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a very different thing from soreness, though the best idea we can form or convey of the suffering of the mind should be furnished by a comparison of it to that of the body.
The second chapter contains a detail of symptoms, in the description of which Mr. H. is very happy. Here we have the result of large experience and acute observation. He informs us that madness is more liable to occasion defect in the organ of hearing than in any other : that, though he scarcely recollects an instance of a lunatic becoming blind, he has met with numbers who were deaf. It is certain, as he remarks, that in maniacs, more delusion is conveyed through the ear than the eye, or any of the other senses. • Those who are not actually deaf, are troubled with difficulty of hearing and tinnitus aurium.? 'In consequence of some affection of the ear, the insane sometimes insist that malicious agents contrive to blow streams of infected air into this organ. Others have conceived, by means of what they term hearkening wires and whiz-pipes, that various obscenities and blasphemies are forced into their minds; and it is not unusual for those who are in a desponding condition to assert, that they distinctly hear the devil tempting them to self destruction.' Indeed there is no symptom more uniformly present, in several species of insanity, than the listening to fancied voices. We have been often surprised and amused in witnessing the ingenuity, the acuteness, and eloquence, exhibited by some madmen in their disputes with imaginary opponents. At page 71 we have one of the most amusing and singular cases, in proof of the above statement, that we ever met with, but too long for insertion. Mr. Haslam also informs us, that the symptoms are influenced by the position of the body; that bodily occupation and exertion seem to mitigate mental suffering; and that, after a long continued paroxysm, the integuments of the head become loose and may be gathered up
in the hand.—He explodes the generally received opinion that maniacs do not suffer from cold, asserting, that they are particularly subject to mortifications of the feet.
Our author next defines what has been termed a luuid interval, than which, no part of his subject is more interesting and important, either in a medical or juridical point of view. On this topic much has been said, and there is still much room for discussion : for great contrariety of opinion respecting it still exists, as well among medical as legal
The third and fourth chapters are made up of cases, the majority of which were published in the former edition. The accompanying dissections tend to confirm the observa
tions of other pathologists, that organic disease exists in most cases of Mania.
In chapter the fifth, Mr. Haslam details the causes of insanity, Here new reasons are assigned for believing the disease hereditary. He very properly rejects the idea of lunar influence on maniacs, in his division of causes, he adopts the usual genera of moral and physical.
The sixth chapter, on the probable event of the disease, affords much important information, procured from accu. rate observation, and the records of the institution in which Mr. Haslam has long been an officer, We are willing to allow him the just meed of merit, for the treatment of many parts of his subject; but we cannot pass over in silence his sarcastic remarks on a very important one, in which every enlightened and benevolent mind must feel a peculiar interest. We refer to his observations respecting ihe inflyence of different religious opinions on the mind, and that species of mental derangement which has been termed devotional. Though Mr. H. professes to institute a generous and tolerant survey of religious opinions, we can give him no credit for liberality. We know enough of the Methodists to affirm, that his reflections on their creed are unjust. It is trve, some of the most illiterate of their fraternity' have assumed the garb of sanctity and the holy office;' and though nearly ignorant perhaps of the first principles of grammar, and possessing but a very limited knowledge of their native language, yet they have rivetted the attention of their auditories, have enforced the most important sentiments with an energy and fluency of speech which their calumniators would in vain attempt to imitate, and produced an impression of the most salutary nature where the best logic and finest style would have been ineffectual. The allusion to the assistance of cordials to fix the waverings of belief, is unworthy an enlightened mind; and though this conscientious gentleman sarcastically acknowledges his obligations 10 the Faction of Faith, as he terms the Methodists, for the supply of the many cases which have furnished his experience of this wretched calamity, we are of opinion he is ill qualified to treat them successfully. If moral causes be allowed to produce the diseases in question, moral means of cure may be admitted ; and howeyer competent Mr. Haslam may be esteemed in the management of other cases, we should hesitate before we consigned a friend to his care who was suffering under devotional insanity.' His sențiments, on this part of the subject, savour strongly of the infidel principles which prevail among too many of his profession as well as ours; and which render them totally inVOL. VI.
competent to enter into the feelings and reasunings of this class of patients, or successfully minister to a mind diseased.' It is not to be expected that men can appreciate such an expression as a wounded spirit,' even in the mouth of an unprejudiced dispassionate Christian, who seem to live as if there were no God. Neither fearing nor worshipping the omnipotent Being, they might with more propriety be pitied as insane, than many humble penitents or sincere believers inordinately oppressed with a sense of guilt and dread of punishment. It has been doubted by judges equally competent with Mr. Haslam and much less prejudiced, whether the term religious melancholy' be proper ; since (without maintaining that all maladies of this description should be ascribed to physical disease) it may very reasonably be suspected, that the melancholy uniformly arises from the want of religion, and that therefore what has been termed devotional insanity may more properly be called melancholy arising from the absence of religious consolation. We therefore cheerfully assent to Mr. H.'s próposition, that it is sinful to accuse religion, which preserves the dignity and integrity of our intellectual faculty, with being the cause of its derangement.
