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able to take boards of education to neighboring cities and show them what has been done, but we have been unable to do that in the library field.

Herein lies the importance of the report on Standard Library Organization and Equipment for Secondary Schools of Different Sizes. For the first time administrators see that the library is the very heart of the high school. It will be possible now for those of us who believe in the importance of the library to talk in definite terms to boards of education when we are planning junior and senior high schools. I have had that pleasure within the last four months. In drawing up my plans I have been able to refer to this recent report setting forth library standards, and I am happy to say that in these two schools we are going to provide as adequately for the library as for the science and manual-arts departments.

Those of us who deal with boards of education know that we are likely to get what we want if we know what we want. The person who approaches the board of education with a definite program in mind, knowing exactly what he wants, with recommendations and reasons for it, is likely to get what he wants, and that is true of the community. School superintendents and boards of education who have a constructive program to put before the community with good reasons for it will win, nine cases out of ten, and so this library report will make it possible to get good libraries—a thing we have not had in the past. Of course there are a few exceptions, but in general we do not have adequate arrangements in our high schools, either in room, in equipment, or in staff for libraries.

I am very happy to say that at the meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in March we adopted this report as one of the recommendations of the Commission on Unit Courses and Curricula, and that similar associations of colleges and secondary schools in the South and Northwest and in various other parts of the country are likely to take similar action. We can now offer boards of education a report that is official-really official. This report represents the best thought of those who have studied libraries thruout the country. Great good will come from that.

SUGGESTIONS TO STATE HIGH-SCHOOL INSPECTORS

It is suggested that a committee be organized in each state to make a survey of library conditions in high schools. To begin the work of standardizing libraries, actual conditions should be studied in relation to the standards given in this report.

A complete survey should be made including such items as: (1) appropriate housing and equipment; (2) professionally trained librarians; (3) scientific service in the selection and care of books and other printed material, and in the proper classification and cataloging of this material; (4) instruction in the use of books and libraries; (5) adequate annual appropriations for salaries and for the maintenance of the library, for the purchase of books, for supplies, and for general upkeep; (6) a trained librarian as state supervisor of all the school libraries of the state.

Based upon this survey, a schedule of systematic library development should be outlined, with definite annual goals to be attained, until all standards have been achieved.

It is estimated that not more than five years should be required for the complete achievement of standards as given in this report.

Representatives of the state educational department and of the state library commission should be members of the surveying committee.

A statement of library conditions should be contained in the annual reports of state departments of education and in the reports of high-school inspectors.

STANDARD HIGH-SCHOOL LIBRARY ORGANIZATION AND

ADMINISTRATION This report endeavors to suggest a practical working standard for the following types of high schools:

I. Junior high schools. Page 17.
II. High schools with enrolment below 200. Page 18.

III. Four-year high schools or senior high schools with enrolment between 200 and 500. Page 20.

IV. Four-year high schools or senior high schools with enrolment between 500 and 1000. Page 22.

V. Four-year high schools or senior high schools with enrolment between 1000 and 3000. Page 23.

Appendix:

I. Acknowledgments. Page 25.
II. References. Page 25.
Appraisal by Educational Leaders."

REQUISITES OF A STANDARD LIBRARY ORGANIZATION

The requisites of a standard library organization are: (I) appropriate housing and equipment of the high-school library; (II) professionally trained librarians; (III) scientific selection and care of books and other printed matter, and the proper classification and cataloging of this material; (IV) instruction in the use of books and libraries as a unit course in highschool curricula; (V) adequate annual appropriations for salaries and for the maintenance of the library, for the purchase of books and other printed matter, for the rebinding of books, for supplies, and for general upkeep; (VI) a trained librarian as state supervisor to be appointed as a member of the state education department, as in Minnesota, or under the library commission in co-operation with the state education department, as in New Jersey.

• See supplement accompanying this report.

A.

ATTAINABLE STANDARDS The following standards are recommended as attainable in the high schools of the United States within the next five years. In general these standards apply to all high schools.

I. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT

SCIENTIFIC PLANNING In establishing a new high school or a new library in a high school, the librarian should be secured in ample time to aid in planning the library room and in selecting the equipment and books. No school superintendent or high-school principal should undertake to plan a new library without the expert assistance of a trained librarian. Crudely designed libraries are wasteful of funds, of space, of time, and of educational force.

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The library must be an integral part of the high school, housed in the school building, and should not as a rule be open to the general public.

1. The Room and its appointments.—The library reading-room must be centrally located, well lighted, and planned appropriately with reference to general reading, reference, and supplementary study. It must be emphatically a place of refinement, comfort, and inspiration. The room in all its appointments should be a place essentially attractive to high-school students and should be made as free of access to them as is possible.

2. Freedom of access.-Freedom of access to the library must imply, not only freedom to consult books for reference and for supplementary and collateral study, but also freedom to read books for recreation and pleasure. The pupils should have direct access to the bookshelves.

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1. Location. A central location on the second floor is usually found most satisfactory for the reading-room. It should have an exposure admitting plenty of light and sunshine. It should be separate from the study hall and should not be used for recitation purposes.

It should be near the study hall. The library should be connected with the study hall by a door or special passageway so that students may go from the study hall to the library without the necessity of securing passes to the library. Where this is not feasible the library should be as near as possible to the study hall.

