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1810.] Analysis of Books, No. II.--Osborn's “Advice to a Son.” 313 carry over with them large and thrive to let your judgement wade, rather ing talents, as those servants did, than swim, in the sense of the Scripcommended by our Saviour.-Let tures : because our deep, plungers not the irreligion of any place breed have often been observed to bring in you a neglect of divine duties : up sandy assertions. For, if Brightremembring, God heard the prayers man, known by myself pious and of Daniel in Babylon, with the same learned, could be so out in his calcu. attention he gave to David's in Sion. lations for the Pope's fall, as to the -Consort with none who scoffe at' time; what encouragement remains their own religion, but shun them as for you to perplex your studies or spies or atheists."
expectation, when those hieroglyfical IV. Government. "Contract pot obscurities shall be performed ---Be the cominon distemper, incident to not easily drawn to lay the foule imvulgar braines, who still imagine more putation of witchcraft upou auy, much ease from some untried government Jesse to assist at their, condemnation, than that they lye under..Be not too common among us: for who is the pen or mouth of a multitude, con- sufficient for such things ?---Be not gregated by the gingling of their own hasty to register all you understand fetters ; lest a pardon or compliance not in the black Calendar of Hell, -as knock them off, and leave you to the some have done the weupon-sulve, vengeance of an exasperated power: passing by the cure of the King's but rather have patience, and see the Euil, altogether as improbable to tree sufficiently shaken, before you sense ; neither rashly condemn all run to scamblo for the fruit; lest, in- you meet with that contradicts the stead of profit and honour, you meet common received opinion, lest you with a cudgell, or a stone.—'Tis not should remain a foole upon record, dutiful nor safe, to drive your prince as the Pope doth, that anathematized by a witty answer, beyond all possibi- the Bishop of Saltzburg for maintainlity of reply. This a Carver at Court, ing Antipodes ; and the Consistory, formerly in good esteem with K. that may possibly attain the same James, found to his prejudice, who honour, for decreeing against the probeing laught at by. biin for saying bable opinion of the
Earth's motion ; the wing of a rabbit, maintained it as since the branding of one truth imcongruous as the fore-legge of a capon, ports more dis-repute than tho 2 phrase used in Scotland, and by broaching of ten errors, these being himself bere : which put the King so only lapses in the search of vew reaout of patience, as he never looked son, without which there can be no on the gentleman more. The like I addition to knowledge: that, a murhave been told of a Bishop, who dering of it, when by others greater being reproved by the same Prince fur wit and industry it is begotten ; not preaching against the Papists, during to be accounted less than an unparthe trealy with Spaine, replyed, He donable sin against the spirit of learncould never suy more than his Ma- ing. Therefore mingle charity with jesty had writ. Goe thy way, quoth judgement, und temper your zele the King, and expect thy next trans. with discretion; so may your own be lation in heaven, not from me.---At preserved, without intrenching upon a conference, to speak last is no small that of others." advantage, as Mr. John Hampden Conclusion. « Beare alvaies a wisely observed, who made himself filial reverence to your drarc Mother, still the Gaol-keeper of his party, and let not her old age, if she attain giving his opposites leasure to loose it, seem tedious unto you ; since that their in the loud and less significant little she may keep from you, will tempest, commonly arising upon a be abundantly recompensed, not only first debate: thus by confounding the by her prayers, but by the tender weaker, and tiring out the acuter care she hath, and ever will bave, of judgements, he seldom failed to at- you: Therefore, in case of my death taine his ends."
(which weariness of the world will V. Religion. “ Read the Book of not suffer me to adjourn, so much as God with reverence, and in things by a wish), doe not proportion your doubtful, take fixation from the au. respect by the mode of other sons, thority of the Church.---Be content but to the grealuess of her desert, GENT. MAG. October, 1810,
beyond beyond requitall in relation to us ode,' not the slightest vestige is apboth.---I have thus left you finished parent that could lead to the suppogi(deare Son) a picture of the World, tion, that those iambics were the two in this at least like it, that it is fragile epodes in Canidiam. However, in and confused ; being an Originall, not order to see clearly into this curious a Copie ; po more forrein help having affair between Canidia and our bard, been employed in it, than what iny we are in need of no other candle than own miserable experience bras im- that which himself has lighted for us. printed in my memory. And as you How much soever we may be inclined have by triall already found the truth to impute the bitter sarcasıns, and the of some of these : so I must earnestly horrible accusations, with which he beg of you to trust the rest, without overwhelms this person, either to the thrusting your fingers, like a child, vengeance of an offendcd poet, who into those flames in which your father was so apt to be angry, (irasci celeris, hath formerly been burnt ; and so epist. xx. 25.) or to the reports and add by your own purchase to the anecdotes, that might be in common multiiude of inconveniences he is circulation about Canidia as a power. forced to leave you by inheritance. ful witch, or in short to the humour “ Now you are taught to live, ther 's no
and imagination of the poet, wbo thing I
chose to divert himself on this occaEsteem worth learning, but the way to Dic.” sion with the subject of magie in Yours, &c.
