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and another committee to make a similar inquiry into the salaries of secondary-school teachers. The first committee issued its report in February, 1918. The report is based on three main principles:

1. That the "authorities in constructing a scale should aim at obtaining a constant supply of suitable recruits, at retaining them while other careers are still open to them, and at securing service of the desired quality from those who make teaching their life work."

2. That the scale "shall provide them with a reasonable assurance of a remuneration that will enable them to live appropriately without embarrassment, and that they may have a fair chance of advancement to posts of greater importance and emolument."

3. That the authorities "in framing their scales are taking part in the work of establishing the teaching service of the country on a basis conducive to the efficiency of the system of national education; they should proceed upon a common basis of principles.”

The committee, while accepting the administrative advantages of a salary scale, recognized that special consideration must be given to rewarding teachers of exceptional ability, to dealing with teachers who drift into a rut, to withholding increments from those teachers who are reported to be inefficient. It further considered the question of equal pay for men and women, for which a strong agitation has been launcht by women teachers thruout the country. Finally some attention was given to removing some of the inequalities in salaries paid to teachers in rural and urban

areas.

The chief principle adopted for the construction of salary scales was that a scale with smaller increments for the early years of service, followed by larger increments leading up to a salary adequate for increasing family responsibilities, and then with further prospects until retirement, is superior to a sharp, steep scale leading early up to a maximum, or a long and gradual scale which would not yield an adequate salary when responsibilities were greatest. For example, in the case of men certificated teachers, annual increments are suggested for not less than twelve years, followed by increments at intervals of not more than three years for a further period of about ten years; and for women certificated teachers, annual increments for not less than eight years, followed by increments at longer intervals as in the case of

Uncertificated teachers should have a short scale covering a period of four to six years and not rising above the minimum for women certificated teachers, with discretionary increments in cases of individual merit. Owing to the opposition of the teaching body the committee was unable to recommend that increments should depend solely upon merit, and it suggests that increments be automatic except in the case of definite

men.

1

* Report of the Departmental Committee for Inquiring into the Principles Which Should Determine the Construction of Scales of Salary for Teachers in Elementary Schools. Vol. I, Repori, Cd. 8939; Vol. II, Summaries of Evidence and Memoranda, Cd. 8999.

default or wilful neglect, with additional rewards for exceptional merit. The committee was unable to accept the principle of equal pay for men and women, partly because a scale of salaries adequate for women is under present circumstances inadequate for men, and partly because it is essential to attract and retain suitable men in the profession. Accordingly it advocated the principle that the minimum salaries for both men and women should be approximately the same, but that the maximum for women should not be less than three-fourths of the maximum for men. With reference to rural and urban teachers the committee was of the opinion that service in the rural districts should be made financially attractive, and that accordingly salaries should be only a little lower than in urban areas. While the committee did not attempt to establish a national scale, it offered for consideration a number of illustrative scales and emphasized the importance of avoiding such diversity that the larger school systems would draw teachers away from the smaller.

The following illustrations of scale-making for certificated teachers were offered:

MEN

1. Minimum $500 rising by annual increments of $25 to $800 in the thirteenth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $950 in the twenty-second year of service.

2. Minimum $500 rising by annual increments of $25 to $700 in the ninth year of service, then by annual increments of $50 to $900 in the thirteenth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $1050 in the twenty-second year of service.

3. Minimum $500 rising by annual increments of $25 to $575 in the fourth year of service, then by annual increments of $50 to $1050 in the fourteenth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $1200 in the twenty-third year of service.

4. Minimum $500 rising by annual increments of $25 to $600 in the fifth year of service, then by annual increments of $50 to $1150 in the sixteenth year of service, and then by triennial increments.

5. Minimum $500 rising by annual increments of $50 to $1200 in the sixteenth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $100 to $1500 in the twenty-fifth year of service.

WOMEN

1. Minimum $450 rising by annual increments of $25 to $650 in the ninth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $750 in the thirteenth year of service.

2. Minimum $450 rising as in (1) to $650 in the ninth year of service, then by one increment to $700 in the tenth year of service, and then by triennial increments to $850 in the nineteenth year of service.

3. Minimum $450 sing by annual increments of $25 to $600 in the seventh year of service, then by annual increments of $50 to $750 in the tenth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $900 in the nineteenth year of service.

4. Minimum $450 rising by annual increments of $25 to $550 in the fifth year of service, then by annual increments of $50 to $850 in the eleventh year of service, and then by triennial increments of $50 to $1000 in the twentieth year of service.

5. Minimum $450 rising as in (4) to $550, then by annual increments of $50 to $900 in the twelfth year of service, and then by triennial increments of $100 to $1 200 in the twenty-first year of service.

