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ture, about 40° or 50° above zero being up over the bees, when the atmospheric the best. 4th. No disturbances of any pressure will keep the liquid from running kind, with a proper exclusion of light-out, except at first, when a teaspoon-full total darkness and stillness being the best Or so will drop, which the bees will take for keeping the bees quietly confined to care of. The hive should be as near level their hives. A good method of out-door as possible. Sometimes when the bees do wintering is to set up and tie a shock of not care for the food, or the weather is too corn stalks around the hive, enough to cool, drops of moisture will gather on the break the winds and keep the hive dry, can, and form a draft for the

syrup,

which at the same time packing plenty of hay will act the same as a half dozen bees, and or straw around and over the frames, after the feeder will leak a little.

The can properly ventilating and protecting the must be perfectly air-tight. I give mine bees from the mice, and also securing the a couple of coats of paint, outside, which bees a small and suitable passage to and keeps them from rusting. from the external atmosphere. The straw SMOKER,—a tin tube, one and one-fourth and fodder will absorb the moisture col- by six inches, ends covered with perforalecting around the bees, conveying it to ted tin, pressed inwards; two mouth piethe external atmosphere and also more ces fitting over the ends of the tube, refully protect them by confining their ani- movable, and tapering to a point, with a mal heat.

knob on each to hold between the teeth I hope the foregoing may enable some like the stem of a pipe. To use it, fill one of my fellow bee-keepers to be more suc- of the mouth pieces with tobacco (I supcessful in feeding and wintering their bees pose fine rotten wood would do), light it, than heretofore.

A. T. WRIGHT. and crowd it on to the table, then blow Chicago, Ill., Dec. 1, 1873.

through the other mouth-piece, and there is your smoke. For those who use the

weed, it is very handy, for it can be held For The American Bee Journal.

between the teeth, through a hole in the Adam Grimm's Bee-feeder and Smoker.

vail, and the smoke directed to different In the December JOURNAL, Mrs. Lucinda handle frames, etc.

places, while both hands are at liberty to

But for those who W. Harrison wants to know why I did not

do not use tobacco, and certainly ladies, describe Mr. Grimm's bee-feeder and smok

I think a piece of rotten wood is far er. I thought I would leave that for Mr. preferable. A little cup with handle and G. to do, but as he has not done so, I will perforated tin bottom, is a nice thing to lạy do it now. Ladies are said to have a live- | the wood in, when the smoke can

be ly imagination, so, Mrs. II., please try and blown down through it, and no danger imagine this description.

from fire when it is set down. If Mrs. H. BEE-FEEDER,—a tin can four and one

does not understand the description of the fourth inches in diameter, and four inches feeder, I will send her a sample by express high; a hole in the center of the end, one

for twenty-five cents, and her tinman can and one half inches in diameter, covered make them from it. .W. M. KELLOGG. with perforated tin, soldered on; a small Oneida, Ili., Dec. 19, 1873. hole near the edge of the same end, on which is soldered a screw cap, the same as on kerosene cans, with the rim of the

Honey may be kept in perfect purity cap cut down so as not to project over

for years by boiling the strained or exfive eights of an inch from the can. A

tracted article, then skim it carefully, and rim is soldered on to the end of the can,

seal it up air tight, as fruit is canned, then three fourths of an inch wide, so that keep it in a cool, dark place. when the can is turned with the hole downwards, there will be room for the As a supply for the Winter, a strong bees to come up under it, and eat honey, stock should, on the first of November, syrup, or water through the perforated contain at least one pound of honey for tin. Fill the can with a tunnel through every thousand bees; and a weak stock the screw cap, turn the cap on tight, and should then have a pound and a half for with a quick motion turn the can bottom every thousand bees.Hoffman.

THE WINGS OF THE BEE.

The horny frame upon which the fine

membrane of the wings is stretched, is all Physiologically considered as Organs of

of it composed of hollow tubes of a hard

substance called chitine (the same subFlight and of Special Sensation.

stance that constitutes the hard part of The following paper was read before the

the organs and the crust of all insects).

Those tubes are double, being one tube Bee-keepers' Convention, by Gen. Adair :

inside of another. The inner ones are To the novice the wings of a bee appear extensions of the trachea through which as a dry membrane or tissue of skin,stretch- the air circulates in breathing; between ed over a frame-work of as equally dry and which and the other is a space through lifeless ribs of hard, elastic, horny matter. which the blood circulates, and is brought He does not suspect that they have other in contact with the air through the thin than to enable the bees to fly, or that their walls of the air tubes, just as the air and loss or destruction does' other injury than blood are brought together in the human to disable them from flight.

