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I, for my part lost 500 guilders through was imported with the Italian bees, or the foul brood introduced by the Italians, whether from a peculiar character of the and on these grounds I warn all my Asso- Italian bee, which would in our climate ciation friends. I must hence decidedly produce foul brood. oppose any further importations.
Herr Dorr. From 1857 to 1863, as SecInestimable damage has been done to retary of this Association, I received from our neighborhood by the introduction of Dzierzon Italian Queens. The Associathe Italian race. I could mention whole tion of the Palaterate received from me apiaries, containing upwards of forty | Queens. Yet not in one instance did foul stocks of movable comb hives, that were brood appear. In 1863 after the meeting Italianized and have gone to total ruin. at Hanover occurred the discussion as to In 1868 I owned 100 movable comb hives; the difference between the queens raised three fourths of which had pure Italian by Dzierzon, and those imported. queens, and the other fourth were half- In the spring of 1863 I received my first breeds. From that time on I began to queens from Mora, and the following Fall Germanize my stocks, and from 100 have foul brood made its appearance.
At the come down to 40 Italian stocks; and so time I ascribed the appearance of foul perbaps it may be with other members of brood to a peculiar circumstance. A friend the Association. I could show you with of mine had some Italian queens in a triple statistics how great the loss has been to hive. He desired me to put it in order. our Association alone. You would be I agreed to do it, and had the hives amazed, and from this basis advise against brought to my apiary. I then purchased every introduction of foreign races.
some honey from the honey dealers, for The Heath bee does not suit us, because | feeding, and I believed that the foul brood it swarms too much, when it should be was caused by this honey. But it so hapgathering honey. I have in my imme- pened that others, who in 1863 and 1864 diate neighborhood, a beginner, a man of received queens were as unfortunate as good judgment, who, persuaded by the myself. Last year I tried some from Uhle, praises of Gravenhorst, procured 22 stocks but with the same result-foul brood. of heather-bees. These cost, when they Prof. Baest. At what time did foul reached Alshiem, somewhat over 500 guil- brood appear most abundant ? ders. He built a house. To-day they Mr. Dorr. I have not yet concluded. are standing there without a half ounce of From the hundred, yes, hundreds of queens, honey ; they swarmed, however, in abund- I have certain information of, I am con
Thus are failures produced, and vinced that the queens reared in May, upon these grounds I hold it to be my June, and July are not foul-broody; while duty to so work, that our Associations on the other hand, those raised in the Auwill take this matter decisively in hand. tumn months, and those raised in Canton
Since 1868 I would not endure any Ital- Tessin and sent out by the farmers, are ian blood in my apiary. I have half-breeds nine-tenths of them foul-broody. Of the who do very well
. Last year I allowed former, hardly one fourth show themselves myself to be again persuaded and engaged foul-broody. Hence let the importing of 4 very choice queens, and this spring three strange races of bees alone. If we had of them were proved to have foul brood. spent for the aid of natural bee-keeping The entire stands were destroyed. This in the Grand Dutchy of Hesse, the amount again cost me a fine sum of money. It of money expended for importing foreign would be far otherwise, if we would more bees, bee-keeping here would be in a very closely watch our native bees, and from different stage. year to year pote what stock distinguishes President. Judging from the remarks itself beyond the others, and make these of Mr. Dorr, it appears that foul brood is the standards from which to rear our imported with the Italians, and not a pequeens,and I believe we would improve our culiarity of that race. race of bees without costing us so much Mr. Dorr. I have one more remark to money.
make. I have, for example, often in Fall, President. It might, perhaps, be inter- in order to quickly accomplish my work, esting should Mr. Dorr explain how the smoked the bees with a puff-ball, and in foul brood got into his hives, whether it I the evening I opened the hive and placed
For the American Bee Journal.
all the combs over the stultified bees. This he began Italianizing in 1857. He has Fall I watched the operation carefully been breeding queens, then, for 10 years, Every swarm so treated became foul- and only lately has he become satisfied broody. I do not know of a single excep- with his bees-and now they are all crosstion, which I could say did not become If one procures queens in 100 or 1000 foul-broody:
different ways, there will be no more of Did I cage the queen, foul brood did the pure German race. In Rheinish Hesse not make its appearance so readily. On this freshening of the blood has been cara former occasion in order to introduce ried on to a great extent. There is, there, foreign queens, I stupified them with the no pure race, but everywhere are traces of smoke of a puff-ball
, the most of them be- foreign blood. came foul broody. To another I gave a queen, and it also became foul-broody. I yesterday destroyed it, bees and hive. can knowingly tell you of two incidents, The North American Bee Keepers' where a queen was taken from a hive in
Association. fected with foul-brood and put in a queencage, so that not a particle of foul-brood The Third Annual Session of this Aswas present, and yet after a time it made sociation was held in the city of Louisville its appearance. Dzierzon himself is unable during the first week in December. to explain this.
