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persons of the proper age residing in such subdistrict or district, and be applied for that purpose from time to time in such way as the board of education of the district may deem best. Any board of education failing to comply with this section may be compelled to do so by the circuit court of the county by mandamus."

The school reports of West Virginia do not state the amounts appropriated for white and colored schools separately, but the amounts paid white and colored teachers are given:

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The following table presents the statistics of public elementary schools, excluding infant schools, in countries whose official reports have been received in this Office. Statistics of enrollment.-The totals of enrollment, column 5, must not be understood as including all children receiving elementary instruction; it is simply the number of children who have availed themselves of the public-school provision. An endeavor has been made in another part of this Report (pp. 76, 77) to show the number of children receiving instruction from all sources in several countries.

While in many countries very nearly the whole school population resorts to public schools, in other countries parochial or church schools bear an equal or possibly even greater part in the work; private nonparochial schools patronized by the wealthy exist in all countries, and in all home instruction supplies the place of school instruction for a small percentage of the population. In Great Britain it is assumed that one-seventh of the population will depend wholly upon private agencies for instruction, and the remaining six-sevenths are made the basis for estimating the amount of public-school accommodation to be supplied.

It is extremely difficult to deal with the statistics reported officially for Austria on account of the various classes of schools which participate in the work of elementary instruction. The official report presents the educational status of the entire school population; that is, the youth six to fourteen years of age. The total number is given as 3,295,552. The number reported as attending the public Volksschulen, i. e., people's schools, is used in the table before us. In addition to this number, viz, 2,748,347, there were in private Volksschulen 107,627, and in small elementary schools 1,695 pupils. There were also 50,628 youths of school age in attendance upon higher Volksschulen, or receiving instruction at home; 365,218 children are said to have been without instruction; leaving a small percentage who are classed as incapacitated by reason of bodily or mental infirmity.

For Great Britain and France enrollment in church schools is included in column 5 of the table. In the former these schools share with board schools in the public grant and are classed as public elementary schools; in the latter they are under the supervision of the Government, although not supported by public funds. The official reports for Ireland give the total enrollment, including all children who have made a single attendance upon the schools during the year. For 1888 this number was 1,060,895. The enrollment, as given in the table, includes only the pupils who may be presented for examination, and in respect of whom grants may be claimed; that is, pupils who made at least one attendance within the last 14 days preceding the Government examination.

The conflict between church and state authorities in several countries, notably in Belgium and the Netherlands, has caused great fluctuations in the attendance in public or state schools in recent years. For instance the enrollment for Belgium is verv nearly double that reported in 1884-85 (vide Rep. of Commissioner, 1886-87).

The triumph of the antiliberal party in 1884 caused a radical change in the school policy. A new school law was passed allowing church schools to share in the public funds upon certain conditions, and in many ways strengthening the influence of the clergy in educational affairs. The result was a decline in public-school attendance, which is now, however, again upon the increase.

Teachers.-Pupil teachers are employed in England and Wales, Scotland, New South Wales, and Japan, and are included in the totals of teachers for those countries.

Financial statistics-The expenditures given in column 16 of the table relate to the schools comprised in the table. The chief item in these expenditures is always the amount paid for teachers' salaries. In addition. to this and incidental expenses, viz, the cost of books and material supplies, the costs of inspection, compulsion, and other administrative expenses are included in column 16. The totals presented in this column do not in every case comprise the entire amount given in the original reports under the head of expenditure for primary education. The differences arise in some cases from the fact that appropriations for special purposes, as pension funds, scholarship funds, etc., included in the original reports, are excluded from the totals here used. In other cases the original reports have classed as elementary, schools that do not come within the scope of this table, as infant schools, normal schools, etc. The expenditures for these have been subtracted from the totals used in column 16, excepting in the case of Belgium, whose reports do not give an itemized statement. Here expenditure for normal schools is included in the total for primary instruction. It should be observed that by far the larger proportion of the amounts expended always goes for teachers' salaries and the current incidental expenditures common to all systems. The special expenditures included for a few countries do not materially affect the relative bearing of the facts.

ED 89-91

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Name and title of chief officer of education.


23,447, 192 1887 16, 901, 023 1887 5,974, 743 1887


135.16 525.34

37, 930, 759 1886

Dr. Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn, minister of public instruction and ecclesiastical affairs.
Dr. August Trefort, minister of education and public worship: Count Albin Csaky appointed in 1888.
M. J. Thonissen, minister of the interior and of instruction; M. J. Devolder in 1889. Succeeded by M.
Melot, and in 1891 by M. J. de Burlet.