It is a com

lungs, and with the same effect. mon practice even among well informed Thus we see that the wings, besides beapiarians to cut off the wings of the queen ing organs of flight, are in reality lungs. to prevent her going off with a swarm. The blood in the wings, however, is not A better acquaintance with the structure confined to those tubes, but circulates like and uses of the wings would show that any the sap in the leaves of plants to all parts such mutilation must be injurious.

of them, and, it is likely, is thus also Bees do not breathe through the mouth, aerated. neither do they have lungs, like the high- The nervous filaments we have also seen er animals. Respiration is carried on

pass to the wings. They follow these through an intricate ramification of minute tubes, and all the fine venations, and tertubes called trachea, having their outlets minate in every part of the wings in what or mouths as pores (called spiracles or are called nerve filaments (papillæ), wbich stigmata) in the sides of their bodies, under in all animals are vehicles through which and bebind their wings. Through these all sensations are perceived ; so that we breathing pores the air is led by those may inter that the wings of bees, besides delicate tubes to every part of the body, giving the power of flying and acting as even to the tips of their wings.

lungs, are also organs of sensation of some Bees have no heart as higher animals kind. All parts of the human body have have. A tube, or as it is called, a 66 dorsal these nerve filaments on the surface, vessel,” lying just beneath the middle line through which the sense of touch is exerof the back, and extending from the head cised. The eye bas them so modified that to the tip of the abdomen, performs that they give us sight. On the tongue they office. The blood is received into this tube, give us taste; in the nose, smell, and in the and, as bees have no veins proper, it es- ear, hearing—in each case modified to give capes from all parts of the tube and tra- different perceptions. For what purpose verses the body in currents, bathing all the the wings of bees are so supplied has not organs, even to the extremities of the been determined. We would of course wings.

conclude that the wings were not organs The nervous system of bees consists of of sight or taste. a cord, or rather a double cord, commenc- In all the investigations of naturalists ing in a knot in the head, which is their none of them have been able to locate the so-called brain; from thence it extends organ of smell, although the belief is that throughout the whole length of the body it is the most powerful of all their senses under all the internal organs, resting on and the most necessary to them in searchthe ** floor" of the body-walls. On this ing for honey. By means of it, it is supcord, at intervals, there are swellings posed that they recognize each other and (yanglia) from which fine filaments are distinguish between their fellows and sent out, which are special nerves for the strangers to the colony. Some have sugvarious organs to which they lead ; one gested the antennæ as the organs of smell, branch passing to the wings is distributed but as they appear to be poorly adapted through all parts of them.

to perform such an office, it is just about

For the American Bee Journal,

as likely that they smell with them as that fect of drawing in through the spiracles a they see with them, which some have sup- i quantity of air, which is distributed over posed they did. Invisible and subtle parti- the whole body, thus rendering it of less cles emanating from odorous bodies (often specific gravity; the air being further exso fine that they elude all attempts to de- panded by the warmth of the body acts tect them by any other means), coming like the heated air of a balloon, and enin contact with the olfactory nerve-fibers, ables the insect to rise easily and sustain a produce the sense of smell. These atoms long flight, even when loaded with honey are mixed with and float in the air, and and pollen. In the act of alighting it ex: in order to collect them a considerable pels the air with which it has been inflated, volume of air must be made to pass over and falls suddenly to the alighting board the surface—a thing which the wings cer- of the hive. If the landing place is nartainly accomplish in an eminent degree. row and elevated, and it misses reaching It is highly probable thai the sense of it, the bee will be sure to fall helplessly to smell is lodged in the wings.

the ground, and can only rise again by The sense of hearing in bees has never inflating its body. Bees with larger bodbeen located by naturalists, although that ies than our honey-bee, the large bumbleoffice has by some been attributed to the bees have at the base of the abdomen, in antennw also. Is it not more probable addition to the ordinary air-vessels, two that the wings exercise it? The impress- large sacs, called air vesicles, which are ion of sound is produced on the organs of supposed to be used alone for inflation in hearing in all animals by vibrations of flying, and some other insects have in the elastic bodies (commonly the air). A deli- heavier parts of their bodies similar sacs. cate, thin membrane stretched across what is called the drum of the ear, receives the impression, and communicates it by means Italian Bees.—Their Worthlessness. of an intricate arrangement of parts to the auditory nerve-fibers, or papillæ. What We give below, an extract from the disappendage of the bee would be more suit-cussion that took place at the meeting of ed to receive such impressions than the the Bee-keepers' Association, of Ober Hess, , thin, stiff membranes composing the in July last, by which it will be seen that wings?

