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TABLE 2.-Showing branches of study pursued and the pupils pursuing each branch in city systems of schools having manual training-Continued.
TABLE 3.-Showing grades in which manual training is given and time devoted to it in city
a In term time. b In vacation. c Every two weeks. d Out of school [time?]. ƒ Alternating with paper work. g High school. h Grammar. i Average.
e For 4 months.
TABLE 3.—Showing grades in which manual training is given and time devoted to it in city systems-Continued.
COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS COLLEGES.
Returns have been received from 197 institutions during the past year, and the statistics of 36 institutions have been taken from the Bureau's Report of 1887-88, making a total of 233, an increase of 11 over the previous year. There has been an increase of 86 instructors and 7,183 pupils; 11 schools are reported for the first time. The number of pupils in the business departments of colleges and secondary schools during the past year has fallen off to a considerable extent, and a corresponding increase in the enrollment of business colleges is shown in the statistical tables. Twenty-nine per cent. of these institutions did not send any information to this Bureau for the current year. Complete statistics are necessary in order to represent the work done by the colleges. But as it frequently happens that colleges are established without being reported to the Bureau, it is quite probable that there are institutions in the country which are not on the list. If the colleges that do not appear will but send notice of their existance, a blank form will be forwarded.
It appears from a careful reading of the catalogues and returns sent by these institutions that the time required for a course of business training depends upon the natural aptitude of the student and the extent and completeness with which he wishes to qualify himself. From four to six months is the usual time necessary to complete the full business course; stenography, telegraphy, and typewriting require from three to four months each. In some of the colleges a collegiate course of four years has been added. In others special emphasis is laid upon mathematics, in which the student is rigidly examined before graduation.
During the past year the Bureau has received letters from several persons stating that, as the statistics of neighboring colleges had been falsified, they would not send those of their own institutions. This is a very embarrassing subject to discuss; the Bureau has no means of rectifying the statements it receives, and they are necessarily published as they are furnished.
The increase of the business colleges of the country has kept pace with the increase of population and with the growth of the business enterprises during the last ten years. Since 1880 the estimated increase in the number of colleges is 83 per cent.; of instructors, 173 per cent.; and of pupils, 115 per cent.
Improvements have also been made in the courses of study, and in the manner of preparing pupils for the responsible positions they seek to fill after leaving or graduating from the institutions. The most of the colleges give the student practical knowledge of how business is transacted in the large cities in banking, in insurance, in real estate, and in commercial houses. If the student is far enough advanced in mathematics and in the English branches, very little attention is given to text books. In the college building are found the college bank, with its president and board of directors, cashier, and tellers; the jobbing house and the commission house, and the insurance and the real-estate offices. The student before finishing his course is required to act as cashier, paying teller, receiving teller, shipping clerk, salesman, cashier, and bookkeeper. The student buys and sells, makes deposits, draws checks, and sustains the same general relation to the college bank and to the jobbing house that is held by a merchant in the great business world. He is also given instruction in the modus operandi of the insurance office, and is taught by the real-estate broker how to estimate the increased value of real estate by the increase of population and by the laws of supply and demand.
As the business of the country has enlarged and expanded, the knowledge of commercial law, of commercial calculations, and of the tariff laws of different nations has become a necessity, and business men are coming to demand a thorough practical education in all these branches before employing young men as their business assistants.