In the absence of the President, Vice Mr. Secretary Gros von Arnsburg. It President Hamlin, of Tennessee, took the appears to me that Mr. Dorr admits that chair and called the meeting to order, Iialian queens reared in the months of Gen. Adair acting as Secretary. May, June, and July are free from foul Owing to the inclement weather, and brood, while those reared in September the sickness of some of the members, the produce foul brood. Why not rear our attendance was not so large as could be queens in those months ?
wished, but the sessions were full of interPresident. That is a very natural in- est. The first morning was devoted to an ference, but we must remember that queens informal meeting, and the afternoon to a reared in the Fall months are much cheap- free social conference. Letters were read er, so that the largest number are sold at from absent members. Several practical that period, while those sold in Spring questions were discussed: viz., The size of cost double, yes, three times as much. brood laid by a prolific queen; The cause
Mr. Gross. But sooner than obtain foul of foul brood; Why queens sometimes de brood, I would willingly pay a larger sum sert the hive, etc. of money
The propriety of clipping the wings of President. What you say is very ra- queens was talked over at length, disclostional, but one comes in conflict with his ing quite a difference of opinion on this purse. I think this question has been suf- subject. The proper kind of food for bees ficiently discussed. Should I in a few was also discussed, after which the meetwords give you my practical experience, ing adjourned until 7 P. M. it would be, that crosses obtained by the In the evening the respective value of union of a pure Italian queen with a com- the various honey plants was considered, mon drone, or a queen of the Heath bees and the Alsike clover was highly recomimpregnated by an Italian drone, are the mended. best bees I have in my apiary, and I in- The subject of introducing queens was vite all who wish to be convinced of this also discussed, and the propriety of exto visit my apiary. We have been tracting honey freely commented upon. too long breeding in and in, and this The members were largely in favor of exphlegmatic German blood needs quicken- | tracted honey, as it leaves the comb intact, ing. This is just what is done in improv- and ready to be refilled at once with honing our breeds of cattle, and why should ey, thereby saving to the bees more than we not adopt the same measures with our half their labor. It is also claimed that it bees? I cannot entirely agree with Mr. is better for the table, having been preDorr.
pared for assimilation by the stock. It is Pastor Weber. Mr. Dorr told us that asserted that the only thing which renders
honey injurious to invalids, is the indiges
Tennessee-T. B. Hamlin, Edgefield tible comb that is taken with it.
Florida-Mrs. C. Atkinson, Leesburg. MORNING SESSION. The Convention met at half-past 9
Ohio-Aaron Benedict, Bennington.
Kentucky-Major T.J. Key, Anchorage. o'clock this morning Mr. Hamlin in the
Indiana-A. T. Wright, Kokoma. chair.
Illinois-J. L. Lucas, Peoria. General Adair stated that it was pro
Iowa—Mrs. E. S. Tupper, Des Moines. posed to hold a Centennial Exposition in
Colorado-T.J. Dorr, Colorado Springs. Philadelphia, and moved that a committee of three be appointed to correspond with
The subject of wintering bees was then
discussed; The moth and its troubles were the managers, and see what arrangements also talked over, but it was claimed that could be made for having the bee interests represented. The resolution was adopted,
with good hives and Italian bees, there and subsequently the chair appointed a
was no danger to be apprehended from
this quarter. Adjourned until 2 P. M. committee, and authorized them to appoint
AFTERNOON SESSION. sub-committees in such states as they should deem proper.
An interesting letter was read from the
former Secretary, Mr. King, after which The Society then proceeded to the
remedies for stings were considered. Colp ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
water and wet cloths changed as often as Seth Hoagland, of Pennsylvania, and necessary, or the compound tincture of Dr. F. B. Hamlin of Tennessee, were placed Lobelia, were pronounced very effectual in nomination for President, and a ballot remedies. Mr Winder, however recomwas taken, resulting in the election of Mr. mended sulphate of zinc dissolved in water, Hoagland by one majority.
and Mr. Murray, supercarbonate of soda, For Recording Secretary, Abner Pope, used in the same way as an outward apand for Corresponding Secretary, General plication. Adair, were elected without opposition, as
The Corresponding Secretary then read was also J. S. Hill, of Mt. Healthy, O., as a letter from Dr. Phillips, which was placed Treasurer.
on file. On a motion the Doctor was electThe following Vice-Presidents ed as an honorary member of the Society. then elected:
The following resolutions were adopted: New York-J. E. Hetherington, Cherry RESOLVED, That the thanks of this society be tendered
the city of Louisville for kindness and hospitality shown Valley. Pennsylvania-A. J. Hooker.