there are some in Germany as well as this But it is not intended in this article to country, who have no faith in the Italian discuss these questions. I only throw race of Bees. them out as suggestions. Whether the The question before the Association for wings are the organs of smell or hearing, discussion was: What practical results or not, does not materially affect the point have thus far been obtained by the introI wished to make, i. e., that the clipping duction of the Heath bee as compared of a queen's wings is an injury to her. We with that of the other imported raceshave seen that they perform the office of Carnolian and Italian? lungs, and that a queen with clipped Herr Dorr, of Mettenheim, said : Gents, wings is in the same condition that a man Since 1857 I have interested myself in imwould be with part of his lungs gone. ported races of bees, especially the Italian, Those who have seen human beings in I was their warm defender, and protected that condition need not be told how use- and guarded them as pet children, and less they are for the active duties of life. thus became possessed of fine, pure coloAn insect like the bee, with a differently nies, and also some crosses in the first and distributed vitality, may not be injured to second degree. But when I seek to find the same extent, but that it is injurious no out what has been the practical result one certainly can doubt; and if by the from 1857 to the present, what return I mutilation, the sense of smell is destroyed, have bad for my trouble, outlay of money, and the queen rendered deaf, her useful- etc., in the introduction of different races ness would certainly be impaired.

of bees, I am forced to acknowledge that In the act of flying the bee makes an- all the foreign races combined are not other use of the trachea. At the moment worth an iota. I will not include the list of elevating its wings it may be seen to by foul-brood which was introduced into increase in size suddenly, which is the ef- / my apiary through these importations.

I, for my part lost 500 guilders through was imported with the Italian bees, or the foul brood introduced by the Italians, whether from a peculiar character of the and on these grounds I warn all my Asso- Italian bee, which would in our climate ciation friends. I must hence decidedly produce foul brood. oppose any further importations.

Herr Dorr. From 1857 to 1863, as SecInestimable damage has been done to retary of this Association, I received from our neighborhood by the introduction of Dzierzon Italian Queens. The Associathe Italian race. I could mention whole tion of the Palaterate received from me apiaries, containing upwards of forty Queens. Yet not in one instance did foul stocks of movable comb hives, that were brood appear. In 1863 after the meeting Italianized and have gone to total ruin. at Hanover occurred the discussion as to In 1868 I owned 100 movable comb hives; the difference between the queens raised three fourths of which had pure Italian by Dzierzon, and those imported. queens, and the other fourth were half- In the spring of 1863 I received my first breeds. From that time on I began to queens from Mora, and the following Fall Germanize my stocks, and from 100 have

foul brood made its appearance.

At the come down to 40 Italian stocks; and so time I ascribed the appearance of foul perhaps it may be with other members of brood to a peculiar circumstance. A friend the Association. I could show you with of mine had some Italian queens in a triple statistics how great the loss has been to hive. He desired me to put it in order. our Association alone. You would be I agreed to do it, and had the hives amazed, and from this basis advise against brought to my apiary. I then purchased every introduction of foreign races.

some honey from the honey dealers, for The Heath bee does not suit us, because feeding, and I believed that the foul brood it swarms too much, when it should be was caused by this honey. But it so hapgathering honey. I have in my imme-pened that others, who in 1863 and 1864 diate neighborhood, a beginner, å man of received queens were as unfortunate as good judgment, who, persuaded by the myself. Last year I tried some from Uhle, praises of Gravenhorst, procured 22 stocks but with the same result-foul brood. of heather-bees. These cost, when they Prof. Baest. At what time did foul reached Alshiem, somewhat over 500 guil- brood appear most abundant ? ders. He built a house. To-day they Mr. Dorr. I have not yet concluded. are standing there without a half ounce of From the hundred, yes, hundreds of queens, honey ; they swarmed, however, in abund- I have certain information of, I am con

Thus are failures produced, and vinced that the queens reared in May, upon these grounds I hold it to be my June, and July are not foul-broody; while duty to so work, that our Associations on the other hand, those raised in the Auwill take this matter decisively in hand. tumn months, and those raised in Canton