2. Seating capacity and area.-The reading-room should be provided with facilities to accommodate at one full period readers numbering from 5 per cent to 10 per cent of the total daily attendance of the school. In high schools enrolling 500 pupils the reading-room should have a seating capacity of from 40 to 50; and those enrolling 1000 should have a seating

* Architects and school superintendents planning high-school buildings should have on hand for reference the standards for high-school library rooms set forth in the pamphlets and books marked with an arterisk. Appendix 2, Housing and Equipment.

• Local developments in small towns in some instances may make it desirable to open the library to the public.

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capacity of from 75 to 100. An area of at least 25 square feet

per

reader is required for complete accommodations and service. The minimum seating capacity in the small high school should be that of an average classroom.

Tables 3 by 5 feet and seating 6 persons are the standard size recommended. The width of the room should be ample to accommodate from 2 to 3 rows of tables placed with sides parallel to the short walls of the room if the room is rectangular in form. A space of 5 feet should be allowed between the rows of tables and between the tables and the adjacent walls. Two rows of tables should be provided in small high schools and 3 rows in large schools.

3. Lighting.—The artificial lighting should be by means of electric ceiling fixtures of either the indirect or semi-indirect type.

4. Finishes.-White ceilings and light buff walls give the best lighting effects. Dark colors should be avoided in woodwork and trim.

5. Wall space.-All possible surface downward from a point 7 feet above the floor should be utilized for shelving. Chair railing, wainscoting, and baseboards should be omitted, and the walls plastered to the floor. Any necessary baseboards should be added after the shelving is in place.

6. Floor covering.--The floor should be covered with linoleum or cork carpet to deaden sound.

EQUIPMENT 1. Indispensable equipment.

a) Built-in furniture: Low, open wall shelving to accommodate about eight volumes to the running foot.

The shelving should be placed against the wall spaces of the room. The cases should be made with adjustable shelves, should not be over seven feet high, and should accommodate six or seven shelves. The stationary shelf should be three or four inches above the floor, so that it will not catch all the dust. The shelves should be 3 feet long and 9 inches wide. These should be made of wood by the local carpenter, or steel cases should be purchast. The bottom shelves should be 12 inches wide to take the folio books. In estimating the capacity of shelving, eight books to the foot should be used as a basis. There should be shelving enough to provide for the present collection of books and for the probable additions for the next

If the wall spaces are not sufficient for the shelving, freestanding stacks should be installed. The passageway between the stack and the wall should be at least three feet.

The current periodicals should be laid on their sides on the shelves in one section devoted to periodical literature, or a few pigeonholes should be made for them. These should be 12 inches high, 10 inches wide, and 12 inches deep for the average-sized periodical. A few larger ones should be made for folios like the Scientific American. Better still, these spaces should be reserved for files of back numbers and for a rack' simply

· Racks can be secured from reliable makers of library furniture.

five years.

constructed to hold current magazines in a vertical position for display. This should be placed on a side wall of the library. If the school has sufficient funds, a standard periodical case for the better display of periodicals should be purchast.

b) Closets: Ample provision should be made for closet space for storing back numbers of magazines, new books, books for binder, stores of supplies, etc., unless this storage space is provided in a librarian's workroom.

c) Furniture: Reading tables, each to accommodate not more than six or eight readers, comfortable chairs, charging desk and desk for reference work, card-catalog case, pamphlet cases, magazine stand, newspaper rack, vertical file, book truck, lockers for librarians.

d) Apparatus: Accession book, Library of Congress catalog cards, blank catalog cards, guide cards, book cards, book pockets, dating slips with dater, library stamp, book supports, shelf markers, typewriter, bulletin boards of corticine, circulating pictures, clippings, cards, and pamphlets.

2. Additional equipment needed for the most effective work.

a) Stack shelving when needed, display case for illustrated editions of books, celluloid holders for handling pictures, files for lantern slides, post cards, victrola records, a globe, a cutting machine, pictures and mottoes on walls, casts, and plants.

b) Ample accommodations should be provided for assembling in the library all illustrative materials used in the high school, such as maps, pictures, lantern slides, and victrola records. In the library these can be made available to all departments thru proper classifications, cataloging, and filing.

LIBRARIAN'S WORKROOM A librarian's workroom of at least 10 by 15 feet should adjoin the reading-room. It should be equipt with a desk for cataloging, a typewriter table, a typewriter with card-cataloging attachment, chairs, shelves, and ample closet space for storage of new books being cataloged and of old book's being repaired.

E.

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A library classroom also should, if possible, adjoin the reading-room. It should be furnisht with from thirty to sixty chairs with tablet arms, a small stage, complete lantern outfit, moving-picture outfit, victrola, reflectoscope, table, and bulletin boards of corticine. Not more than two-thirds of the room should be occupied with chairs. A room so equipt would serve as a model classroom for visual instruction and should be available for use by teachers of all departments wishing to use slides, pictures, illustrated

• This has provision for current magazines on top and drawers below for storing back numbers. Can be purchast from dealers in standard library furniture.

• It is possible to dispense with the accession book. Accession numbers may be used, arranged in the order of bills and entered in blocks in a small notebook.

· Preferably at one end of the reading-room. • In the construction of special rooms, glass partitions and glass doors simplify the problem of supervision.

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