J. B. general : there still remain some data, (To be continued.)
that we may reasonably admit as true, which first gave rise to our author's
displeasure against Canidia ; and withILLUSTRATIONS OF HORACE.
out which it would not be conceivable Book I. Sat. VIII.
how he could bring hinuself to lance A Mind Githe pages of Horace, we his wit with such deliberate cruelty at
a being of that description. From Canidia is handled most usmercifully; coinparing and combining these sethe Satire now before us, and the veral circumstances togther, my belief fifth and seventeenth of the Epodes. is, that by the following statement She is there described, more espe- we shall come as near as possible to cially in the last, as a creature, who, the truth of the inatter. Canidia had aster having followed in her youth in her youth been one of that class, the infamous profession of a priestess to which the beautiful Lydia, Pyrrha, of the Venus Volgivagu *, was at last Leuconoë, Glycera, Cynara, Barine, reduced to the necessity of practising Lycymnia, Lyce, Neobule, Inachia, magical arts, in order still to procure Neära, and who can tell how many customers for her faded charms. It others, belonged, of whom our bard may be, that her real name was Gra- had been enamoured, and whose tidia, and herself a Neapolitan un- praises he had sung in his blooming guentaria (perfumer); but from what years: but their spring-tide of life quarter the Scholiasts derived their had long since been passed, when their information, that she had been a mis- acquaintance with him began, and tress of our Poet, nay, the very same they cast their nets in vain for the person to whom the Palinodia ad minion of the Graces, who, it appears, Anicam (the 16th Ode of the first possessed the talent to please the most Book) is addressed, I am as much at amiable, and to whom the sævu mater a loss to guess, as how that ground. Cupidinum was seldom cruel. Per.less, and, in all its circumstances, şi ceiving at length the insufficiency of incoherent an assertion, could obtain their attractions, they had recourse credit with even some modern Com
to magical charms. The natives of mentators. Horace bad affronted Italy bave been in all ages, like the ·some anonymous fair by satirical iam- Greeks, extremely superstitious ; and bics ; this he himself coofesses : but there prevailed among the common throughout the whole of that palin. people, or rather amongst all, whose
* Amata nautis multùm et institoribus, conceptions were not retined by phithe mistress of every sailor and shop. losophy, a traditional notion, that keeper; å sort of people who worked hard, there were arts, by the assistance of and were well paid. Confer Ode iii. 6. the subterranean deities, and by spe .Hr. 29, et seqq.
cilic inagical processes, formularies,
talismans, and other methods of sor- the ridiculous belief of his countrycery, of working wonders ; as, for men in the black art, and, to crowa instance, to conjure up the spirits of all, with the infatuated wretch Cathe dead, in order to learn of them nidia. futuré events; to transform them- It cannot well be otherwise, thau selves and others into the likeness of that such a fiction, however icioffenvarious and strange animals ; by cer- sive to the contemporaries of our tain philtres, or other spells and ope- bard, should come in collision here rations, (such as are described aby and there with our more fastidious Virgil in his viiith eclogne) to make conceptions of decorum. The god of people nolens volens fall in love with the gardens was a boorish, rude, and them, and the like. Among the obscene deity ; Horace must either Greeks, the Thessalians, and among have not spoke of him at all, or the Italians, the Marses and Sabines * Priapus must be allowed to talk conwere particularly famous for these sistently with his character ; and, so magical arts; and how greatly dis- to say, his own peculiar language. posed the antient Roman ladies were This poetical licence, as it was the to heighten the natural magic of their poet's duty to assert, so it is ours to charms, by calling in the aid of love- grant him; and we must be able to potions, is evident from nunierous transport ourselves in imagination for examples. Whatever relation now this a few moments back to the age, manmight have to the fascinating prac- ners, and ideas of the antient Romans, tices which 'Canidia seems to have re- in order to reap that entertainment sorted to, for forcing Horace to love from the wit and humour of this inher against his consent ; thus much imitable piece of pleasantry, which at least is evident, that he was pro- it doubtless afforded to Mæcenas and voked by it to summon up all his wit the good company met together in to revenge himself on her in such a the Esquiline gardens. manner as must have been most sen- Pantolabo scurræ, Nomentanoque sibly cutting to au elderly and decayed nepoti.] A couple of graceless felLourtezan.
lows, of whom one defrayed the exThe present composition forms the pences of his kitehen by the revenues first act of his resentment í. He makes of his seurrility, and the other having the fig-tree Priapus, which (according been such a bad æconomist of his to the Roman custom) was set up in ample patrimony, that probably he a corner of the newly-planted Es- had to look to po better a place of quiline gardens, blab the mystic cerc
interinent than that. The former monies and magical arts, practised in had been already quoted by Horace the dead of night by Canidia, and the in his first Satire, as the complete old hags her companions, on the model of a glutton and spendthrift. campus Esquilinus, as an unobserved Seneca, in his ingenious and longeye-witness of these decds of darkness. winded disputation against the vo- A happy conceit, as furnishing him luptuousness of the Epicureans (cap. with an opportunity for diverting si. de vita beata) places him on a pahimself, as it at one stroke, with the rallel with the celebrated Apicius. divinity of the wooden Priapus, with “Behold,” says he, "a Nomentamus,
an Apicius, who collect together * This appears from various passages whatever, according to their terminoin our author. See Epist. v. 76. xvii. 27. logy, is good either on land or in et seqq. Sat. lib. I. ix. 29, 30.