Since 1868 I would not endure any Ital- | Tessin and sent out by the farmers, are ian blood in my apiary. I have half-breeds nine-tenths of them foul-broody: Of the who do very well. Last year I allowed former, hardly one fourth show themselves myself to be again persuaded and engaged foul-broody. Hence let the importing of 4 very choice queens, and this spring three strange races of bees alone. If we had of them were proved to have foul brood. spent for the aid of natural bee-keeping The entire stands were destroyed. This in the Grand Dutchy of Hesse, the amount again cost me a fine sum of money. It of money expended for importing foreign would be far otherwise, if we would more bees, bee-keeping here would be in a very closely watch our native bees, and from

different stage. year to year note what stock distinguishes President. Judging from the remarks itself beyond the others, and make these of Mr. Dorr, it appears that foul brood is the standards from which to rear our imported with the Italians, and not a pequeens,and I believe we would improve our culiarity of that race. race of bees without costing us so much Mr. Dorr. I have one more remark to money:

make. I have, for example, often in Fall, President. It might, perhaps, be inter- in order to quickly accomplish my work, esting should Mr. Dorr explain how the smoked the bees with a putt-ball, and in foul brood got into his hives, whether it I the evening I opened the hive and placed

ance.

For the American Bee Journal.

as likely that they smell with them as that feet of drawing in through the spiracles a they see with them, which some have sup- i quantity of air, which is distributed over posed they did. Invisible and subtle parti- the whole body, thus rendering it of less cles emanating from odorous bodies (often specific gravity; the air being further exso fine that they elude all attempts to de- panded by the warmth of the body acts tect them by any other means), coming like the heated air of a balloon, and enin contact with the olfactory nerve-tibers, ables the insect to rise easily and sustain a produce the sense of smell. These atoms long flight, even when loaded with honey are mixed with and float in the air, and and pollen. In the act of alighting it exin order to collect them a considerable pels the air with which it has been infiated, volume of air must be made to pass over and falls suddenly to the alighting board the surface—a thing which the wings cer- of the hive. Itthe landing place is nartainly accomplish in an eminent degree. row and elevated, and it misses reaching It is highly probable that the sense of it, the bee will be sure to fall helplessly to smell is lodged in the wings.

the ground, and can only rise again by The sense of hearing in bees has never inflating its body. Bees with larger bodbeen located by naturalists, although that ies than our honey-bee, the large bumbleoffice has by some been attributed to the bees have at the base of the abdomen, in antenna also. Is it not more probable addition to the ordinary air-vessels, two that the wings exercise it? The impress. large sacs, called air vesicles, which are ion of sound is produced on the organs of supposed to be used alone for inflation in hearing in all animals by vibrations of flying, and some other insects have in the elastic bodies (commonly the air). A deli- heavier parts of their bodies similar sacs. cate, thin membrane stretched across what is called the drum of the ear, receives the impression, and communicates it by means Italian Bees.-Their Worthlessness. of an intricate arrangement of parts to the auditory nerve-fibers, or papilla. Wbat We give below, an extract from the disappendage of the bee would be more suit- cussion that took place at the meeting of ed to receive such impressions than the the Bee-keepers' Association, of Ober Hess, thin, stiff membranes composing the in July last, by which it will be seen that wings?

there are some in Germany as well as this But it is not intended in this article to country, who have no faith in the Italian discuss these questions. I only throw race of Bees. them out as suggestions. Whether the The question before the Association for wings are the organs of smell or bearing, discussion was: What practical results or not, does not materially affect the point have thus far been obtained by the introI wished to make, i. l., that the clipping duction of the Heath bee as compared of a queen's wings is an injury to her. We with that of the other imported raceshave seen that they perform the office of Carnolian and Italian ? lungs, and that a queen with clipped Herr Dorr, of Mettenheim, said : Gents, wings is in the same condition that a man Since 1857 I have interested myself in imwould be with part of his lungs gone. ported races of bees, especially the Italian. Those who have seen human beings in I was their warm defender, and protected that condition need not be told how use- and guarded them as pet children, and less they are for the active duties of life. thus became possessed of fine, pure coloAn insect like the bee, with a differently nies, and also some crosses in the first and distributed vitality, may not be injured to second degree. But when I seek to find the same extent, but that it is injurious no out what has been the practical result one certainly can doubt; and if by the from 1857 to the present, what return I mutilation, the sense of smell is destroyed, have bad for my trouble, outlay of money, and the queen rendered deaf, her useful. etc., in the introduction of different races ness would certainly be impaired.

of bees, I am forced to acknowledge that In the act of flying the bee makes an- all the foreign races combined are not other use of the trachea. At the moment worth an iota. I will not include the list of elevating its wings it may be seen to by foul-brood which was introduced into increase in size suddenly, which is the ef | my apiary through these importations.

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