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($1000) dollars, and a 15 per cent increase for those receiving more than one thousand ($1000) dollars but less than two thousand ($2000) dollars. This would have cost $2,900,000, and because it was understood that this amount would be prohibitive the bill was past in an amended form, which provided for a 10 per cent or such lower increase of all salaries under fifteen hundred ($1500) dollars, so that the minimum of fifteen hundred ($1500) dollars might be made. This involved the expenditure of one million ($1,000,000) dollars.


The Board of Alderman of New York City on June 11, 1918, by a unanimous vote adopted a resolution providing for a 10 per cent increase to employes now receiving from $1000 to $2000 a year, and 20 per cent to those receiving $1000 or less.

The teachers of the state of New York thru the Teachers' Council and various teachers' organizations are asking for a minimum salary of one thousand ($1000) dollars with a maximum for teachers in the first six years of $2160, and for teachers in the seventh and eighth years of $2400. This would involve an additional expenditure of $12,000,750.

The Interborough Association of Women Teachers and some other associations are asking for a “war bonus” of $200 for every member of the teaching and supervising force, pending a general revision of teachers' salaries, to make them more nearly commensurate with the increast cost of living. During the last session of the New York state legislature two bills were introduced which did not become law, but which are indicative of the belief that salaries should be increast in proportion to their nearness to a "living wage." One of these provided that all city employes—New York City—whose salary is less and not more than twelve hundred ($1200) dollars shall be increast 20 per cent; those whose salary is twelve hundred ($1200) and not more than eighteen hundred ($1800) dollars shall be increast 15 per cent; those whose yearly salary is more than eighteen hundred ($1800) and not more than twenty-four hundred ($2400) dollars, shall be increast 10 per cent; those whose salary is more than twenty-four ($2400) hundred dollars shall be increast 5 per cent.

The other bill provided that all state employes whose annual salary is less and not more than $1080 shall be increast 20 per cent, those whose salary is less and not more than $1560 shall be increast 15 per cent, those whose salary is not more than $1800 shall be increast 10 per cent, and those whose salary is less and not more than $2040 shall be increast 50 per cent. APPENDIX X


TEACHER EMPLOYED IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 1916 Average amount for each teacher for the United States is $280,754.08.

The wealth is based on the report of the Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, for 1912.

The number of teachers for 1916 is based on the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, II, 76.

The calculations were made for the Commission on Emergency in Education by John A. H. Keitt, 1918. The chart was made by John W. Carr.

Wealth No. of Teachers, 1916
Nevada $671,816.56

California 463,166.63 17,323
Illinois 437,491.52 33 364
New York 408,871.11 53,593

357,859.23 6,573
Oklahoma 339,688.37 12,721
Connecticut 335,281.24 6,423
Pennsylvania 330,874.45 42,727
Washington 828,638.06 9,295
Massachusetts 327,971.07 17,487
Rhode Island 321,923.35

2.773 New Jersey 320,286.56 16,741 Arizona

316,503.81 1,539 Maryland 309,940.66 6.460 Oregon

298,646.05 6,173 Minnesota 296,012.52 17.793 - Kansas


15,243 Nebraska 285,985.54 12,606 Delaware 276,574.36

1,062 Missouri

274,470.16 20,208 lowa

273,121.36 27,230 Louisiana 269,855.96 7,621 Ohio

268,774.24 31,819 Wisconsin 262,920.83 16,288 New Mexico 256,038.79

1,944 Indiana

251,988.06 19,648 North Dakota 251,776.35

8,093 Michigan 246,390.32

20,979 Texas

239,500.04 27,358 Montana 235,358,53


West Virginia 211,112.71 10,324
New Hampshire 198,975.53 3,083
Wyoming 196,752.05 1,735
South Dakota 188,561.61


185,421.01 11,056 Florida 176,941.93

5.734 Idaho 168,589.23

3,506 Kentucky 167,218.14 12,870 Vermont

166,088.22 2,992 Virginia 165,753.44 13,120 Arkansas

164,840.89 10,662 South Carolina 156,175.08 8,333 Georgia

152,811.21 15,046 Maine

147,934.84 6,965 Tennessee 141,966.94 12,921 Mississippi

119,271.88 10,953 North Carolina 117,947.33 14,550


Median $250,000


The teachers of St. Louis, Kansas City, and St. Joseph are not included.