SCOTLAND

The effect of the war on the salaries of teachers in Scotland was similar to that in England and Wales, with similar attempts to meet the situation by the grant of bonuses. In July, 1917, the government appointed a Departmental Committee on the Remuneration of Teachers in Scotland, which considered and reported in November, 1917, on salaries in elementary and secondary schools and in training colleges. The general considerations determining the report of the committee was as follows:

In considering the larger and more important part of our reference, viz., the suitable scales of salary for different classes of teachers, we desired to approach the question not solely, nor even mainly, as one involving the interests of a single profession, but as one vitally affecting the welfare of the whole community. That welfare must depend, in increasing measure, upon the efficiency of national education; and the fundamental requirement for securing this is that there should be an adequate supply of teachers of high capacity, proved aptitude, and thoro training. This cannot be attained unless the remuneration is such as to make the teaching profession one which may compete with other professions in securing recruits of sufficient capacity and in repaying these recruits for the time and labour spent in their special training. To attract such recruits it is necessary, not only that a fair salary should be offered to begin with, but-and it is an even more vital condition—that sufficiently attractive prospects should be opened to those who have served for a certain number of years.

Following this line of inquiry we come to the following general conclusions:

1. That not only as a temporary war measure, but as a permanent necessity in order to maintain an efficient teaching profession in the interests of the country, the general remuneration of teachers must be raised, and an equalization of the scale of salaries for similar classes of schools over the country is desirable.

2. That this cannot be attained by any continuation or extension of the bonus system.

3. That while an adequate initial salary must be provided, it is even of greater importance that improved prospects should be opened to those who attain a certain length of service and have proved their competency and their aptitude for the profession.

4. That the scale should take account of:
a) The length and character of the preliminary training.
b) Length of service.

c) The responsibility of the post held and its demands on the capacity and energy of a teacher.

The scales recommended by the committee are in every case higher than those prevailing at present and determined by local and accidental circumstances. While aware of the large increase of expenditure involved, the committee declares it to be its

firm and considered conviction, however, that the scheme .... cannot be attained except, first, by an extension of school areas, and, secondly, by a very large proportion of the additional amount required being provided by the central authority. ... Whatever the cost, if it is proved to be necessary for high educational efficiency, we cannot afford the ultimate extravagance which is involved in undue parsimony in such a case. It should not be overlookt that the aim of the proposed standard of salaries . . . . is not so much to improve the position and prospects of the teaching profession as to secure in the future, for the benefit of the state, an adequate supply of amply efficient recruits for our educational army.

APPENDIX XIII

TEACHERS' SALARIES

“Basic Principles in the Making of a Salary Schedule for Teachers. The Findings

of the Evanston, Illinois, Committee of Teachers,” American School Board

Journal, LVI (March, 1918), 26-27, 83. Becht, J. G. “The Teachers' Qualifications, Compensation, and Retirement,”

Pennsylvania School Journal, LXIV (March, 1916), 393-96. Boynton, F. D. “Minimum Salary Legislation,Journal of the New York State

Teachers' Association II (February, 1915), 16-20. Boykin, J. C., and King, Roberta. The Tangible Rewards of Teaching. U.S.

Bureau of Education, Bulletin No. 16, 1914. Washington: Government

Printing Office. 465 pages. Chamberlain, Arthur H. “Teachers' Salaries. A Study of the Salary Schedule

in Various Cities in the United States," Sierra Educational News, XIII

(January, 1917), 12–16. Chancellor, William E. “The Future of Salaries for Ohio Teachers,” Ohio

Teacher, XXXIII (February, 1918), 294-96. “College Teachers, Financial Status of," Eighth Report of the Carnegie Founda

tion (1913), pp. 98-111. England, Report of the Departmental Committee for Inquiring into the Principles

Which Should Determine the Construction of Scales of Salary for Teachers in Elementary Schools. Vol. I, Report, Cd. 8939; Vol. II, Summaries of

Evidence and Memoranda, Cd. 8999. London, 1918. “Evanston's Scale and Scheme," Journal of Education, LXXXVII (February 21,

215-17. A reply of the Board of Education of Evanston, Ill., to the report of the teachers' committee on a salary scale and scheme for grading salaries, promotions, and dismissals. Ferguson, James. “Teachers' Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions," National Educa

tion Association, Addresses and Proceedings (1915), pp. 1162-64. Hadley, A. T. “Salaries at Yale University,” School and Society, II (Novem

ber 20, 1915), 751-52.

From the annual report. Hoban, C. F. "The Salary Question," Pennsylvania School Journal, LXIII

(April, 1915), 431–32. Kandel, I. L. "The War and Teachers' Salaries. England and Wales, and

Scotland,” School and Society (June 29, 1918, and July 6, 1918). Mayman, J. Edward. “The High Cost of Living and Stationary Salaries,"

American Teacher, VI (January, 1917), 2-4.

Gives a table showing the average increases in teachers' salaries compared with the average increases in cost of living.

1918),

* Contributed by Dr. Wolcott, librarian, Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C.

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