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BY C. W. BARDEEN, SYRACUSE, N.Y., CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE
No one in the audience at the Pittsburgh meeting, when Mrs. Ella Flagg Young (January 15, 1845-October 26, 1918), seventy-three years old but alert and vigorous, said, looking down at her gown, "Why, since the war began I haven't even thought of clothes,” imagined that in a little more than three months she would add her life to the sacrifices she was making. In traveling for the Liberty Loan Committee in Wyoming she contracted the influenza but refused to yield and continued her trip. Pneumonia developt and she died in Washington.
She was the most noted woman ever known in public-school work. She was graduated from the Chicago Normal School and taught in that city from 1862 to 1915, beginning at seventeen as teacher in a primary grade. She became principal of the Skinner School, and in 1887 was appointed district superintendent, but in 1899 resigned, not approving the policies of the superintendent. President Harper appointed her professor of education in the University of Chicago, and she remained there until 1905, when she refused to stay after John Dewey went to New York. She was then made principal of the Chicago Normal School, and in 1909 was elected superintendent of schools. Her principal efforts were to secure the enlargement of the kindergarten course, an increase in the scope of vocational training, and the simplification of the curriculum of the primary grades. When in 1913 there was a movement to dismiss her she resigned, declining to return unless her enemies on the board were removed. Five of them resigned, and she was reelected but finally withdrew two years later and lived in retirement in California until 1917, when Secretary McAdoo appointed her a member of the Woman's Liberty Loan Committee, to which she devoted herself until her death.
She was a member of the State Board of Education from 1888 to 1912, president of the State Teachers' Association in 1910, and for her the organization of Chicago elementary principals is named the Ella Flagg Young Club. She was editor of the Educational Bi-Monthly from 1906 to 1909. She was author of Isolation in the School (1909), Ethics in the School (1902), and Some Types of Modern Educational Theories (1902), all in the series of “Contributions to Education,” University of Chicago; she was also the author of other monographs and collaborated in the Young and Field Literary Readers. She was especially alert and keen in debate, and in discussion seldom failed to convince her audience. Jane Addams said of her, “She had more general intelligence and character than any other woman I knew."
She became a life director of the National Education Association in 1900 and presented papers in 1887, 1893, 1896, 1901, 1903, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1911, 1916, 1917, and 1918. In 1910 she was elected president, the first woman to hold that office.
Even more sudden was the death of her successor as superintendent of the Chicago schools, John Daniel Shoop (March 3, 1857-August 9, 1918). He had spoken the night before on "The Life-Element in Education" and was awaiting his call to appear before the Parke County Teachers' Institute at Rockville, Ind., when he died suddenly of heart failure while reading a newspaper.
He was educated at the Indiana Normal University, Cook County Normal School, Lake Forest College, and the University of Chicago. He was superintendent of schools in Bloomingburg, Ohio, 1886-88; in Saybrook, Ill., 1889–90; in Gibson City, Ill., 189196; in Paris, Ill., 1897–1901; and had since then been connected with the schools of Chicago, becoming assistant superintendent in 1909 and superintendent in 1915. He is said to have been able to call by name every one of the 7,000 teachers, and his success in holding boys in school was from the first unusual. He had been a member of the National Education Association since 1900.
Two former presidents of the department of superintendence ended long lives in peaceful retirement. Henry Sabin (October 23, 1829–March 22, 1918) was graduated from Amherst in 1852; taught in Connecticut, New Jersey, Illinois, and Iowa, where he was superintendent of public instruction during the periods 1888-92 and 1894-98. He was president of the State Teachers' Association in 1878.
He became a member of the National Education Association in 1889, and was president of the National Education Association, Department of Superintendence in 1903. He was made chairman of the National Education Association Committee on Rural Schools in 1895, his report, mostly written by himself, being his most notable contribution to education. He was a member of the Council of Education. He presented papers and reports and took part in discussions at nearly every meeting from 1887 to 1900, for the last time in 1912. He stood for what was old and establisht in education, and his Talks to Young People (1899) and Common Sense Didactics (1903) had large sale. He was popular as a lecturer, and his last years were, as his friend President Seerley has said, full of high aims and noble realizations. Mr. Sabin had lived since 1913 with his sons in California.