The facts brought out are based not upon theory but upon actual salary received and actual expenses incurred during the first three months of the school year 1917–18. A study of the items included under expenses will show that nothing has been included which is not actually essential to a teacher's welfare.

In considering the report that follows the following striking facts should be noted: 93 per cent stated that expenses would be greater in proportion during the remainder of the school term than during the first three months.


Of all elementary teachers, 12.2 per cent receive less than $360 per year; 31.5 per cent receive less than $450 per year; 75.5 per cent receive less than $500 per year.

The foregoing are annual salaries. Usually paid for an eight- or ninemonth school term, they must be divided by twelve to get the average monthly salary.

RELATION OF SALARIES TO EXPENSES Of the teachers receiving $360 or less, 67 per cent spend more than they earn in the schoolroom; 58 per cent of those receiving $405 spend more than they earn in the schoolroom; 50 per cent of those receiving $550 or less spend more than they earn in the schoolroom.

The foregoing allows nothing for savings and little for professional growth. It covers bare living expenses.

Of all elementary teachers, 52.4 per cent receive less than $550 per year. These must supplement their earnings in the schoolroom.

The foregoing is true notwithstanding the fact that a large percentage of teachers live at home and by their own statements contribute nothing whatever to living expenses. In the teacher-training schools 62 per cent of all grade teachers are local and in the main live at home. The answers from many of these local teachers show that the salary from teaching would by no means support them were it not for the fact that room and board cost them nothing, being paid by their parents.

*Extract adapted from a pamphlet issued by the state superintendent, Uel W. Lampkin.



(Prepared for the Commission by Dr. I. L. Kandel)

ENGLAND AND WALES The problem of maintaining an adequate supply of elementary-school teachers was already becoming serious in England and Wales before the war; the outbreak of the war and its continued duration have only served to intensify the crisis. A large proportion of the men have joined the Army, and many women have been attracted to occupations which appear at once to be more obviously connected with the war activities and to offer higher remuneration than teaching. At the same time the war has imposed additional burdens, willingly assumed but none the less demanding sacrifices, on the teachers; these have taken the form of larger classes, extra work in the schools, voluntary war work of different kinds, and so on. Not the least of the hardships has been the depreciation of salaries due to the rising cost of living, which by 1917 had increast about 80 per cent above that of 1914. Education authorities were confronted with several problems, inability to retain teachers in the face of more attractive opportunities elsewhere, inability to secure an adequate supply of candidates ready to undertake several years of training at a time when remunerative occupations were open to them without training, and inability to find additional resources when the public purse was otherwise being drained to meet other demands.

The first response was to grant bonuses on salaries which never went beyond the annual addition of 10 per cent and rarely affected salaries above $1000 or $1250 a year. Such increases were of course quite incommensurate with the needs of the time, especially when skilled workmen could command as much as $75 a week, and boys still under eighteen about $15 a week for unskilled services. In only one important respect was the stringency relieved by a government prohibition against the increase of rents. The bonus system prevailed until about the middle of 1917, when the government came to the rescue with an addition to the educational budget of about $18,000,000, which was specially earmarkt for salaries. At the same time the Board of Education issued a minute recommending that the minimum salary for women teachers in elementary schools should be $450 and for men teachers $500. The effect of the additional government grant was to stimulate the establishment of new scales of salary.

In the meantime the government had appointed in June, 1917, a departmental committee to inquire into the principles which should determine the construction of scales of salary for teachers in elementary schools,

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