence or bloodshed. I believe the time is not far distant when most of them will cheerfully assume the duties of good citizens in their habits and occupations, as the necessary and inevitable result that must ere long come to them is now dawning with portentous evidences that to them are unmistakable.
The Sacs and Fores have added to their last year's area of cultivated land about 100 acres, and, although a large portion of their reservation is not first quality for farming purposes, their fields are generally located in rich valleys and low nooks; and this, with the favorable season for the growth of vegetation, bas enabled them to raise abundant crops for home supply. And while their moneyed aunuity enables most of them to live without much care or exertion, a portion of them are improving their opportunity, and are accumulating some surplus property in cattle, hogs, and ponies. Some of them cnltivated wheat for a few years, but the long distance to any place where it could be manufactured into flour, and the difficulties attending its cutting and thrashing, and their ill conveniences for preserving it, were such that it did not seem to justify a continuance.
The agency buildings are in good condition, with the exception of the saw-mill and commissary or store-room. I have had such temporary repairs done to the mill during the summer as were necessary to put it in condition for grinding what corn was needed for bread and to do a little sawing; but before it can be relied upon for regular business there will have to be extensive repairs made, as the boiler will have to be replaced by a new one, or have new flues. The machinery of the engine and saw also need considerable repairing. As suitable timber for sawing within convenient distance is scarce, it wonld seem hardly neces. sary to do this repairing, unless the mill was also provided with burrs and bolt for manufacturing flour, which will soon be a necessity, and the incentive for cultivating wheat increased.
The building used for storing supplies is insecure, both as a place of safety from theft and keeping goods from being damaged by inclement weatber. It is very important that this building should be replaced by another, more substantial and secure, if the necessity for storing supplies is continued.
The Sac and Fox manual-labor school has been attended more regularly during the past summer than at any other time since I took charge of the agency, aud commendable progress has been made by most of the children. The school-farm has been well cultivated, the
Jarger boys helping at all the farm-work. An abundant supply of sweet corn, potatoes, tomatoes, &c., for the use of the mission has been grown, beside the regular crop of corn wheat, and oats.
Sabbath-school has been kept up during the year, and is generally well attended. Three meetings for worship are held each week at the agency, one immediately following the Sabbath-school and one at evening; also one on fourth day (Wednesday) evening. These meetings are generally attended by the employés and a few Indians, beside those connected with the school. The Baptists also hold religious service twice a week at a member's house, about three miles from the agency. They have a membership of 26, and I believe have been instrumental in doing good by extending the knowledge of the love of Jesus and the story of the cross.
Quite a goodly number of the Absentee Shawnees are working Indians, doing all the kinds of labor required on an ordinary farm, with which most of them are provided, and the season has been so favorable that large crops of all their common products have been grown. The addition to the mission-building was completed in the latter part of June, but it was cou. sidered best not to admit other children at that time, as the warm weather was then coming on, and it seemed necessary to have a short vacation, to allow of the house being furnished and the school-room arranged by enlarging and supplying with new furniture, and the authorized help was not sufficient to admit more children at that time The school opened again on the 20th instant, after a vacation of three weeks, with a favorable prospect for it to be filled to its full capacity soon. The crop on the school-farm this season is excellent, and they have sufficient supply of all common garden-vegetables.
The Sam Warrior band, numbering more than one-third of the tribe, is still west of the Kickapoos, on the north side of North Fork, and the members refuse to avail themselves of the privilege of selecting their land, as provided for in act of Congress approved May 23, 1872.
And in this connection I would also beg leave to call the attention of the honorable Com. missioner to the necessity of Congress making an appropriation to pay for losses of property belonging to the Absentee Shawnee Indians destroyed during the late rebellion because of their loyalty, and while they were serving in the Union Army. Said claims baving been audited, are now on file in the Department at Washington.
The Mexican Kickapoos have done remarkably well, considering their restless disposition. They have increased their cultivated land about one-half the past season, and their crops are good. They now have about one hundred and fifty head of cattle, and from eighty to one hundred head of hogs. They are putting up a much larger amount of bay than ever before, and every indication is that they will comply with the requirements of Government without much hesitancy when they fully understand that business is meant with them. They are also abandoning the custom of living in villages, and are scattering out, quite a number having selected their locatious, and have been making some improvements on them the past summer in addition to the regular work of tending the home-crop. Some have made rails, broken up and fenced their farms, put up hay, and are getting out house-logs preparatory to building this fall. No houses have been built by them this season, as they have heretofore preferred living in their village “wickeups.”. Their stirring habits will insure their success and make them apt students of progress, if their superstitious notions and aversion to education could be supplanted by habits of Christianity and civilization.
The thirty-mile-square tract of land upon which the Citizen Pottawatomies are located, lies directly south of and adjacent to the Sac and Fox and Mexican Kickapoo reserves. They have made their selections south of Little River, (the Absentee Shawnees north.) They are self-supporting, receiving no Government aid whatever. A school house was built for them two years ago, but, owing to their limited pecuniary circumstances and scattered condition, they have been unable to bire teachers or to maintain a school, and whatever may have been their former condition, they are now objects of charity, and should huve some aid for school purposes, as many of them are far advanced in the scale of civilization, and are anxious to buve their children educated.
