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IN CHEAPNESS. 180 ILLUSTRATIONS (18 of which are full-page) engraved from

original drawings and oil paintings made especially for this series by Peter Moran, Alice Barber, S. J. Ferris, Thomas Moran, Faber, Stevens, Poor, Bensell, Sheppard, Sooy, Beard, Faas, Cary, Lummis, Sayre, Lippincott, and other prominent artists.


The province of a Reading Book is to furnish proper material for teaching reading. It seems necessary to assert this in view of the modern tendency to inwrap, overlay, and general

. Ty confuse that part of a child's education known as “learning to read with a multiplicity of irrelevant matters-kindred, perhaps, but not material, and which, like the modern "varia. tions” to an old time melody, either divert the mind from the subject mainly under consideration or completely disguise its identity,

The publishers of Butler's Series have presented in these new Readers all that has been deemed essential for teaching reading easily and properly, These essentia are given in the best style. Whatever differences of opinion there may be in regard to the first proposition, there can be no question as to the beauty and clearness of the typography, the artistic finish and appropriateness of the illustrations, and the thorough, careful gradation secured by the author's plan of arrangement.

In the matter of gradation, the three main points taken into consideration were the sentiment of the lesson, the easiness or difficulty of the words used in its expression, and the proper variety of pleasing and instructive material. Many selections, not too advanced in sentiment, were either modified in language, or rejected as interfering with the distinct plan of a gradual increase of the vocabulary, which allowed only a limited number of new words to each lesson. These words, being diacritically marked, not only indicate the correct pronunciation, but also furnish valuable opportunities for phonic analysis.

The publishers, in submitting these books to the educational public as the proper judges of their merits, do so with a fair degree of confidence in their acceptability. It would be useless to say that the series is cheap, beautiful, well graded, and weli'fitted generally for teaching reading, if such were not the case; and on these points they have no hesitation in allowing the books to speak for themselves.

Liberal terms will be made for Readers exchanged for this new series. Special discount to the trade and dealers generally. Freight paid on all supplies for introduction, and an allowance made to persons authorized to handle supplies.

Sample Sets. Sample sets of this series will be sent by mail for exanıination on receipt of $1.50. This amount will be returned if the books are introduced.

Send for Specimen Pages, Circulars and Catalogue.




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[Read at Tiffin, O., Oct. 27, 1883, before a joint meeting of the teachers of Seneca, Wyandot, Hancock and Hardin Counties, by Rev.

W. T. JACKSON, Ph. D., Pres. of Fostoria Academy.) In every work, it is of prime importance that we propose to ourselves the right object to be attained. If we have set before us an object, either unworthy in itself or absolutely unattainable, only good fortune or a kind Providence can save us from utter failure. The last line of Pope's couplet is as true in teaching as in criticism :

"In every work respect the author's end,

Since none can compass more than they intend.” In teaching, our aims may be so high as to be unattainable, or so low as to be ignoble, so broad as to be impracticable, or so limited as to be one-sided, narrowing and degrading.

Much will depend, therefore, on the object we have in view, as to whether we turn out from our schools shallow and conceited upstarts, impracticable theorizers, intellectual and moral bigots, whose capacious intellects are filled all too soon, or send from us those whose minds are somewhat symmetrically trained, who have tolerably correct ideas of life, and who go forth with a manly spirit to take a full hand at the world's work. Nor less shall I consider it their excellence that they go forth to be humble and constant learners in the great school of life to the last day of their earthly existence.


But what, if one should enter the teacher's calling with no definite object before him? Aimless and perhaps heartless, the results of such a teacher's work must be as uncertain as shooting in a dense fog, and as precarious as the crops of the frigid zone. Dull routine and intellectual chaos must result.

In ancient Sparta, an extremely arbitrary system prevailed Personal liberty, genius, and preference were totally disregarded. The individual was sunk in the state. To make him a sturdy soldier, able to withstand external foes and more than a match for a rebellious slave at home, was the supreme aim,-and to this end his food and his fasting, his work and his play, his knowledge and his ignorance, his religion and his marriage, nay, even the privilege of existence were subordinated. Individual tastes availed nothing when the state laid its iron hand upon the child, and parental affection was impotent to save the unfortunate weakling in a country whose only hospitals and asylums were the wolves of Mt. Taygetus. A system thus arbitrary and repressive may answer very well for a despotism, monarchical or aristocratic, but for a free people, who must think, act, and assume responsibilities as individuals, and where the largest personal liberty is granted and the fullest opportunities for the highest development and culture, it would be manifestly unfit.

How different the ideal at Athens, where music, the drama, art, oratory and literature were all encouraged, where beauty was prized for its own sake, where the highest education then to be had was obtain able, and where the liberty and nobility of the individual were recognized. Athens was the center of the world's culture for many generations, attracting Cicero and hundreds of other Roman youths who aspired to the highest education, and could find there what they could find nowhere else. How much the world is indebted to Athens to-day, it would indeed be difficult to tell.

But I wish to be practical, and to come to our own times. We find our educational system resting principally on two broad and substantial foundations : first, the legislation of the several state governments, and, secondly, private benevolence. It is true that private enterprise, apart from benevolence, is doing not a little ; and also that the national government, by its Bureau of Education, by its guardianship of the Smithsonian Institution, by its munificent donations to the States for the founding of agricultural colleges, by its two appropriations of one thirty-sixth of the public lands to school purposes, and by its naval and military schools, exerts no inconsiderable influence. Yet when the amount thus expended is compared with the vast sums expended by the several States and by the various churches, the result remains as stated.

Now the question, What is the True Object of the School? may be discussed in behalf of the state, the church, and the pupil. The state justly seeks to provide for her own perpetuity and progress. And in the belief that intelligence and virtue are necessary to secure both these ends, as early as 1787, an ordinance was passed declaring that "religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.” The state justly seeks to prevent pauperism and crime, ; to secure that general intelligence which our system of government presupposes ; to develop her own resources by affording the means for acquiring skill in mining, manufacturing, chemistry, engineering and agriculture; and to provide itself with skilled officers of the army and navy for the nation's defense. These propositions contain a good deal, and I know not but they contain the reasons for some measure of compulsory education, adapted to our free institutions. The experiments now making in some of the States will, we trust, soon settle that question.

The church justly hopes through her system of education to provide and qualify a sufficient number of workers, both lay and clerical, to carry on her ever-enlarging operations, and to impart to all who attend her institutions, together with intellectual training, a due respect for, and some acquaintance with, the doctrines and practice of Christianity; and this end, it will be seen, is in perfect keeping with the original national ordinance just read.

As for the pupil, for whom these benefits are immediately designed, his aims may be as multifarious as the views of the kaleidoscope. He is not competent, at his inexperienced age, to direct his education. Such frivolous motives may actuate him as love of company, love of play, fancied like or dislike of the teacher, desire to escape work, or on the other hand, a truly noble and worthy ambition. But I shall assume that at a mature age his purpose ought to be, as that of his parents, if intelligent, now is, to develop most fully his mental and moral powers, to gain a good idea of the world's work, and a practical fitness and disposition to engage in it.

Now such being the ends to be attained, what objects ought the teacher, who stands at the focus of influence as representative of all the parties named, as sole executor of this important trust, to propose to himself ? Evidently he must be thoroughly prepared to impart

I. Instruction. The child by nature is utterly ignorant of the mode in which it is to live and act. But its mind is endowed with an ardent desire for knowledge of external objects. Precisely at this time are its perceptive faculties wonderfully acute and sensitive. What could be

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