RESOLVED), That the Treasurer pay to D. L. Adair, Cor
responding Secretary, $6, amount expended by him for Kansas-L. J. Dallas, Baldwin City. envelopes and postage in distributing the proceedings of Micbigan-A.J. Cook, Lansing.
last year's transactions, out of the first funds in the treas.
ury not otherwise appropriated. Minnesota-J. W. Hosmer, Janesville. RESOLVED, That the thanks of this society be tendered
to the Louisville COURIER-JOURNAL, COMMERCIAL, and Utab—W. D. Roberts, Provo City. LEDGER, for their correct report of our proceedings. New Jersey-E. J. Peck, Linded.
RESOLVED, That the thanks of this society be tendered
to the trustees of the Public Library Hall, for their fine Wisconsin-A. H. Hart, Appleton.
hall and their kind attention to us, and the Treasurer pay District of Columbia-Hugh Cameron,
to the same, $32 for the two days' use of their hall, if the
Treasurer cannot get it for reduced rates, Washington.
WHEREAS, We have not funds in Treasury to meet cur
rent expenses: Ontario–J. C. Thorn, Garafraxa.
RESOLVED, That each member present pay one dollar Georgia-R. Peters, Atlanta.
additional, which shall be credited to them as one year's Texas-J. W. Dunn, Corpus Christi,
payment in advance as members of this society.
RESOLVED, That our Corresponding Secretary be allowArkansas–G. B. Peters, Council Bend.
ed $10 for making out the transactions of this meeting,
out of any fund not appropriated otherwise ; $5.00 also apMaine-Mrs. A. C. Hatch, Houston. propriated for Dr. Hamlin, money spent for postage, &c. Connecticut-W. H. Kirk, West Che
in arranging for this meeting.
RESOLVED, That as Mrs. E. S. Tupper is the only pubshire.
lisher who is here, the society request her to prepare a Louisiana–T. J. Bert, Mansfield.
synopsis of the reports of this meeting and publish them Alabama-Miss Fanny L. Morris, Shel- and send a copy to each member who has paid the annual
fee, and also to other Bee publications and agricultural by Springs.
journals, and that the Secretary make an oflicial report in Massachusetts-E. N. Dyer, Amherst.
pamphlet form as soon as he has funds to do it and that
the Secretary be paid a reasonable sum for performing West Virginia—A. Chapman, New Cum- the above services. berland.
The question was asked, "Is artificial Nebraska-W. Young, Plattsmouth. swarming as good or better than natural
to the Association at this time.
in the December number of the NATIONAL BEE JOURNAL, For the American Bee Journal
swarming ?” Adair moved that the Soci- the 12th to the 18th of June we had mulety answer the question in the affirmative, tiplied their number by ten and were and gave substantial reasons therefor. once more in a very prosperous condition.
An able paper was then read on the June 15, white and red clover began to wings of the bee, which will be found en- bloom, and that with locust blossoms furtire in the present number of the JOURNAL. nished our bees with an abundant supply
The meeting then adjourned to meet at of honey. June, 19, our first swarm came, Pittsburg, Pa., the second Wednesday in Basswood commenced blossoming July 16 November, 1874.
and lasted until August 2nd, which was the end of the honey season with us.
We have at the present time fifty-four colonies
in good condition for wintering, and four Doolittle's Article.
nuclei, so it will be seen that we have
doubled our number counting the nuclei. DEAR JOURNAL: In the July number, We have sold surplus honey to the amount page 7, we gave you under the above
of 2350 pounds, 635 pounds of which was heading our experience with bees up to
extracted and which we sold for fourteen April 28th. We propose now to let the
cents per pound, the remainder was in two readers of the JOURNAL know what we
pound boxes which brought us twentyhave done since; and by the way, Mr.
