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books, or victrola records kept in the library. The walls should be equipt with posting surfaces of cork or burlap for the display of posters and pictures.

NOTE.-For specifications as to standard library shelving and furniture, also planning of school library room, architects and school superintendents are referred to the following authorities: School Library Management, by Martha Wilson. The H. W. Wilson Co., 958 Univer

sity Ave., New York City. Small Library Buildings, by Cornelia Marvin. American Library Association Publishing

Board, 78 E. Washington Şt., Chicago, Illinois.

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COMMITTEE ROOMS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES' There should be one or more committee rooms, among these the library classroom, adjoining the library, where students could work in groups upon problems assigned them in English, history, civics, economics, and other high-school subjects. It is also desirable that the offices of the heads of the department of English and of the social-studies department should be connected conveniently with the library.

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A stackroom is rarely necessary, except in the case of the very large high school in which many surplus books must be stored, such as textbooks and library books that are rarely used.



QUALIFICATIONS The librarian in the high school should combine the good qualities of both the librarian and the teacher and must be able to think clearly and sympathetically in terms of the needs and interests of high-school students.

A wide knowledge of books, ability to organize library material for efficient service, and successful experience in reference work should be demanded of every librarian. Most of all should the personality of the librarian be emphasized. Enthusiasm and power to teach and inspire are as essential in the high-school librarian as in the teacher. Successful library experience in work with boys and girls of high-school age, either in the reference room, in the children's department or school department of a public library, or in a high school should be required of candidates. Successful teaching experience in a high school is a valuable asset in the librarian.

PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS The standard requirements for future appointments of librarians in high schools should be a college or university degree with major studies in literature, history, sociology, education, or other subjects appropriate to any special demands, as, for example, those of the technical high school, upon the library. In addition the librarian should have at least one year

Preferably a one end of the reading-room.


of postgraduate library training in an approved library school and one year's successful library experience in work with young people in a library of standing.

1. Approved library schools.—By approved library school is meant a school which meets the standards of library training set up by the Committee on Library Training in the American Library Association and adopted by the Committee on High School Libraries in the National Education Association. The following meet these standards and are approved by the National Education Association Committee on High School Libraries:

New York State Library School, Albany, N.Y.
University of Illinois Library School, Urbana, Ill.
The University of Wisconsin Library School, Madison, Wis.
Western Reserve Library School, Cleveland, Ohio.
Simmons College Library School, Boston, Mass.
Pratt Institute Library School, Brooklyn, N.Y.
New York Public Library School, New York, N.Y.
Atlanta Library Training School of the Carnegie Library, Atlanta, Ga.
Carnegie Library School, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Syracuse University Library School, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y.

Los Angeles Public Library Training School, Los Angeles, Cal.

The following library schools which have been recently established give courses of one year or more in library training and are under consideration for approval by the National Education Association Committee on High School Libraries:

Los Angeles Library School, Public Library, Los Angeles, Cal.
California State Library School, Sacramento, Cal.
St. Louis Library School, Public Library, St. Louis, Mo.
University of Washington Library School, Seattle, Wash.

2. Standard library-training courses.For information as to the standing of any library-training course in the country write to the Chairman of the Committee on Library Training, American Library Association, 78 East Washington St., Chicago, Ill., or to Mary E. Hall, Girls' High School, Brooklyn, N.Y., chairman of Committee on High School Libraries, National Education Association.

3. Authoritative information. For help in securing efficient librarians for high schools apply to the directors of library schools listed in the foregoing paragraphs or to the Chairman of the Committee on High School Libraries, National Education Association. Help may also be secured from the Secretary of the American Library Association, 78 East Washington St., Chicago, or by writing to the secretary of the state library commission of any state having such a commission at the state capitol. Most states have such a commission.

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SALARIES The salary of a high-school librarian should be adequate to obtain a person with the qualifications set forth in this report. It should not be lower than that of the English teacher, but it may be necessary to pay a higher salary when there is an oversupply of English teachers and an undersupply of librarians.

ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 1. The library staf.-The library staff should be sufficiently large to keep the library open continuously thru the day session, also before and after the session and evenings for night school, if local need demands this.

2. Status of the librarian.-In high schools having heads of departments the librarian should be made head of the library department, with status equal to that of the heads of other departments.

3. Trained assistants. For every one thousand students in daily attendance a full-time trained assistant librarian is needed to help in the reference, technical, and clerical work and to allow the librarian time for conference with teachers and pupils, to give instruction, and to visit classes.

Professional requirements for assistant librarians: Standard requirements for assistant librarian should be the same as for the librarian. There should be no distinction between librarian and assistant librarian in the requirements for eligibility except in the matter of library experience.

