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queens, increase the number of our stocks sugar should never be used. Good sugar artificially, and we feel like adding, how is the cheapest, and is also healthy for the to winter successfully, and with certainty beos. Honey from other hives often proves also, but we should feel lost to attempt any fatal to them while confined to their hives. of these without the extractor, most espe- When bees are fed late in the Fall, or durcially the latter. Before the advent of

Before the advent of ing continued, cold weather, place their the extractor, even with movable combs, hive at an Speu, window in a room kept the progress in the interior of the hive was constantly warm, where the bees can mostly guesswork, and only viewed at crawl back into the hive after flying. rare intervals and with the feeling that it Keep the room warm until they have was an intrusion.

stored, evaporated, and sealed over enough Now we watch the progress of honey syrup to last them until Spring. With storing and comb building, even to seeing the Universal Hive, as patented Aug. 26, every comb that is built and whether it 1873, I accomplish the same thing withbe worker comb, strait, etc.; our queens

out letting the bees out, by placing a are seen, their fertility noted, progress of screen in front of the hive, securing a brood rearing, amount of pollen on hand, space for the bees to fly in. A frame of what becomes of it, etc. Swarming is empty comb filled with syrup, poured inkept under almost entirely by its use, and to the cells from a suitable hight, may althe disorderly work that follows almost so be placed between the screen and the always where natural swarming is allowed, end of the hive, which, being exposed to is avoided.

the light and the open air, will cause the Last and not least, without the use of bees to remove the syrup to the interior. the extractor we should be almost power- | By this means the bees may be kept in a less to avert the consequences of Bee Mal- parlour, or any other suitable, warm room ady in wintering. By removing natural while being fed, and at any season of the stores entirely, and supplying them with year. When feeding bees in the Spring, food of known and invariable quality, we or any other time, care should be taken are no farther depending on the chance not to give them much more syrup than that may perhaps have provided whole they will consume in preparing food for some food for Winter.

In judicious feeding lies one of the great secrets of success. Plenty of flour also

should be given to the bees as early and How to Feed and Winter Bees. late in the Spring as they will use it. It

may be protected from robber bees by Messrs. Editors: In/response to many means of the screen arranged as already inquiries in regard to keeping and winter pointed out. In the sunshine is the most ing bees, please give the following an in- favorable place for the flour, which may sertion in the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL if also be made of different kinds of grain. found worthy.

A cool, still, dry, and perfectly dark place, To each quart of sugar add one pint of with thorough ventilation to the hive, is the hot water, heat to the boiling point and most favorable place and condition in which skim; or to every three pounds of sugar to winter bees. They should be kept as add two pounds of hot water, stir, heat, quiet and free from disturbance as possiand skim as before directed. As soon as ble. To prevent the accumulation and cool enough it is ready for the bees. retention of dampness or water, the hive

For feeding in the Spring, Summer or must be well ventilated, and should also be early in the Fall, a common grade of good so arranged and protected that the bees sugar does very well; but for late Fall or can economize their animal heat to the Winter feeding, use the most refined | best advantage. Proper conditions will grades. Feeding for Winter should be ever secure success in wintering bees. The done during warm weather, soon after the required conditions may be enumerated as first killing frosts and as fast as the bees follows: 1st. A productive queen, with can store away the syrup, and until the bees enough to rear brood. 20. Suitable brood combs have been well filled. Mo- combs stored with wholesome food. 3d. lasses, sorghum, or the poorest grade of A pure atmosphere of a suitable tempera

the young:

For The American Bee Journal.

For The American Bee Journal.

ture, about 40° or 50° above zero being up over the bees, when the atmospheric the best. 4th. No disturbances of any pressure will keep the liquid from running kind, with a proper exclusion of light-out, except at first, when a teaspoon-full total darkness and stillness being the best or so will drop, which the bees will take for keeping the bees quietly confined to

care of.

