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TABLE 2.-1ge for free attendance at the public schools; school census, mainly for 1889

compared with the preceding year.

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.......

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212,064 I........ 84 | I........... .04 (6)

(c) e367, 785 | I........ 8, 281

..2. 30 61, 905 I........

510

.79 157, 243 | I........ 2,311

1.49 1,803, 667 | I. ..30, 7091 1.73 c387, 847 | I.. ..13, 836 I..

...... 3.70 (c)

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United States....... North Atlantic Division ...... South Atlantic Division ......' South Central Division. North Central Division... Western Division......... North Atlantic Division: Maine.........

4-21 New Hampshire........

5-21 Vermont..........

5-20 Massachusetts

No limit. Rhode Island ...... 5 upwards. i Connecticut.............

4-16 New York......

5-21 New Jersey....

5-18 Pennsylvania.

6-21 South Atlantic Division : Delaware.........

6-21 Maryland ...

6-21 District of Columbia...

$ 6–17 Virginia..........

5-21 West Virginia..

6-21 North Carolina

6-21 South Carolina..

0-18 Georgia....

6-18 Florida....

0-21 South Central Division: Kentucky.....

6-20 Tennessee....

6-21 Alabama.......

1-21 Mississippi...

5-21 Louisiana...

6-18 Texas ....

8-10 Arkansas..

6-21 North Central Division: Ohio............

6-21 Indiana......

6-21 Illinois

6-21 Michigan

5-20 Wisconsin.......

4-20 Minnesota.......

5-21 Iowa ..

5-21 Missouri

0-20 Dakota ........

7-20 Nebraska

5-21 Kansas....

5-21 Western Division: Montana.....

4-21 Wyoming...

6-21 Colorado

6-21 New Mexico

5-20 Arizona......

6-18 Utah .....

6-18 Nevada.....

6-18 Idaho

5-21 Washington....

5-21 Oregon....

4-20 California........

6-21 Alaska .....

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..................

d335, 603

528, 110 388, 129

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1

5-21 6-20 7-20 5-21 5-21

......... 1.47

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1,120,337 1........23, 295 | I........... 2.12

770, 375 I........13, 886 I........... 1.83 1, 133, 867 1. ..15, 395 | I.. 1.38

610,069 1........10, 116 | 1......... 1.61 570, 967 ! I........ 9, 265 I........... 1.63

(c) 649, 606 , I ........10, 358 I...... 1.62 805, 36-4 | 1. ...12, 93.1 | I..... 1.52 el16, 129 1. 7,889 I........... 7.29 316, 805! I

..18,799 I... 6.31 521, 206 D.......

7,801. D (27,600 ! I........ 4,435 | I...........19.14 (c) 85, 824 . I ....... 9,612 1...........12.61

(1) (110,303 | I.. 142 I........... 1.41 58,482

I. 3,529 | I........... 6.42 9,789 I

73 | I. e24,071 I.. 4,077 | I...........20.40 70, 846 1......h12, 875 1........m27, 14 93,098 1........ 6,524 I. 7.53 275,302 I........ 4, 802 | I........... 1.77 (c)

...

(6)

6-21 5-20 6-18 6-18 6-18 5-21 5-21 4-20 5-17

.75

hilo, 261 54, 953

9, 716 d19, 994 157, 971

86, 574 270,500 (c)

a Only the States tabulated in the same column below are included in this summary,

b School census imperfect.
c No school census.
d In 1887.
e In 1888.
f Inclusive.
g In 1885.
h Approximatoly.

¿ In 1886.

j Average annual rate of increase from 1830 to 1888.

k In 1884.

1 Average annual rate of increase for five ycars.

m Average annual rate of increase from 1887 to 1889.

TABLE 3.-Average daily attendance in common schools, mainly for 1888–89, compared with

same for the preccding year, with the enrollment and with the teaching force.

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629.4

Per cent. 7,901, 207 8,004,275 | 1...100,058 | I...... 1.27 2,006, 748 2,035, 251 I... 29,503 I ...... 1.42 1,072, 985 1,090, 188 I... 17,2013 | 1...... 1.60 1, 404,219 1,469, 794 I... 61,575 1...... 4.60 3,1410, 011 3,099, 815 D.. 10, 166 D..... 1.28 290,211

310, 197 | I... 29, 95:3 | I...... 10.68

....

67.2 03.7 68.6 62.8 65.2

128.1 623.1 627,8

...........

