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fact. We find this reluctance on the part of parents and guardians exemplified in the lives of musicians who only thru persistent disobedience were able to follow their God-given bent toward musical expression. We remember the little Bach-our great-grandfather of piano compositionpatiently copying music by moonlight, because of his uncle's prejudices. Where would be our well-tempered clavier, our passion music, but for the divine inner necessitude which impelled him into music expression ? Handel was kept from school for fear he should learn music, and played a smuggled spinet in the garret late at night for fear of being surprised and robbed of his treasure. Think of the world deprived of his masterconcept of the story of the Messiah in song! You may have heard the story of a well-known Chicago boy singer. When his voice began to change, someone asked his father whether the boy's musical education was to be continued and a musician made of him. The father promptly answered: "I hope he'll be good for something better than that!" Altho so many musicians have failed to demonstrate the unity of art and life, in both their personal careers and in their interpretations of music, we remember with reverence the great masters Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven, and a goodly following-who lived in harmony with this unity and subject to law, because of their love for the order and for the beauty of holiness. We know that the true artist loves goodness, because it is beautiful, and that where truth and beauty are realized as oneinseparable, the unity of life-there is serene, triumphant, holy, joyrevealing art. Then the artist becomes the seer.

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DISCUSSION

CHARLES H. KEYES, supervisor of public schools, South Hartford, Conn.- It has been said that kindergartners have made a cult of themselves and their business. That suggests your disposition to clothe your thoughts about children in the language of the philosopher. If you wish to educate us who are not familiar with the art and science of your work, I beg of you to give it to us in simple language.

I believe in education thru music by the methods outlined to us in the paper just read, but we must not expect that all teachers are able to use these methods with success without special musical training.

There is an impression abroad that the business of the kindergarten is to prepare children for the primary school. This is an error, for in many respects your work points away from the traditional primary school. It is the primary school that must change and prepare itself to receive the child trained in the kindergarten. I have heard primary teachers say that they could get along with any children except those who had been trained in a kindergarten.

Your first, second, and third aim should be to make your kindergarten child a good animal. You can never make an angel of him if you have not first made him a good animal. Your work should enable him to eat better, play better, sleep better. In all your methods the child should be your guide. You should be as ready to use in your

work roses, vegetables, the shovel, the hoe, and other things of a child's environment, as the cubes and cylinders and squares of paper.

The great aim of the kindergarten, it seems to me, should be to lead the child into a realization that play is as important as work, and that work is as pleasant as play, and that the keenest joy of school life is to be a helper of his fellow-pupils and his teacher in all the occupations of daily school life. In this way he will come truly prepared for the primary school. When you do this, the primary teacher will say: "I must study my business in the light of kindergarten methods."

The primary teacher should know more of your work, and you should know more about the primary teacher's work. When the time comes that the child shall indeed lead both kindergartners and primary teachers, we shall not be troubled about defining the relation of the kindergarten to the primary school.

DEPARTMENT OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

SECRETARY'S MINUTES

FIRST SESSION.-THURSDAY, JULY 11, 1901

The department met at 3 o'clock P. M. in the assembly room of the Central High School, and was called to order by the president, J. W. Carr, of Anderson, Ind.

The following songs were rendered by Miss Esther St. John: "The Clover," McDowell; "The Parting," James Rogers; "The Open Secret," Huntington Woodman. A paper on "The Church and the Public School" was read by T. A. Mott, superintendent of schools, Richmond, Ind.

The discussion was opened by N. C. Schaeffer, state superintendent of public instruction, Harrisburg, Pa., and was continued by R. A. Ogg, superintendent of schools, Kokomo, Ind.

The second subject, “Economic Basis of Art," was presented by Charles De Garmo, professor of science and art of education, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

The paper of Dr. De Garmo was discussed by Mr. George Gunton, of New York, and Miss Roda Selleck, of Indianapolis, Ind.

The Committe on Nominations was appointed as follows:

George B. Cook, Hot Springs, Ark.

Adda P. Wertz, Carbondale, Ill.

Robert Hamilton, Huntington, Ind.

SECOND SESSION.-FRIDAY, JULY 12

The department was called to order at 3 P. M. by President Carr.

The meeting was opened by a vocal solo, "Spring," by Miss Lois Inglis.

Dr. William Goodell Frost, president of Berea College, Berea, Ky., addressed the department on Educational Pioneering in the Southern Mountains."

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A paper on "Nature Study in the Public Schools" was read by Rev. William J. Long, of Stamford, Conn.

Music "Endymion," Liza Lehmann - by Miss Isabel Weir.