water, and niuster upon their tables + This I infer from the answer, which
the animals of all nations ! Look at in the xviiith Epode he makes Canidia give them, bending down from their to bis ironical declaration of love. Inultus ut turiseris Cotyttia
roseate thrones to snuff up the fumes Vulgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis ?
of their culinary preparations, &c." Et Esquilini pontifex venefici
Pantolabus (if we may credit the Impune ut urbem nomine impleris meo? Commentators) is improperly, so Unbidden pontif of our arts,
called, his real name being Mallius By which we fix inconstant hearts,
Verna, as the patronymic of NomenShall you divulge Cotyttian rites,
tapus was Cassius. He is again menAnd laugh at our voluptuous nights ? tioned afterwards in the first Satire of And unreveng'd expose my shame, the second book. And make a torn-talk of my naine !
Esquit Esquiliis.] The Esquiline mount all the others, lay within the walls of the was included in the precincts of the Esquiline hill, whatever the pretended city of Rome by King Servius Tullius. Scholiast Porphyrion may say to the It was of so large a circuit, that it contrary. How else could Priapus, antiently composed the second, and who, aš the guardian of these new on the new division by Augustus, in- pleasure grounds, was probably set cluding the Viminalis, the fifth region up at the extremest verge of them, of that capital. The place here de- have been an eye-witness to the mascribed, as selected by Canidia to be gical mysteries of the two witches? the scene of her mystic rites, in all or how wonld the sudden crack which probability lay at the farthest ex- burst from bis godship’s hinder parts, tremity of the Esquiline, and appears have been so dreadfully alarining, pot to have been the same with the as to make them abruptly leave their puticulæ mentioned by Varro and unfinished rites, and, all confusion, Festụs. To me it seems likely, that scamper into the town? Our poet those puticula, where in the remotest was certainly not the man to Deglect ages of Rome the corpses of malefac- on any occasion his own rule, tors and paupers had been customarily
Ficta voluptatis cuusâ sint proxima veris. inbumed, were indeed entirely without
Animas responsa daturas.] thie Esquiline gate ; that, however, in
ocess of tiinc, in consequence of pagan sorcerers abusively made their the vast enlargement, and still in religion subservient to their mysteries,
as the Christian exorcists, necromancreasing population of Rome, the ground-plot of which Horace speaks, have the Christian. Thus, for exam:
cers, treasure-finders, diviners, &c. situate within the
walls of the campus ple, they were wont to slay a black Esquilinus, had been bequeathed by lamb *, to appease, or to propitiate, some humane land-owner for the express purpose of being used as a com
the manes of the departed; in the mon burial-place for siaves, and per tím's blood was grateful to them, and
opinion, that the steam of the vicsons of the lowest class. latter seems evidently to follow from that they inhaled it with great arithe expression ; that a monument dity t, in hopes that the shadowy there erected, with the usual letters form between nothing and something, H.M. H. N. S. denoted that this field, which they now must put up with ina thousand feet in length, and three stead of their pristine body, would hundred in breadth, could not be thereby acquire somewhat more conclaimed by the heirs of the
sistence and energy. Canidia and Sa
anonymus, who had left it as a legacy to gana, who wanted to inquire into the necessitous part of the com
futurity of these sprighis, bring them, munity, as their inheritance. Nar. therefore, the customary offerings ; dini, it is true, finds this opinion but, in order to preserve the approincumbered with several difficulties: monial of night-hags, the poet makes
priate costume, the proper cerebut, since after all, they proceed entirely from ignorance of the true
them not slay the lamb, “but tear it antient site of the place, their solu- in pieces with their teeth and nails. tion is neither possible nor necessary. &c.] The poet, without explicitly
Lanca et effigies erut, altera cerea, It may suffice, that Horace, who must best have known the Esquiline, revealing (as it would not have been and the situation of the newly-planted proper in a description of such mysgardens of Mæcenas (which is here the terious witcheries, especially in the point in hand) expressly says: these mouth of Priapus, who relates barely gardens had rendered the region of the what he could see) yet with sufficient Esquiline, which had before been a perspicuity gives it to be understood, loathsome cæmetery for slaves and
that Canidia's object in these docbeggars, a salubrious and delightful turnal enchantments, was to make abode. He seems, therefore, to have
some obstinate wight in love with her
To left us in no doubt, that the retired by magical spells and charms. and lonely spot, where Canidia, with that end the two sympathetic figures her associate hag, assembled, in hopes of It is well known, that no other than of practising iheir nocturnal sorceries black victims were slaughtered to the subundisturbed, formed a part of Mæce- terranean deities. pas's pew plantations, ana uo less than # See the eleventh book of the Odyssey,