100, 121 1 98, 611 D... 1,450 1)..... 1.17

44,877 43, 184 !)... 1, 393 | 1) ..... 3.10 045, 705 1l 16, 061 I..... 3:36 | I...... .78 261,7233 270, 851 | 1..... (),123 | 1.. 2.32 33,583 3:3, S03 | I..... 220 | I...... .60

81,038 82, 382 ! I..... 1,281 | 1...... 1.58 6:30), 595 6:37, 487 | I..... 6, 892 I...... 1.09 cl31, 867 (1135, 187 | I..... 3,320 | I...... 2.53 6741, 179 67,355 1.....1:3, 176 I...... 1.05

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North Atlantic Division.........
South Atlantic Division
South Central Division....
North Central Division
Western Division ..............
North Atlantic Division:

Maine............:
New Hampshire.......
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island.
Connecticut......
New York ....
New Jersey.

Pennsylvania....
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware ....
Maryland..
District of Columbia..
Virginia ......
West Virginia
North Carolina..
South Carolina ..........
Georgia.

Florida
South Central Division :

Kentucky h
Tennessee i....
Alabama.....
Mississippi
Louisiana.....
Texas e ..

Arkansas c.........
North Central Division:

Ohio ......
Indiana.
Illinois......
Michigan e..
Wisconsin
Minnesota .......
Jowa......
Missouri.
Dakota
Nebraska ................

Kansas
Western Division:

DIontana e ...............
Wyoming e..................
Colorado
New Mexico e
Arizona....
Utalı.......
Nevada
Idaho e
Washington
Oregon

California.
Alaska e

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ce21,565 (721,271 | D... 2294 D).. ..el.36

94, 976 99, 220 | I..... 4,211 | 1 ...... 4.47 28, 512 27, (19 I..... 1, 107 1...... 4.18 : 189, 116 195,525 | 1...... 6, 109 I...... 3.22 122, 020 119, 990) D)... 2,030 D..... 1.66 c196, 119 1208, 657 1......12, 533 1....... 6.39

139, 1557 130,358 : 1)... 3, 199 1)..... 2,29 $226, 290 : 9217, 896 1)... 8, 391 ! 1)..... 3.71

56, 530 6:3, 652 I..... 7,122 i 1...... 12.60) 221,019 222,534 | I..... 1,50,5 ! I...... .03 c292, 029 1303, 969 ' I .....16,910 1... 5.80 170, 896 172. 101 : I..... 1,20.5 I......

!

.71 131,018 193, 119 : 1 ..... 9, 101 I... 4.0.5 880, 1070910551 | 1 .....10,114 | I...... 13.01 c323, 320 : 310,000 1 I.....161,080 I...... 5. 15

132, 800 | 141,5011 !..... 8,700 1...... 11.55 529, 719 530,492 · I..... 7733 1...... 155 10$, 775 350, 7052 D...53, 023 D).....14. 19 518, 013 500, 736 1...17, 307 : ..... 3.31 280, 930 279, 900 D)... 1,630 : 1) ..... .38 e]81, 10:9 186, 891 ! I.....€5,791 ......03.19 126,163 111,611 D...14,827 1).....11.7.2 291,070 301, 856 ......13, 576 I ....

4.74 377,502 376,977 D...

525 | D..... ce50, 900 (75;3, 211 i I....C2, 311 ' I ......¢1.54 !

129, 62: 159, 692 I.....30, 069 1......23. 19 215, 881 2:11, 697 1)... 1,181 ; 1)..... .18 (8,200 d8,600

I..... -100 I...... 4.88 j3,300 6:3, 750 | 1..... 450. 31,516 35, 567 I..... 4,051 | I..... 12,86 f10, 370 912, 300

I..... 1,930 .....k18.60 ce3, 452 (13, 819

0397 I.....el1.51 18, 375

e19, 750 ......1,375 ' I......67. 19 3,316 ! (15,149

167 : I)..... 3. 14 ! 11,780

8,210 | I..... 1, 160 i I... 21.54 225, 233 29, 247 I.....1,012 I.....(18.31

35, 17:3 40,012 I..... 4,539 I......12.80 132, 227 1:13, 7333 | 1.....11, 506 | I 8.70

400

26.3

21.7

68.3 67.0 65,6 66,1 51.2 40.8 62.3 61..6 156.7 69.7 60,1

19.5

.14

.................

d12.0 22,8 23.1

1....

D...

262,2 c66.7

60.0 971,6 158.2

57.7 168,5 65.0 62.6 70.6 66.6 38.5

.............