The remainder of the work, is devoted to the important subjects of Management and Medical Treatment. Here we have much that is valuable, but very little that is new; excepting some observations on diet, and objections to the practice of spouting or forcing 'food or medicine upon maniacal patients, with a drawing and description of an instrument for the latter purpose, which, we understand from practitioners who have employed it, deserves the commendations bestowed on it by the inventor. In speaking of remedies, Mr. Haslam seems unnecessarily severe on Dr. Cox, from whose publication on the same subjeet he has - filled some pages of his own. He reprobates the Doctor's practice of swinging, and deceiving his patients in some cases; and ridicules the idea of benefit expected to arise from continued intoxication in others'; but we must confess we see nothing incredible in Dr. C.'s assertions or inadmissible in his reasoning ; and as Mr. H. does not appear to have proved, by the result of observation or a detail of facts, the futility of means recommended froin actual experience, he is hardly warranted by the usages of scientific men or the laws of philosophizing, to support his objection simply by ridicule. Indeed his method of ridiculing, is of the humblest kind ; instead of his own wit, he contents bimself with giving Dr. Cox's words in Italics. On the subject of emetics, Dr. Cox seems completely at issue with Mr. Haslam ; we think the latter, however, has been scarcely just or accurate, when he asserts, (p. 333.) ' In reading over the cases related by Dr. C., there is no one where emetics have been solely employed as agents of cure; they have always been 'linked with other remedies;' for, upon referring to Dr. C.'s book, we find no less than three cases (pp. 105, 106, and 107) in which emetics alone were successfully employed.
We must here conclude our obervations on Mr. Haslam's book; which, notwithstanding many instances of defective style as well as reasoning, and illiberal sarcasms on contemporary authors, is a valuable publication on a very interesting class of maladies. We can recommend it, as being a production of talent and industry, attentive observation and long experience. Though no new modes of practice are detailed, nor much valuable addition made to our stock of resources in the treatment of diseases of the mind, yet we do not hesitate to pronounce Mr. Haslani's work the best practical treatise extant on the subject of Insanity. Art. XI. Two Letters to “a Barrister,"containing, Strictures on his
Work, in Three Parts, entitled, Hints to the Public and the Legislature, on the Nature and Effect of Evangelical Preaching. By a
Looker on. 8vo. pp. 59. Price 1s. 6d. Black, Parry and Co. 1809. WE find little to complain of in this pamphlet, except that it comes
too late. The author entered upon his task with many advantages, and some of them peculiar to himself ; with a vigorous and cultivated mind, with considerable observation of life, and with an attachment to genuine religion, not derived from early prepossessions, but from the candid examination of a mature understanding ; it is some advantage, also, that he holds himself distinct from the Calvinists, and may therefore be regarded, when speaking of their creed and character, as an unbiassed witness. He has produced a temperate, rational, concise, and satisfactory answer to nearly all the Barrister’s misrepresentations ; the effect of which, on readers in general, will be not a little increased, by the frankness with which he concedes some unimportant points to his antagonist, and the respect (in our opinion excessive) which he avows for his ability as an advocate.' He gives the following character of the work he undertakes to answer.
• A plenteous assortment of quotations from well-meaning, but incautious writers, contributing most liberally to swell the size of your pamphlets, and to enhance their value ; these unfortunate quotations, too, set off with all the aid which the typographical art could furnish, to give a more invidious construction to the obnoxious passages : a little pompous and far-fetched ratiocination about possible improbabilities, and idle speculations respecting effects, which never have, nor are ever likely to take place: these are the precious materials, which, hashed up with a profu. sion of the most barefaced scurrility, and the most insulting personalities, comprise the sum and substance of your much vaunted performance."
We select two paragraphs, respecting the Barrister's mode of treating the religious magazines and the writings of Bunyan, as a specimen, of his neat and conclusive manner.
It may be easy to extract from the periodical publications circulated amongst Evangelical Christians, a few instances of weakness and absurdity, and to discover in the character and manners of some of the good, people,' many ludicrous eccentricities : but these are, for the most part, harmless exuberances of feeling, which lead to no moral obliquity. Itcould be wished, indeed, in every case, that while the affections gave energy to the character, these should, in their turn, be subjected to the controul of the rational faculty. But this happy union of lively feel. ings and chastened judgment falls not often to the lot of erring humanity.' p. 27
• The extracts which you have made from Bunyan's writings, with your own typographical illustrations, serve rather to betray the impurity of your own mind, than to prove a want of delicacy in the original author. A prurient and libidinous imagination will never be at a loss to give an offensive import to a passage, which may have been written with the purest intent, and the utmost simplicity of heart. p. 50.
Some of our readers, perhaps, may find individuals among their acquaintance, who are weak and ignorant enough to be the Barrister's dupes, to admit his quibbles, believe his falshoods, tremble at his threatenings and prophecies, and conceive an abhorrence for the wor. thiest of their countrymen, on account of the acknowledged strictness and insputed deprayity of their morals; such readers, we think, will do well to call in the Looker-on. Art. XII. Satan's Devices exposed, in Four Sermons, by the Rev.
Thomas Knowles, B. A. Curate of Humberstone, in the County of Lincoln. 8vo. pp. 96. Price 28. 6d. Crosby, Baynes, Seeley, &c.
Knowles has our thanks for this excellent little volume on a most
important subject. It is adapted to the instruction and comfort of a large portion of professing Christians. The language is plain, but not vulgar ; the arguments are close and perspicuous ; and the whole bears the stamp of much good sense and piety. These sermons deserve a wide circulation, and, if printed in a cheap form, might be distributed with great advantage among the
Mr. K. seems to have acquired the art of communicating instruction to the unlearned ; and if humanity and Christian benevolence are not empty sounds, the cultivation of this art is intitled to higher praise than the greatest proficiency in philosophy and metaphysics. The only instruction which the greater part of a congregation can receive on subjects of importance too vast«for conception, must be received through their minister. Shall this minister, then, obsequiously pay his homage to half a dozen of his congregation, whom he imagines to be of more importance than all the rest, in hopes of obtaining, in his turn, a reputation for science and taste, and send empty away the poor who are looking up to him for the bread of life, and who are perishing for want of knowledge ? Let shame burn the face of such a man to a cinder! A day will come, when a kind and condescending attention to the poor of Christ's flock will be duly appreciated, and the wretch, who