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PART III. .

CHAPTER XXII.

STATISTICS OF STATE COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEMS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

It was not possible at the time of closing the following tables to present in full the statistics of common schools in the United States for the school year 1888-89. The figures which follow are compiled from the most recent information received, about three-fourths of the States and Territories being represented by reports for the year 1888–89. The corrected totals will be given in a future report.

The population heretofore has been given for that June which fell near the beginning of the school year reported; in this report it is given for the June of that calendar year in which the school year reported closed; i.e., if the school year reported is 1888–89, the population is computed for June, 1889. This method is preferable on several grounds, one obvious advantage being that the official census figures of 1890 will now be used in connection with the school statistics of 1839-90, instead of waiting for those of 1890-91. On account of this change, however, the enrollment, expenditure, etc., per capita of population and of school population, as given in this report, is not comparable with the same data as given in previous reports. The corrected statistics of previous years are given in the present report, pages 9-31.

The United States census of 1890, in connection with that of 1880, has been used as a basis for computing the population given in the following table (column3). It therefore very closely approximates the actual population at the epoch given (mainly 1889); the percentages based upon it are probably accurate as far as carried out.

TABLE 1.- Estimated population and population per square inile; number of pupils enrolled; same compared with the enrollment of the previous year and with the population; all mainly for 1888-89 (the population being given for the close of the school year).

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a Excluding Alaska.

TABLE 1.- Estimated population and population per square mile, etc.- Continued.

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....

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Per ceni. Par cent. 143, 113 D..... 1,067 D.. .74 21,7 a60, 124 | 1)..... 1,702 | 1).. 2.75 16.1 68, 453D......, 949 D.. 4.13

20.6 363, 166

I..

5, 166 | I... 1.44 10.7 51, 895

D..... 827 D.. 1.57 15,4 127,089 I...... 1,034 I... 82

17.3 1,033, 813 I...... 544 | I... .05 17.6 224, 398 | I...... 291 I... 13

16.3 954, 409 | I...... 12,784 | I... 1.36 18.6

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North Atlantic Divi-
sion:
Maine ....

Mar. 31
New Hampshire ... Mar. 31
Vermont b...... Mar. 31
Massachusetts. Mar. 31
Rhode Island Apr. 30
Connecticut

July 14 New York

July 25 New Jersey b..... Aug. 31

Pennsylvania June 3
South Atlantic Divi-
sion:

Delaware b ..... Mar. 31
Maryland ...

June 30
District of Colum.
bia .........

June 30 Virginia ......... July 31 West Virginia...

June 30 North Carolina b... June 30 South Carolina...... Aug. 31 Georgiad ........

Dec. 31
Florida ........

Sept. 30
South Central Divi-
sion :
Kentucky

June 30
Tennesseeb

June 30 Alabama ....... Sept. 30 Mississippi. Sept. 30 Louisiana d....

Dec. 31 Texas b......

Aug. 31
Arkansas

June 30
North Central Divi.
sion :
Ohio......

Aug. 31
Indiana

Nov, 15 Illinois ....

June 30 Michigan........

Sept. 2 Wisconsin

June 30 Minnesota.. July 31 Iowa ......

Sept. 16 Missouri.

June 30 Dakota b...

June 30 Nebraska

July 8
Kansas....

June 30
Western Division:
Montana b......

Dec. 31
Wyoming g

Oct. Colorado

June 30 New Mexico d... Dec. 31 Arizona b ....... June 30 Utah

June 30 Nevadab

Aug. 31 Idaho

Aug. 31 Washington. June 30 Oregon......

Mar. California

June 30 Alaska ......

May 31

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777, 162

D..... 54 | D.. .007 523, 147 | I...... 8,681 | 1... 1.69 763, 411 I ..... 12,062 I... 1.61 423, 604 D..... 1, 614 | D.. .38 314, 942 | I 10,651 | I... 3. 19 273, 814 I...... 15, 087 | 1... 5.83 489, 229

12, 015 I... 2.52 611,511 / 1.

991 | I... .16 93, 826 I...... 4,076 | 1... 4.54 232, 314 | I...... 16, 455 1... 7.62 -105, 454 | I...... 2, 103 | 1... .52

21.5 24.1 20.4 20.7 20.8 21,7 26.1 23.3 20.0 23.6 27.7

I.

.......

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13,828 I...... c728 | I...c 5.56

5,622 | I...... 634 | I...12.71
59, 313 I...... 8,568 1...16.88
cl6,481 | I..... 2,371 | I..h16.80

6, 617 | I...... 683 I...11.51
34, 221 | 1...... 49 I... .14
7,511
D.....

D.. 1.74
12, 678 | I...... 2, 245 I...21.52
46,751 | I...... c7, 969 I.. 124.77
56, 696 I...... 4,058 | I... 7.71
215, 905 | I...... 8,855 1... 4.28

1,040

133

13.4 12.8 16.0 11.7 12.0 17.2 15.9 16.5 16.3 19.2 18.5 2.6

.9 1.3 3.1 7.5 .1

a Number who have attended school two weeks or more.

In 1887-88.
c Approximately.
d In 1888.
e Highest number in attendance; no report from Bell County.
f A few counties not reporting are estimated.
g In 1886–87.
h Average annual rate of increase since 1880.
i Average annual rate of increase since 1387.
j General agent's estimate.

Enrollment. The latest returns of enrollment of pupils in the common schools foot up to 12, 291, 259, being an increase of 220,903 over the corresponding returns of one year previous. The increase in enrollment has been at the annual rate of 1.83 per cent. as against an increase of 2 per cent. per annum reported a year ago and as against an annual increase of 2.17 per cent in the school population the present year.

The progressive decrease of public-school enrollment since 1870 in the Northern States has already been demonstrated in tables published by this office. It now appears that the movement is still going on. During the current year the school population in the North Atlantic Division increased 1.90 per cent., the enrollment only 0.44 per cent. ; in the North Central Division the school population increased 1.73 per cent., the enrollment only 1.66 per cent. In every North Atlantic State in which a school census was taken the school population was found to have increased at a much greater rate than the school enrollinent.

In four of the North Atlantic States and in two of the North Central States there has been an absolute decrease in the enrollment. The increase of enrollment in New York has only been 544, against an increase of school population of over 30,000.

The presentation of these facts affords still further confirmation of the relative decline of public school attendance in the North, in addition to what has been already published.

In the South Atlantic States the increase of school population the past year was at the rate of 2.05 per cent., of enrollment at the rate of 0.21 per cent. per annum. Here the same decline is observable as at the North. Exceptional agencies were at work, however, to bring about the greater part of this decline in (icorgia, and it is believed that it will be only temporary. A provision of the so-called Denny law, which was in operation in Georgia in 1888, required an additional enrollment of at least twenty-five pupils in order to establish a school after one had been provided for each race in each district; this had the effect to diminish the number of schools in the country districts; and on account of the unfavorable crops many farmers' children were obliged to work in the fields, which surther tended to reduce the enrollment. The provision of the law of Georgia referred to has since been repealed.

The South Central Division shows an increase of enrollment of 4.26 per cent., which is much greater than the rate of increase of the school population, the latter being only 2.42 per cent.

As has been stated, the proportion of population enrolled, as given in column 8, is not comparable with the same quantities in previous reports. For the percentage of population enrolled in previous years, since 1870, see Chapter I.

ED 89-43

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