27.8

a Excluding Alaska.
b This suminary embraces oniy the States tab.
ulated in the same column below..

cIn 1886-87.
dIn 1887-88.
e Approximately.
f In 1887.

g In 1888. h Bell County not reporting. i A few counties not reporting are estimated. jIn 1885-86. 1 Average annual rate of increase since 1880. 1 Average annual rate of increase since 1887.

Average daily attendance. — The average number of pupils attending the common schools, according to the returus made to the Bureau, was 8,004, 275, there being a total gain of 100,068 over the corresponding reports of a year previous, or at the annual rate of 1.27 per cent. This rate of increase was less than that of the enrollment, 1.83 per cent., which indicates a decreased regularity of attendance.

In fact, the average number of pupils attending for each 100 enrolled was reported last year as 65.7; this year, 65.1.

The number of States showing a decrease of average attendance is remarkable. Six States of the North Central Division-Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Kausas-report a decrease in average attendance simultaneously with an increase of enrollment. In the States of that division there was a net decrease in average attendance of 40,166; and the average number attending for each 100 enrolled fell from 65 to 62.8; the enrollment itself increased 80,486.

This condition of affairs, especially in Indiana, is anomalous and naturally suggests imperfections in the statistics as reporteci, especially as all the remaining divisions show an increased ratio of average attendance over the preceding year. Yet the circumstance that so many of the North

Central States are affected and participate in this abnormal decline, points to some agency tending to diminish school attendance in that section of the Union not yet brought to the notice of the Bureau.

TABLE 4.Total attendance in duys upon common schools, mainly for 1838-89, compared

with the enrollment; arerage length of public-school year in days, mainly for 1888–89, compared with same for preceding year.

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181

Days. Days, Days. United States 6..............

1,076, 613, 716 87.6 134,5 I........9 North Atlantic Division.........

331, 352, 532 110.5 164.2 | D... .2 South Atlantic Division

109, 378,042

63,9 100.3 I.... 0.6 South Central Division......

133, 107, 785

62.2

90.6 I.... c.6 North Central Division ...

450, 659,757 92,5 147.3 1... 1.2 Western Division.........

43, 115, 609

90.7

139.0 | I... c7.6 North Atlantic Division: Maine........

10,998, 471

76.9 111.5 D... 5 New Hampshire..

5,111, 190 85.0 113.9 Vermont d.....

6,310, 409

92.2 137 D.... 2 Massachusetts..

46,315,521 127.5 171 I..... 2 Rhode Island...

6,525, 740 125.7

189 D... 2 Connecticut......

14, 855, 122 116.9 180.32 I..... 1.21 New York.........

115, 314,096 111.6

178 D... 2 New Jersey d............................

255, 935, 904 115.7 192 I..... 2 Pennsylvania..

102, 905,779 107.9 - 119.8 I......2 South Atlantic Division: Delaware d......

3,470,657 106.6

161 I.....€1.5 Maryland.......

18, 454, 920 102.8

186 I...... 2 District of Columbia...

4,986,012 139.4

D... 2 Virginia ..........

23, 267, 475

69,1
119

0 West Virginia.......

12, 238, 980

05.3 d102 D... 5 North Carolina d..

13, 228,834 39.2

63.4 | I..... 3.4 South Carolina.......

9, 272, 311

47.7

68 D... 4 Georgia f..............

14,911,000

46.4

€68.4 Florida....

9,517, 800 111.0 150 I... 10,7 South Central Division: Kentucky.......

20, 920, 076

63.2
94

0 Tennessee d..........

24, 408, 551

55.9

79 I..... 2 Alabama.........

13, 036, 651

48,3

75.75 D... 3.75 Mississippi..

17,628,761
55.2

I..... 7 Louisiana f.............

8,421, 213

67.1

93 1..... 3.6 Texas........

(138, 080,000 086.3 112 D... 4,2 Arkansas h ............

10, 612,500

49. 1

75 a When not reported the aggregate attendance in days has been obtained by multiplying the average daily attendance by the average number of days the schools were kept.

b Excluding Alaska.
c This summary does not include the States not tabulated in the same column below.
d In 1887-88.
e Estimated.
f In 1888.
g Country schools only.
h Approximately.

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991

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TABLE 4.-Total attendance in days upon common schools, etc.--Continued.

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Aggregate number of days' attendance. - This is a fundamental quantity of great value for statistical purposes, which needs to be more generally considered.

The data for directly obtaining it may be found on most school registers. It is only necessary to add up the number of pupils present each day to get the aggregate days' attendance for the year for any school.

The aggregate number of days' attendance of a school for a year divided by the number of days the school was kept during the year, gives immediately the average daily attendance of that school for the year.