186.00 Ministre de l'instruction publique et des beaux-arts, M. Berthelot, from December 11, 1886, to May 30,
1887; M.Spuller, May 30 to December 12, 1887; M. Leopold Faye, December 12, 1887, to April 3,
1888; M. Edouard Lockroy, April 3, 1888 to February 29, 1889; M. A. Fallières, from February 29,
1889, to March 17, 1890; M. Léon Bourgeois, March 17, 1890.


Dr. L. A. von Müller, minister of public instruction since 1889.
Dr. A. Pauli (senator), chief officer.

Dr. G. H. Kirchenpauer (senator), presiding officer.

Herr von Gossler, minister of public worship, instruction, and medical affairs until spring of 1891. Dr. C. F. W. von Gerber, minister of state and chief of the department of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction; director, F. F. Petzholdt. Dr. von Silcher, ministerial director and president of the department of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction.

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67, 658


545. 62

28, 318, 470


Dr. G. Brehmer, chairman of the supreme school council.

1,995, 185

3,182, 003 1885 1885

549.09 265.00

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Committee of council on education: Lord president for England and Scotland, Viscount Cranbrook; vice-president for England, Sir W. Hart Dyke; vice-president for Scotland, Marquess Lothian. Commissioners of national education in Ireland.

Michele Coppino, minister of public instruction; Paolo Boselli appointed 1888. Succeeded by P. Villari in February, 1891.

Dr. J. Heemskerk, minister of the interior.

J. A. Bonnevie, chief officer of department of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction in 1889. Senhor Lucianno de Castro Corte Real, minister of the interior.

Actual Privy Councilor Delyanoff, presiding officer. Succeeded by Mr. Pobedonoszeff in 1891. Dr. L. Lindeloff, superior director of schools. Dr. G. Z. Yrjö-Koskinen, officer in charge of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction in 1890.

Señor Castillo, minister of the interior. Señor de Isasa, minister of public instruction, agriculture, and commerce in 1891.

Carl Gustaf Hammarskjöld, minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs; Gunnar Wennerberg in


R. G. Hodgson, officiating director of public instruction.

Arinori Mori, minister of public instruction; Yoshikaura Akinasa appointed in 1890.

Langham Dale, superintendent-general of education.

Abderrahman Ronchdi Pacha, minister of public works and temporarily of public instruction; Aly
Monbarek Pacha in 1889.

S.D. Pope, superintendent of education.

J. B. Somerset, superintendent of education, Protestant schools.

William Crockett, chief superintendent of education.

Jas. J. Wickham, superintendent Roman Catholic schools. avid Allison, superintendent of education.

George W. Ross, minister of education.

D. Montgomery, chief superintendent of education.

Hon. Gédéon Ouïmet, superintendent of public instruction.

Thomas Capper, inspector of schools

R. J. L. Guppy, superintendent of education.

Don Mauro Fernandez, minister of commerce, agriculture, finance, and public instruction; Dr. P. J.
Valverde in 1891.

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K. M. Chatfield, director of public instruction.




Cape of Good Hope.





6,806, 381



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1,394, 233



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M. A. Herrera, presiding officer; L. A. Estrada in 1889; F. Munoz in 1890.

Don Joaquin Elizondo, minister of the interior and of war, in charge of foreign affairs and public in-
3. 46 Dr. D. Filemón Posse, minister of justice, worship, and public instruction, succeeded by Dr. J. Gutier
rez; Dr. J. A. Ojeda, presiding officer in 1889; Dr. Benjamin Zorrilla, president of the national
council of education.


4. 14 Dr. M. de N. Machado Portella, minister of the interior; B. Constant do Magalhaes, minister of pub-
lic instruction in 1890.


*Deceased in 1891.

Señor P. L. Cuadro, minister of justice, worship, and public instruction; F. P. Borne in 1889.

D. O. Camacho, presiding officer; D. Ospina in 889; J. Casas Rojas, minister of publie instruction.
Dr. Drivimioso Terra, minister of justice, ecclesiastical affairs, and public instruction; Dr. M. Berin
duagu in 1889, succeeded by Dr. C. Berro; Jacob A. Varela, inspector of primary instruction.
Alejandro Goiticoa, minister of public instruction; E. Blanco in 1890.

H. Ď. Benjamins, inspector of instruction.

His excellency Walter M. Gibson, president of the board of education, 1887-88.

D. J. Anderson, superintendent of schools.

J. II. Carruthers, minister of public instruction.

B. B. Moreton, secretary for public instruction, 1887-88; Hon. J. Donaldson in 1889.
J. C. F. Johnson, minister of education.

Charles Henry Pearson, minister of instruction.

W. Adkinson, inspector of schools.

George Fisher, 1. nister of education; since January 24, 1891, R. Reeves.

E. N.C. Braddon, 1887-88, minister of education.

a Estimated.

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