The hive should be as near level their hives. A good method of out-door as possible. Sometimes when the bees do wintering is to set up and tie a shock of not care for the food, or the weather is too corn stalks around the hive, enough to cool, drops of moisture will gather on the break the winds and keep the hive dry, can, and form a draft for the syrup, which at the same time packing plenty of hay will act the same as a half dozen bees, and or straw around and over the frames, after the feeder will leak a little. The can properly ventilating and protecting the must be perfectly air-tight. I give mine bees from the mice, and also securing the a couple of coats of paint, outside, which bees a small and suitable passage to and keeps them from rusting. from the external atmosphere. The straw SMOKER,

,-a tin tube, one and one-fourth and fodder will absorb the moisture col by six inches, ends covered with perforalecting around the bees, conveying it to ted tin, pressed inwards; two mouth piethe external atmosphere and also more ces fitting over the ends of the tube, refully protect them by confining their ani- movable, and tapering to a point, with a mal heat.

knob on each to hold between the teeth I hope the foregoing may enable some like the stem of a pipe. To use it, fill one of my fellow bee-keepers to be more suc- of the mouth pieces with tobacco (I supcessful in feeding and wintering their bees pose fine rotten wood would do), light it, than heretofore.

A. T. WRIGHT. and crowd it on to the table, then blow Chicago, Ill., Dec. 1, 1873.

through the other mouth-piece, and there is your smoke. For those who use the weed, it is very handy, for it can be held

between the teeth, through a hole in the Adam Grimm's Bee-feeder and Smoker.

vail, and the smoke directed to different

places, while both hands are at liberty to In the December JOURNAL, Mrs. Lucinda handle frames, etc. But for those who W. Harrison wants to know why I did not do not use tobacco, and certainly ladies, describe Mr. Grimm's bee-feeder and smok- I think a piece of rotten wood is far

I thought I would leave that for Mr. preferable. A little cup with handle and G. to do, but as he has not done so, I will perforated tin bottom, is a nice thing to lay do it now. Ladies are said to have a live

the wood in, when the smoke can be ly imagination, so, Mrs. H., please try and blown down through it, and no danger imagine this description.

from fire when it is set down. If Mrs. H. BEE-FEEDER, –a tin can four and one does not understand the description of the fourth inches in diameter, and four inches feeder, I will send her a sample by express high; a hole in the center of the end, one

for twenty-five cents, and her tinman can and one half inches in diameter, covered make them from it. •W. M. KELLOGG. with perforated tin, soldered on; a small

Oneida, Ill., Dec. 19, 1873. hole near the edge of the same end, on which is soldered a screw cap, the same as on kerosene cans, with the rim of the Honey may be kept in perfect purity cap cut down so as not to project over

for years by boiling the strained or exfive eights of an inch from the can.

tracted article, then skim it carefully, and rim is soldered on to the end of the can,

seal it up air tight, as fruit is canned, then three fourths of an inch wide, so that keep it in a cool, dark place. when the can is turned with the hole downwards, there will be room for the As a supply for the Winter, a strong bees to come up under it, and eat honey, stock should, on the first of November, syrup, or water through the perforated contain at least one pound of honey for tin. Fill the can with a tunnel through every thousand bees; and a weak stock the screw cap, turn the cap on tight, and should then have a pound and a half for with a quick motion turn the can bottom every thousand bees.Hoffman.

er.

THE WINGS OF THE BEE.

The horny frame upon which the fine

membrane of the wings is stretched, is all Physiologically considered as Organs of

of it composed of hollow tubes of a hard

substance called chitine (the same subFlight and of Special Sensation.

stance that constitutes the hard part of The following paper was read before the

the organs and the crust of all insects).

Tbose tubes are double, being one tube Bee-keepers' Convention, by Gen. Adair:

inside of another. The inner ones are To the novice the wings of a bee appear extensions of the trachea through which as a dry membrane or tissue of skin,stretch- the air circulates in breathing; between ed over a frame-work of as equally dry and which and the other is a space through lifeless ribs of hard, elastic, horny matter.

which the blood circulates, and is brought He does not suspect that they have other in contact with the air through the thin than to enable the bees to fly, or that their walls of the air tubes, just as the air and loss or destruction does' other injury than blood are brought together in the human to disable them from flight.

It is a com- lungs, and with the same effect. mon practice even among well informed Thus we see that the wings, besides beapiarians to cut off the wings of the queen ing organs of flight, are in reality lungs. to prevent her going off with a swarm. The blood in the wings, however, is not A better acquaintance with the structure confined to those tubes, but circulates like and uses of the wings would show that any the sap in the leaves of plants to all parts such mutilation must be injurious.

of them, and, it is likely, is thus also Bees do not breathe through the mouth, aerated. neither do they have lungs, like the high- The nervous filaments we have also seen er animals. Respiration is carried on pass to the wings. They follow these through an intricate ramification of minute tubes, and all the fine venations, and tertubes called trachea, having their outlets minate in every part of the wings in what or mouths as pores (called spiracles or are called nerve filaments (papillæ), which stigmata) in the sides of their bodies, under in all animals are vehicles through which and behind their wings. Through these all sensations are perceived; so that we breathing pores the air is led by those may infer that the wings of bees, besides delicate tubes to every part of the body, giving the power of flying and acting as even to the tips of their wings.