Mr. Long's paper was discussed by Miss Adda P. Wertz, critic teacher, Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale, and Mrs. Mary Rogers Miller, lecturer on nature study, Cornell University.

Amos W. Butler, secretary of board of state charities, Indiana, presented a paper on "Education and Crime."

The nominating committee reported the following officers for the ensuing year:

For President - R. A. Ogg, Kokomo, Ind.

For Vice-President―J. J. Doyne, Little Rock, Ark.

For Secretary- Adda P. Wertz, Carbondale, Ill.

The report was adopted and the officers declared elected.

The meeting was then adjourned.

B. F. MOORE,

Secretary pro tem.

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS

THE CHURCH AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOL

T. A. MOTT, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, RICHMOND, IND. In the history of the race the influence of the church is as potent as that of any of the institutions of civilization. Our religious views, feelings, and biases are among our strongest sentiments and motives. The religious beliefs of the individual and of the nation are among their most sacred treasures, and as such must be vital factors in any complete consideration of questions of the education and development of the race. Religious thought, sentiment, and purpose bear so important and vital a relation in the outward life of mankind today that it is hardly possible that any intelligent citizen, teacher, or parent should deem it best for a child to grow to maturity without the elements of a religious education.

The appreciation of the meaning and scope of education is the greatest problem now before mankind. The supreme center in all education is the child in its relation to its environment. What the child is, its development, the end in view, the means to be employed, its relation to nature, to men, to society, to divinity, are all questions involved in considering the subject of method and scope in education. The problem in education is quite definite. Given the children at the age of four, what shall be done with them until the age of eighteen or twenty, so that they shall evolve into desirable types of men and women?

Education has been rightly defined as "the adaptation of a person to environment, and the development of capacity in a person to control environment." By "environment," in this definition, we mean two things: first, physical surroundings, and, second, that vast accretion of knowledge and its results in habit and conduct which we call civilization — civilization crystallized into the institutions of home, state, school, society, and church.

The free citizen must take his place in the world of society of which he is a part. The child is born into a pre-established ethical order, that of law and institutions. These he must take up and objectify in his own life, if he reach his highest freedom. The family, state, church, and society are the pre-established institutional order into which he comes. These he must make a part of himself; he must make them over, re-establish, and reproduce them in his own life. Becoming a man, he is to re-create the family in his own household; he is perpetually to renew the state, for he is the final lawmaker; especially is he to preserve and reconstruct society in accordance with new times and new ideas; he is to perpetuate the universal church by reproducing in his life, and thru his

life, the fundamental principles of true living which he has ever tried to exemplify.

The school as an institution is the organ of education. It is set apart and dedicated to the work of forming a better individual and thru the individual a better social life. Its function is performed thru the interaction of the individual and the social group of which he is a part. Between society, on the one hand, and the growing individual, on the other, the school stands as a mediator, controlling and directing the play of each on the other.

A vital part of the school's work is to lay hold of the complexity of human experience, as existing in the institutional life in which we live, simplify and organize it, and then bring it into the closest touch with the life of the child. In this process the school must take the adult expressions of life and bring them to the plane of the child's understanding. Each of the institutions embodies vital experiences of life, which are by inheritance the right of every child. Church doctrines, principles of government, social customs, laws of business, are all material upon which the life of the child must feed.

The school must know what principles of activity are valuable to the growing individual, and must select these principles from each of the fundamental institutions and einphasize them in the life of its pupils. In this manner the life of the growing child is adjusted to the larger social life of which he is a part. It must not be forgotten that each individual will contribute to, as well as share in, the values of social life. As he partakes of the best life the race has evolved, so will he return to this best experience of the race the results growing out of the interaction between his life and that of the social whole. As he takes, so shall he give.

The great movements in the modern educational progress have all sought to bring closer together the life of the school and the life of the people. Students of education are recognizing that the true purposes of the school can be rendered possible of fulfillment only by the fuller co-ordination of the life of the school and the life of society. The new education seeks to remodel our thought of the school, to the end that the child's experiences may be so nearly continuous that when he leaves school he shall be able to enter into the activities that surround him, thru the life he has already lived. The school has year by year become more socialized in its organization, methods, and curriculum. We are everywhere recognizing the fact that, if the child be able to enter the world of experience when he leaves school, he must be made familiar with the chief values of social activity: the school and the state, the school and industry, the school and home, drawn together in a closer union.

The place and importance of religion as an element in human life hardly need discussion. The fact is that "there has not been a single tribe or people known to history or visited by travelers which has been

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