David Pritchard Kiehle (February 7, 1837–April 7, 1918) had also spent his last seven years on the Pacific Coast at Portland, Ore. He was graduated from the Albany Normal School in 1856, from Hamilton College in 1861, and from the Union Theological Seminary in 1865. He was pastor at Preston, Minn., 1865-73; county superintendent of schools, 1869-75; principal of the St. Cloud Normal School, 1875-81; state superintendent of public instruction, 1881-93; and professor of pedagogy in the University of Minnesota 1893–1902 and since then professor emeritus; and once more pastor at Preston, 1905-10. As superintendent he secured a one-mill school tax, the state library law, and reorganization of the high schools, and he establisht a college of agriculture at the University. He was president of the Department of Superintendence in 1895. He was, as the American School says, a man of high ideals with markt qualities of leadership, a forcible public speaker, a congenial companion, and a good friend.
Forty years ago there were no more constant or interesting attendants at our meetings than Mrs. Marie Kraus-Boelte (November 8, 1836-November 1, 1918) and her peppery but lovable husband, who was always getting into difficulties in discussion, from which his delightful wife extricated him. She was born in Mecklenburg, the daughter of a prominent lawyer and magistrate. She studied kindergarten methods with Froebel's widow and Dr. Lange, and began teaching in London in 1860 under Frau Bertha Ronge. In 1868 she establisht a kindergarten in Lübeck. In 1872 she came to America and establisht a model kindergarten. In 1873 she married John Kraus, a disciple of Pestalozzi-DiesterwegFroebel methods, and they establisht a training school for kindergartners in New York City, which Mrs. Kraus-Boelte continued after her husband's death in 1896. The school graduated more than seven hundred kindergartners, and it represented with remarkable fidelity the principles of Froebel. Mrs. Kraus-Boelte herself proved an inspiration to all that is true and womanly. She was invited to unite her work with Columbia and New York universities but preferred to retain her freedom in private training. She lectured in New York University and in Hunter college.
Another constant attendant was Betty A. Dutton (August 12, 1840 January 30, 1918) for fifty-eight years a teacher in the Kentucky Street School in Cleveland, and for forty-six years principal, retiring in 1917. She became a member of the National Education Association in 1880, and was a life director and a member of the Council of Education. She was a speaker in 1889, 1895, 1898, and 1899.
With her was for many years to be seen her close friend Ellen G. Reveley (died April 7, 1918), who became a member of the National Education Association in 1891 and took part in the proceedings in 1891, 1904, and 1905. She was born in Verona, N.Y., taught for a time in Rome, and then went to Cleveland as grade teacher. She rose rapidly, becoming principal of a grade school, principal of the normal school, and finally, under Superintendent Draper, supervisor of primary grades for the entire city. Dr. William T. Harris called her one of the real educational thinkers of her day. She retired in 1903 and had since lived in Syracuse. She was a power in the schools, always loyal, farsighted, and effective.
Another familiar face was that of Henry Romaine Pattengill (January 4, 1852— November 26, 1918). He was graduated in 1874 from the University of Michigan, and was superintendent for two years at St. Louis, Mich., and for eight years at Ithaca, Mich. In 1884 he became associate editor of the Michigan School Moderator, and after a year at Grand Rapids removed to Lansing. He was assistant professor of English at the Michigan Agricultural College, 1885-89, resigning because of popularity as an institute worker. In 1892 he was elected state superintendent of public instruction and was reelected in 1894. He had served on the state board of library commissioners since 1902, had been president of the State Teachers' Association, and in 1914 was candidate of the Progressive party for governor. He was the first to advocate the township system, did much to make education compulsory, aroused interest in the teaching of current events, and made physical training an issue. His great work, however, was in training teachers. His motto was, “Inspire or expire.” He was frank, sincere, fearless, human. He liked to be called “Pat," named one of his song books Pat's Pick, and when he took a party to the National Education Association there were songs and laughter all the way. He had been a member since 1892.
Among those who have been frequent speakers in late years was Luther Halsey Gulick (December 4, 1865-August 13, 1918), who was born in Honolulu. He was educated at Oberlin and the Sargent School, Harvard, and was graduated in 1889 from the medical college of New York University. He was physical director in Y.M.C.A. work, 1886–1903; principal, Pratt Institute High School, 1900-1903; director of physical training, New York City, 1903-8, and since then director of the department of child hygiene, Russell Sage foundation; editor of the Physical Education Review; president of the American Physical Education Association of America, in the founding of which he played a leading part; secretary of the Public Schools Athletic League of New York; and a member of the Olympic Games Committee at Athens in 1906. His name is especially linkt with the Camp Fire Girls, whose organization he had headed since 1913. He joined the National Education Association in 1903 and spoke at the meetings in 1908, 1909, 1910, 1912, 1914, and 1915.