lungs, are also organs of sensation of some Bees have no heart as higher animals kind. All parts of the human body have have. A tube, or as it is called, a “dorsal

these nerve filaments on the surface, vessel,” lying just beneath the middle line through which the sense of touch is exerof the back, and extending from the head cised. The eye bas them so modified that to the tip of the abdomen, performs that they give us sight. On the tongue they office. The blood is received into this tube, give us taste; in the nose, smell, and in the and, as bees have no veins proper, it es- ear, hearing—in each case modified to give capes from all parts of the tube and tra- different perceptions. For what purpose verses the body in currents, bathing all the the wings of bees are so supplied has not organs, even to the extremities of the been determined. We would of course wings.

conclude that the wings were not organs The nervous system of bees consists of of sight or taste. a cord, or rather a double cord, commenc- In all the investigations of naturalists ing in a knot in the head, which is their none of them have been able to locate the so-called brain; from thence it extends organ of smell, although the belief is that throughout the whole length of the body it is the most powerful of all their senses under all the internal organs, resting on and the most necessary to them in searchthe “floor" of the body-walls. On this ing for honey. By means of it, it is supcord, at intervals, there are swellings posed that they recognize each other and (ganglia) from which fine filaments are distinguish between their fellows and sent out, which are special nerves for the strangers to the colony. Some have sugvarious organs to which they lead ; one gested the antennæ as the organs of smell, branch passing to the wings is distributed but as they appear to be poorly adapted through all parts of them.

to perform such an office, it is just about

For The American Bee Journal.

ture, about 40° or 50° above zero being up over the bees, when the atmospheric the best. 4th. No disturbances of any pressure will keep the liquid from running kind, with a proper exclusion of light-out, except at first, when a teaspoon-full total darkness and stillness being the best or so will drop, which the bees will take for keeping the bees quietly confined to care of. The hive should be as near level their hives. A good method of out-door as possible. Sometimes when the bees do wintering is to set up and tie a shock of not care for the food, or the weather is too corn stalks around the hive, enough to cool, drops of moisture will gather on the break the winds and keep the hive dry, | can, and form a draft for the syrup, which at the same time packing plenty of hay will act the same as a half dozen bees, and or straw around and over the frames, after the feeder will leak a little. The can properly ventilating and protecting the must be perfectly air-tight. I give mine bees from the mice, and also securing the a couple of coats of paint, outside, which bees a small and suitable passage to and keeps them from rusting. from the external atmosphere. The straw SMOKER,

,-a tin tube, one and one-fourth and fodder will absorb the moisture col- | by six inches, ends covered with perforalecting around the bees, conveying it to ted tin, pressed inwards; two mouth piethe external atmosphere and also more ces fitting over the ends of the tube, refully protect them by confining their ani- movable, and tapering to a point, with a mal heat.

knob on each to hold between the teeth I hope the foregoing may enable some like the stem of a pipe. To use it, fill one of my fellow bee-keepers to be more suc- of the mouth pieces with tobacco (I supcessful in feeding and wintering their bees pose fine rotten wood would do), light it, than heretofore.

A. T. WRIGHT. and crowd it on to the table, then blow Chicago, Ill., Dec. 1, 1873.

through the other mouth-piece, and there is your smoke. For those who use the weed, it is very handy, for it can be held

bet een the teeth, through a hole in the Adam Grimm's Bee-feeder and Smoker.

vail, and the smoke directed to different In the December JOURNAL, Mrs. Lucinda places

, while both hands are at liberty to

handle frames, etc. But for those who W. Harrison wants to know why I did not do not use tobacco, and certainly ladies, describe Mr. Grimm's bee-feeder and smok

I think a piece of rotten wood is far er. I thought I would leave that for Mr. preferable. *A little cup with handle and G. to do, but as he has not done so, I will perforated tin bottom, is a nice thing to lay do it now. Ladies are said to have a live

the wood in, when the smoke can be ly imagination, so, Mrs. H., please try and blown down through it, and no danger imagine this description.

from fire when it is set down. If Mrs. H. BEE-FEEDER,—a tin can four and

does not understand the description of the fourth inches in diameter, and four inches feeder, I will send her a sample by express high; a hole in the center of the end, one

for twenty-five cents, and her tinman can and one half inches in diameter, covered make them from it. •W. M. KELLOGG. with perforated tin, soldered on; a small