Here are two radical quantities of prime importance determined for each school, (1) aggregate attendance in days, and (2) average daily attendance of pupils, which may be consolidated for any number of schools by simply adding up. The city and country schools may be kept distinct, as well as the white and colored schools. When they have been consolidated for a township, for instance, the average number of days the schools have been kept in the townships may be directly obtained by dividing one of these quantities by the other. So for a county or State, and in any classification desired.

How the aggregate attendance was obtained.-The aggregate number of days' attendance, as tabulated in column 2 of Table 5, has been obtained for each State, when not reported directly to the Bureau, by an inverse process, i. e., by multiplying the average daily attendance by the average number of days the schools were kept; this process of evolving a simple quantity from composite ones is obviously the reverse of the natural order, but was the only method that could be pursued in order to obtain it.

The aggregate number of days' attendance upon the common schools of the United States, as obtained by this process of computation, is found to be 1,076,613,716, as given in column 2. This quantity is approximate, but may be considered sufficiently accurate for most purposes.

How the length of the school term was summarized.-The summaries of column 4, Table 5, being the average number of days the schools were kept in the United States and in each of its divisions, have been obtained by the rule given above, i. e., the aggregate days' attendance of the division in question or of the United States has been divided by its average daily attendance.

This method, in effect, gives to each State or other aggregation a weight proportionato to its average number of pupils and not proportionate to its number of schools. The pupil is considered as the unit and not the school, as heretofore. Accordingly the large city schools with their long terms have their due influence in determining the average

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school term; one of these schools may connt as much as a score of country schools, as should be the case when it is so many times as large. The general effect has been to give the summaries of the average number of days the schools were kept in the present report larger values than previously. Such decidedly

urban systems as those of Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia, especially, receive their due weight in making up the average.

There have been some considerable changes in the length of the school terni of the individual States, in two cases exceeding twenty days, if correctly reported, and in four others between ten and twenty. The average change for the United States has been an increase of nine-tenths of a day.

TABLE 5.- Private school enrollment, mainly for 1888-89, compared with the preceding year;

also, total enrollment in all schools, public and private, compared with the preceding year, with the private school enrollment, and with the population (5 to 14.

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740

Per cent.

Per cent. Per cent. United States....../1, 122,000

I... 07.10 13,413, 259

I.. a.07

8.4 North Atlantic Division 1432, 000

I... a 9. 86
3, 158, 460

I.. al.21 al2.5 South Atlantic Division ....... 198,000 1, 809,082

a5.4 South Central Division 0103,000

I... 456.82 2, 242,617

I.. (14.73 a4.6 North Central Division 1453,000

I... a1.15 5,391,474

I.. al, 15 a8,4 Western Division....... 136,000

I... a1.08 511, 026

I.. (28.01 a7.1 North Atlantic Division:

Maine....
New Hampshire 7,514 | 1)..... 138 D..... 1. 20 67,633 D... 1, 8-10 D.. 2. 65 11.1
Vermont c.....
6,972 D..... 534 D..... 7.11 75, 425 D... 3, 183 | D.. 4. 12

9.2 Massachusetts 37, 620 | 1...... 7,530 i I.. .25. 03 400, 786 I.....12, 696 I... 3.27

9.4 Rhode Island

7,974 D..... 912 D.....10. 26 59, 869 D... 1,739 | D.. 2. 82 13.3 Connecticut........ 18, 269 I......1,090 1...... 6.34 145, 358 | I..... 2, 124 I... 1.48 12.6 New York

151, 336 1......9,096 I. 6. 39 1, 185, 149 | I..... 9, 640 | I... .82 12.8 New Jersey C....... 46, 475 1......8, 645 | 1.... .22.85 270, 873 | 1..... 8, 936 | I... 3.41 17.2

Pennsylvania..... South Atlantic Divi. sion: Delaware C.........

33, 292

2,2 Maryland District of Columbia c ....... 3,119 37, 969

8.2 Virginia ...... West Virginia..... North Carolina..... South Carolina Georgia

Florida ......
South Central Divi-
sion :

Kentucky
Tennessee...
Alabam& ....
Mississippi
15, 243 I..... 5,524 | 1......56.82 334, 954 | I.....15, 116 I... 4.73

4.6 Louisiana ... Texas

Arkansas
North Central Divi-
sion:

Ohio
Indiana

a These summaries embrace only the States tabulated in the same columns below.
b Estimate for the whole division on the basis of the States reporting.
c In 1887-88.

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