seven cents per pound. On the whole we Editor, if more of your contributors
are satisfied with our season's work. We would give their practical experience propose wintering the same as last year with bees instead of disputing so much with the exception that we shall leave the with each other, and about hives, we
straw out of our safes until spring for the think it would be of more benefit to be
reason that our bees were kept too warm ginrers as well as more editying to expe- during the winter. Keep hives banked rienced bee-keepers. The cold weather with snow out of sight, and have all which began April 17th, continued until lower ventilation nearly or entirely closed May 1st, and upon examining we found with one of Novice's quilts over the that our bees had decreased one-half in frames, well tucked down at the sides, and number to each hive. We united the
we will bid adieu to cellar wintering, as we weakest swarms so that we had but
believe bees can be wintered in no better twenty-nine to begin the season with, one
way. No lugging or lifting nor any mixof which lost its queen shortly after. On | ing in the spring, but just a little pleasant May 1st, we did not have a hive that con
exercise of sweeping the snow as it falls tained a quart of bees, and not a hive around the hives, and if it should come that had ten square inches of brood. The
warm enough for them to fly, shovel it majority of them occupied from two to
away in front and what a nice fly they four ranges of comb and had no brood at
will have. If it does not come quite warn all. The first pollen gathered was on enough they will keep quiet, as the snow April 30th, which was very small pillets keeps them at an even temperature, so indeed, and that from skunk's cabbage. there is no loss of bees from getting chilled Bees began to rear brood again May 2nd, in the snow every time the mercury rises and raised sparingly until May 14th, when
to forty in the shade. it became cold again and remained so un
G. M. DOOLITTLE. til the 20tb, at which time the larvæ was
Boradino, N. Y., Dec. 6. 1873. all destroyed again. May 21st, the hard maple threw out its thousands of blossoms and the bees, what were left of them,
Italian bees are said to guard their hives began in earnest to prepare for the sum
against the moth-miller much better than mer; before that time we had spread the
the common black bees, and for this reason brood twice a week by putting empty
their combs are seldom injured by the moth. frames or frames of honey in the center, and on the 30th, we never had so much The Alsike clover is equal if not superior brood according to the number of bees to buckwheat as a honey plant, while the in our hives, five hundred bees covering honey produced from it is fully equal to five thousand of brood easily, and from that made from white clover.
Do Bees Make Honey?
If the above discoveries are real and
well understood, we shall have to conclude Do the bees simply gather the juice or that honey does undergo a certain change secretion of the flowers and deposit it in in the stomach of the bee, and, therefore, the hive unchanged, does it undergo a cannot be made artificially. It dees not change in their stomach, or is honey a exist in a natural state outside of the secretion of the bees resembling that of | hive. milk in mammals?
The change effected in the nectar of This question was asked me lately by flowers by the stomach of the bee is not a reader of the Dollar Monthly. With very great, however. The bee gives it a your permission I will describe my views peculiar taste, but it cannot add anything on this question, subject to the criticism to its quality or diminish it in any way. of older heads.
Before I close, permit me to thank Mr. When the bee visits the flowers it sucks M. Quinby for his article on wintering, in the nectar with its proboscis and swallows the December number. I also wish to it. The honey passes into what entomol- tell friend Kretchner that we agree per. ogists call the proventriculas, or first fectly together. Bees will not work as stomach, commonly called "honey sac." well in side boxes as in top boxes, although If a part of this honey is needed for the they will work in side boxes if they have nourishment of the insect, it passes into no top boxes. But give them their choice the ventriculus, or true stomach, in which and see what they will do. it is digested. When the honey-sac is full
D. P. DADANT. the bee returns to the hive, unloads him- Hamilton, II., Dec. 15, 1873. self by throwing the honey into the cells and again starts for the field. It is, therefore,
Shaking Bees. quite plain that honey is not a secretion. Now, is honey changed in any way by James Heddon at the Michigan Bee passing in and out of the honey-sac of the Keepers' Meeting, said, “I find that shakbee? That is the question.
ing deep combs to get off the bees, irritates It has been found by chemical analysis them. Is there a remedy?" that the nectar of the fiowers is cane sugar There are several, a couple of which I and that the honey harvested by the bees will give. First, Use more care in subdufrom those flowers is grape sugar. This ing bees in long, deep, or large hives. It discovery would be sufficient to prove that is generally best to manage hives of bees, the honey gathered by the bees under- extracting honey, making swarms, &c. goes a certain change in the honey-sac. during a yield of honey, and before it is On the othor hand, W. W. Stoddard said, sealed with wax, that all the bees may fill in a back number of U. B. J., that the their sacs with honey; which they will do, honey when in the honey-sac comes in if there is enough uncapped, and they are contact with an acid, that proved to be disturbed properly. If the honey is not identical with formic acid. He
says: in a condition, or of sufficient quantity, • This it is which doubtless causes the pe- food may be given, to subdue the most culiar tingling sensation at the back of the vicious stock. The best brush is one or throat when much honey has been swal- more grape or plantain leaves rolled looselowed.”
ly, sometimes the end trimmed. Weeds, Later we find in the Apicultore of Milan grass, broom, feathers, or brushes may be a definite account of the existence of se- used; and if the articles are scarce, or oncreting glands communicating with honey ly one at hand, dip occasionally in water sac, and containing a saliva of a strong,
to wash off the odor which enrages badly peculiar odor that passes by means of con- managed bees. traction into the honey-sac.
Second, Use the old fashioned, native, or These three glands were discovered by black bees with your deep frames, that Prof. Von Siebold, the well known Ger- | drop off the comb like shot off a shingle, man entomologist. He claims the honor of at the least handling. The stock is gethaving described them the first, as they ting scarce. It can probably be obtained had always been thought by others to be of our former President, as they are his pets. respiratory organs.
St. Charles, III.
J. M. MARVIN.