Oneida, Ill., Dec. 19, 1873. hole near the edge of the same end, on which is soldered a screw cap,

the same as on kerosene cans, with the rim of the Honey may be kept in perfect purity cap cut down so as not to project over

for years by boiling the strained or exfive eights of an inch from the can. A

tracted article, then skim it carefully, and rim is soldered on to the end of the can,

seal it up air tight, as fruit is canned, then three fourths of an inch wide, so that keep it in a cool, dark place. when the can is turned with the hole downwards, there will be room for the As a supply for the Winter, a strong bees to come up under it, and eat honey, stock should, on the first of November, syrup, or water through the perforated contain at least one pound of honey for tin. Fill the can with a tunnel through every thousand bees; and a weak stock the screw cap, turn the cap on tight, and should then have a pound and a half for with a quick motion turn the can bottom every thousand bees. —Hoffman.

one

THE WINGS OF THE BEE.

The horny frame upon which the fine

membrane of the wings is stretched, is all Physiologically considered as Organs of

of it composed of hollow tubes of a hard

substance called chitine (the same subFlight and of Special Sensation.

stance that constitutes the hard part of The following paper was read before the

the organs and the crust of all insects).

Those tubes are double, being one tube Bee-keepers' Convention, by Gen. Adair:

inside of another. The inner ones are To the novice the wings of a bee appear extensions of the trachea through which as a dry membrane or tissue of skin,stretch- the air circulates in breathing; between ed over a frame-work of as equally dry and which and the other is a space through liteless ribs of hard, elastic, horny matter. which the blood circulates, and is brought He does not suspect that they have other in contact with the air through the thin than to enable the bees to fly, or that their walls of the air tubes, just as the air and loss or destruction does' other injury than blood are brought together in the human to disable them from flight. It is a com- lungs, and with the same effect. mon practice even among well informed Thus we see that the wings, besides beapiarians to cut off the wings of the queen ing organs of flight, are in reality lungs. to prevent her going off with a swarm. The blood in the wings, however, is not A better acquaintance with the structure confined to those tubes, but circulates like and uses of the wings would show that any the

sap

in the leaves of plants to all parts such mutilation must be injurious.

of them, and, it is likely, is thus also Bees do not breathe through the mouth, aerated. neither do they have lungs, like the high- The nervous filaments we have also seen er animals. Respiration is carried on pass to the wings. They follow these through an intricate ramification of minute tubes, and all the fine venations, and tertubes called trachea, having their outlets minate in every part of the wings in what or mouths as pores (called spiracles or are called nerve filaments (papillæ), which stigmata) in the sides of their bodies, under in all animals are vehicles through which and behind their wings. Through these all sensations are perceived; so that we breathing pores the air is led by those may infer that the wings of bees, besides delicate tubes to every part of the body, giving the power of flying and acting as eren to the tips of their wings.

lungs, are also organs of sensation of some Bees have no heart as higher animals kind. All parts of the human body have bave. A tube, or as it is called, a dorsal these nerve filaments on the surface, vessel,” lying just beneath the middle line through which the sense of touch is exerof the back, and extending from the head cised. The eye bas them so modified that to the tip of the abdomen, performs that they give us sight. On the tongue they office. The blood is received into this tube, give us taste; in the nose, smell, and in the and, as bees have no veins proper, it es- ear, hearing-in each case modified to give capes from all parts of the tube and tra- different perceptions. For what purpose verses the body in currents, bathing all the the wings of bees are so supplied has not organs, even to the extremities of the been determined. We would of course wings.

conclude that the wings were not organs The nervous system of bees consists of of sight or taste. a cord, or rather a double cord, commenc- In all the investigations of naturalists ing in a knot in the head, which is their none of them have been able to locate the so-called brain ; from thence it extends organ of smell, although the belief is that throughout the whole length of the body it is the most powerful of all their senses under all the internal organs, resting on and the most necessary to them in searchthe “floor" of the body-walls. On this ing for honey. By means of it, it is supcord, at intervals, there are swellings posed that they recognize each other and (ganglia) from which fine filaments are distinguish between their fellows und sent out, which are special nerves for the strangers to the colony. Some have sugvarious organs to which they lead ; one gested the antennæ as the organs of smell, branch passing to the wings is distributed but as they appear to be poorly adapted through all parts of them.

to perform such an office, it is just about

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