The Sacs and Foxs, and also the Mexican Kickapoos, still keep up the practice of making annual visits to the tribes around with whom they are friendly, for the purpose of exchang. ing or "smoking" ponies, a practice demoralizing, expensive, and useless, as it inclines to stimulate their nomadic disposition and foster their indifference in regard to the value of property and goods, which are ostensibly gifts, but in reality doubly paid for. This practice, with the absolute authority conferred upon the chiefs, and their great aversion to man. ual labor, from an idea of its degradation, are among the chief obstacles to civilization with these Indians. But still the increase in their crops, the large amount of hay put up, com. pared with former years, and a desire to have more land broken, to enlarge their farms, indicate an advance in the rigat direction; and just in the proportion that civilization, educa. tion, aîd general intelligence increase the influence and absolute control of the chief decrease. I herewith inclose statistical report. Very respectfully,
United States Indian Agenl. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
(Through Superintendent Nicholson.)
Office OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
Muskogee, Indian Territory, September 11, 1877. SIR: I have the honor of submitting this my second annual report as to the affairs per. taining to this agency, which embraces the following-named tribes : Cherokee, Creek, Choctar, Chickasaw, and Seminole.
It would be very improper for me to speak of this as a report of my Indians,” because of the manifest fact that during the year just closed more of the time and labor of this office have been given to the adjustment of difficulties and to other business of various kinds in which white men to much the greatest extent have been connected. There is also a large amount of Anglo-Saxon and African blood mixed with that of the Indians.
My work has not been to protect these tribes from cold and hunger by furnishing them with clothing and food—these are not supplied by the United States Government—as much as it has been to protect them in their treaty rights against the impositions and craftiness of dis honest white men, I would not intimate by this remark that there are no real good and honest wbite men among these tribes. There are very many, but those who are unscrupulous, selfish, unprincipled, and indolent far outnumber them. And while the good and bonest white people living here are slow to speak and act against the sins of the country, the latter are bold and reckless in their deeds of corruption; in fact, they control, to a large extent, the political and financial interests of the tribes ; and the crimes charged upon the Indians in too many cases may be traced either directly or indirectly to the influence or acts of corrupt, designing white men. These reflections naturally lead me, in this report, to speak of
THE NECESSITY OF GOOD AND WHOLESOME LAWS,
by which to regulate the relations and obligations of the United States citizen and Indian, one with the other. It is a settled fact that the two classes are found here mingled together in all the varied relations of life, and that the proportion of the former to the latter is immeasurably greater than most people living outside of the Territory would suppose. Indeed, they are so equally divided as to numbers, that there exists an absolute necessity for the exercise of such laws as are equally binding upon both.
The Indians in each of the five tribes of this agency have laws of their own by which to govern themselves. By these laws the innocent are protected and the guilty punished; but being made and executed by themselves exclusively, they do not attach to United States citizens. If a white man sees fit, in his depravity, to infringe upon the rights of an Indian, or to violate his pledge or contract with him, he has no redress whatever, as there is no tribunal to which he can appeal for justice. And so also, on the other hand, an Indian may trespass on the granted rights and privileges of a white man by a failure to meet his contract, by public slander, by forcible possession of his property, and in a variety of other respects, and there is no court to which he can appeal for satisfaction. The injured party, whether United States citizen or Indian, may make his complaint to this office, and after a careful investigation I may find the accused party verily guilty and so adjudge him, but here ends the matter, and the guilty party is only encouraged to go on in bis evil ways and sin with a bolder hand, simply because he knows there is no law invested with power to punish him for his wrong-doing, or compel him to make compensation for the injury done to others. Such is the dilemma in which Indians and United States citizens are here placed at the present time.
This office is often called upon to know if there is any law by which an Indian can collect a debt of a United States citizen, or a United States citizen collect a debt of an Indian, either by attachment or otherwise. Having never been able to find such a law myself, I decided some months ago to make an example of one case by referring it first to the Indian authorities, and if I failed there, then to refer it to the United States court. It was a case of debt where dishonesty was supposed to be intended. Mr. S. Schable, a Cherokee by marriage, had obtained credit of Mr. John Glunz, of Fort Scott, Kansas, for eighty-one dollars and fifty-three cents' worth of goods. The account was about two years' standing, and Mr. Glunz bad failed to elicit any response to the letters he had freqnently written to Mr. Schable in regard to his claim. He finally made a request of me to collect his account, and, knowiog as I did that Mr. Schable was a man of considerable wealth and engaged in a profitable business, I sent him the account by mail, requesting his early attention to the settlement of the same. An immediate answer by mail was received, acknowledging the justness of the claim, saying, however, “I regret exceedingly that Mr. Glunz deemed it necessary to present his bill for settlement through your office.” About a month afterward Mr. Glunz called my attention to the account, and I again wrote Mr. Schable, informing him that if he did not settle the claim before a certain time I sbould call the attention of the Cherokee authorities to the matter. In answer to this note be said:
I claim to be a man of lawful age, neither insane nor in my dotage, and fully competent to manage my owo affairs without the supervision or guardianship of any Indian agent. That I am a citizen of this Indian tribe certainly gives no official authority to interfere with or direct my private business. As to the implied threat of reference of the claim of Mr. Glunz to the proper Indian authorities for collection, I have to say that I am quite well informed as to how far such authority extends.