Another recent speaker was President Charles Richard Van Hise (May 29, 1857— November 19, 1918), graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1879, and since then a member of the faculty, and president since 1904. In his inaugural address he exprest an ideal which he steadily maintained, “I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University of Wisconsin reaches every family in the state.” He held first rank as a geologist and had been a member of the United States Geological Survey since 1883. He joined the National Education Association in 1908 and took part in the meetings of 1908, 1912, and 1917.
Another college president who spoke in 1904 and 1906 was Elisha Benjamin Andrews (January 10, 1844-October 30, 1918). He fought in the Civil War where he sustained wounds which resulted in the loss of an eye. He was graduated from Brown University in 1870, and studied at Newton and in Germany. He was ordained in 1874; was president of Denison University, 1875-79; professor of political economy in Cornell University, 1888–89; and president of Brown University, 1889-98, resigning when his silver-dollar views were unacceptable. He was superintendent of schools in Chicago, 1898–1900,
the third in that office who died during the year. He was chancellor of the University of Nebraska from 1900 until 1909, when he removed to Florida, broken in health. He had been a member of the National Education Association since 1899.
Another man, twice a college president in his diversified career, was Colonel Homer Baxter Sprague (October 19, 1929—March 23, 1918). He was valedictorian at Yale University in 1852, was admitted to the bar in 1854, and practiced at Worcester, and was principal of the high school there from 1865 to 1869. He then went to New Haven to practice and was a member of the board of education, but when the Civil War broke out he raised two military companies and became colonel. He was wounded and a prisoner. He was educational superintendent of freedmen's courts, 1865–66. In 1866 he became principal of the Connecticut State Normal School. It was closed and he became principal of the West Meriden High School. He was elected to the legislature to reopen the normal school, which he succeeded in doing. He was professor of rhetoric at Cornell University, 1868–70; principal of the Adelphi Academy, 1870-75; headmaster of the Girls' High School, Boston, 1876–85; founder and first president of the Martha's Vineyard Summer School, 1879-82; president of Mills College, 1885-86; president of the University of North Dakota, 1887-91; and professor in Drew Theological Seminary, 1896-1900. He was president of the American Institute of Instruction, 1883-85; member of the Council of Education, 1887-88; and for many years a noted lecturer and frequent contributor to the press. He was a speaker at the National Education Association in 1887, 1888, and 1890 and had been a member since 1903.
Andrew Dickson White (November 7, 1833-November 4, 1918) was an earlier speaker, appearing twice in 1874. He was one of the country's great men, not only as founder and president of Cornell University, but as a statesman and a diplomatist, with record too long and too well known to be repeated here.
Of advocates of special causes before the National Education Association Archbishop John Ireland (September 11, 1838-September 25, 1918) came to this country as a boy, reacht St. Paul in 1852, entered the Cathedral School there, studied theology in France, was ordained a priest in 1861, and served for a year as a chaplain in the 5th Minnesota. He became rector of the cathedral at St. Paul, in 1875 was consecrated bishop, in 1884 succeeded to the see of St. Paul, and in 1888 was named archbishop. He was the author of The Church and Modern Society. In 1869 he organized a temperance movement with such zeal that he was referred to as "a consecrated blizzard.” He at one time conceived the idea of consolidating the Catholic parochial schools and the public schools. The plan was tried at Fairibault and Stillwater, Minn., but friction which the Archbishop could not relieve arose, and the scheme was dropt. He was founder of the Hill Seminary on the Minnesota side of the Mississippi River. To this he gave his highly prized private library, one of the most comprehensive in the Northwest. One of his early works was the founding of a colony of 900 Catholic farmers in western Minnesota in 1876.
He delivered addresses before the National Education Association in 1890 on "State Schools and Parish Schools—Is Union between Them Impossible?" and in 1902 on "Devotion to Truth: the Chief Virtue of the Teacher." He also spoke in 1902 before the Department of Indian education.
The question of parochial schools was also discust in 1889 by Bishop John Joseph Keane eptember 12, 1839—June 22, 1918), former rector of the Catholic University of America, who resigned in 1897 to go to Rome as member of the papal household. He had been a life director of the National Education Association since 1889 and spoke also twice in 1898.
The subject of Indian education was discust in 1907 by Francis E. Leupp (January 2, 1849—November 19, 1918). He was graduated from Williams College in 1870, and was editor of the New York Evening Post and Syracuse Herald from 1878 to 1885, and member of the United States Board of Indian Commissioners from 1905 to 1909. He was a leader in civil-service reform.