4. Judicious distinction in library service. In the administration of the library distinctions should be made as to clerical, administrative, technical, and educational work.

a) Clerical work: Clerical work of the high school of the nature of office work should not be demanded of the librarian. Under no circumstances should the librarian be expected to do clerical work properly required in the principal's office, such as keeping records of attendance and official records. To require such work of trained librarians is wasteful of educational resources and money.

Free textbooks should not be stored in the library, and they should be handled, not by the library staff, but by a special book clerk.

b) Administrative work: The administrative work may be summarized as follows: Directing the policy of the library, selecting books, purchasing books, planning the room and its equipment, keeping records of expenses and planning the annual library budget, planning and directing the work of trained or student assistants, and building up a working collection of pamphlets, clippings, and of illustrative material.

The librarian should be present at all teachers' meetings held with reference to courses and policy governing instruction and should have the ability to work for and with teachers so well that mistakes in adaptation of book collections to needs may not occur.

NOTE.—These requirements are also approved by the New York State Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York and by the Association of American Library Schools.

c) Technical work: The technical work may be summarized as follows: The classifying, cataloging, indexing, and filing of all printed matter so that it may be readily available for use; establishing a practical charging system to keep track of books and other materials borrowed from the library; attending to the proper binding and rebinding of books; and keeping necessary records and statistics of additions to library, use of library, etc.

d) Educational work: The educational work may be summarized as follows:

(1) Reference.—Helping teachers and students to find suitable material on special topics, notifying teachers of new books and articles along professional lines, looking up answers to questions which have come up in classroom or laboratory, and preparing suggestive reference reading along the lines of the course of study.

(2) Instruction.-Systematic instruction of students in the use of reference books and library tools, such as card-catalog indexes, etc., by the giving of lectures, quizzes, and practical tests. In this instruction the relationship of the high-school library and the public library and the relation of a library to life outside of school should be emphasized.

(3) Educational and vocational guidance.—Cultural and inspirational work in widening the interests of the students and in cultivating a taste for good reading. This is done thru posting interesting material on bulletin boards and compiling lists of interesting reading in books and magazines, thru reading clubs and personal guidance of the reading of individual students.

The librarian should also cooperate with vocational counselors in aiding students in the choice of vocations and should have on hand in the library pamphlets, catalogs, etc., on the occupations.

A card record for each student should be kept from year to year, showing the progress of the student's reading interests. Much attention should be given to individual and group conferences. .

The work of the assistant librarian, altho under the direction of the librarian in charge, should be coordinate in many respects with that of the librarian and should be along inspirational and educational, as well as technical, lines. The work of the assistant librarian should include, among other duties, keeping records of loans, caring for magazines, newspapers, pictures, and clippings, helping with cataloging, assisting in enforcing discipline, helping in the supervision of clubs, and personally guiding the reading of students.

III. SCIENTIFIC SELECTION AND CARE OF BOOKS The selection of books should be made with reference to:

1. Educational guidance and local industrial, commercial, and community interests.

2. Laboratory and classroom needs.
3. The general recreational and cultural needs of the students.

All books should be classified, shelf-listed, cataloged, and kept in good repair and in fit condition for ready use.

Book selections should be made by the librarian with the approval of the principal, and must be based upon (1) recommendations by heads of departments and teachers and (2) the general cultural needs of the students.

The library should be provided with the best reference books and with literature that has a natural human appeal to young people. There should be very few books of criticism, a few complete works of authors, a generous proportion of finely illustrated editions of standard books, popular scientific books, special reference books on methods of teaching, pictures appropriate for illustrative purposes, novels, short stories, books of travel, biography, modern drama, modern poetry, weekly and monthly magazines, and newspapers.

Subscription books should be avoided, with certain exceptions known to trained librarians. Information on this subject may be obtained from the state library commission.

Books that are out of date or seldom used should not be allowed to occupy valuable shelf space but should be stored where accessible, or should be otherwise disposed of.

Books greatly in demand should be supplied in duplicate to meet the demand not only adequately but generously.


One of the following plans should be selected in giving instruction in the use of books and libraries:

A. A minimum of three recitation periods per year should be given in each English course to graded instruction in the use of books and libraries. This instruction should be given by the librarian and credited as a distinct requirement for graduation. The credit should be recorded as a grade in Library Instruction, and not as a grade in English or some other subject.

B. To establish Instruction in the Use of Books and Libraries as a unit course, a minimum of twelve lessons a year should be given to this work. In view of the fact that efficiency of instruction in any department depends upon an intelligent use of the library, the following schedule would seem practicable:

In English three lessons a year should be given to instruction in the use of the library, in history three lessons a year, in Latin one lesson, in Spanish or French one lesson, and in the sciences and manual training together four lessons. The required twelve lessons a year should thus be scheduled for instruction in the use of the library.

Training in library use should include:

1. The use of books for educational guidance. The students should be given systematic guidance in the choice of books helpful to an understanding

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