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I have already suggested a minimum of one hour a day of enlivening and joy-producing exercise. This serves a double purpose: (1) to conserve and develop the health of the students and (2) to produce the raw material of personal experience without which it is hopeless to undertake to train teachers to teach.

Complementary to this at least one hour (period) per day should be given to instruction in the principles and practice of physical education. Not to enter deeply into details, under “principles" must be included the basic sciences anatomy, physiology, and hygiene general, individual, and group; and the values of physical education-educational, social, civic, and economic.

Under “practice,” certainly practice in hygienic inspection of school plant, in cooperation with medical inspectors and nurses, in conduct-ofposture examinations and tests, in direction of drills, gymnastics, and games, and in community recreation projects.

What we must learn is that this part of the preparation of teachers is of first importance, not an accessory to the formularies of mental development and discipline. War is a sifter of all things. Don't waste your time apologizing for the fact that from 20 to 30 per cent of the children pass from the schools carrying with them the handicap of remediable defect and undevelopt mental and muscular power. Put an end to it. Lift from the schools the reproach that it is "nobody's business to look after the children.”




President-D. W. HAYES, president, State Normal School......
Vice-President-G. W. NASA, president, State Normal School..
Secretary-H. A. SCHOFIELD, president, State Normal School.

.....Peru, Nebr. .Bellingham, Wash.

Eau Claire, Wis.

FIRST SESSION—TUESDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 26, 1918 The following program was given at this meeting:

“The Function of the Normal School in the Rebuilding of Civilization”—Mary C. C. Bradford, state superintendent of public instruction, Denver, Colo.

“Bringing the College to the Normal School”—George M. Philips, principal, State Normal School,

West Chester, Pa. “Prepare Rather than Train for Teaching”-A. E. Winship, editor, Journal of Education, Boston, Mass.

Dr. E. G. Cooley presented the work of the Junior Red Cross.

A motion was made and carried that a committee of three be appointed to investigate the problem of federal aid for elementary schools and to report at the Pittsburgh meeting.

President Keith, of Indiana, Pa., presented the following resolution:

Resolved, That the Normal School Section favors the principle of federal aid to statecontrolled teacher-training institutions, and to the end that the interests of the normal schools be properly considered in any legislation looking to the formulation of any such plan the chairman is hereby directed to appoint a committee of three to represent the normal schools in this and any other related matters.

The resolution was past.
President Showalter presented a resolution as follows:
Resolved, That we favor federal aid for common-school education.
The resolution was past and the conference adjourned.


Secretary pro tem

SECOND SESSION—THURSDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 28, 1918 The meeting was called to order by David Felmley, Illinois Normal School, acting president. The following committees were announst:


John A. H. Keith, president, State Normal School, Indiana, Pa.
D. B. Waldo, president, Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich.
John R. Kirk, president, State Normal School, Kirksville, Mo.

COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS J. G. Crabbe, president, Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley, Colo. Charles McKenney, president, Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. George S. Dick, president, State Normal School, Kearney, Nebr. This committee was to report at the Pittsburgh meeting. The following program was presented:

“Distinction between Academic and Professional Subjects”-William C. Bagley, professor of education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.

“Maintaining an Adequate Supply of Teachers without Lowering Standards”J. Asbury Pitman, principal, State Normal School, Salem, Mass.; Thomas W. Butcher, president, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kans.

"A Standard Normal Course with a Standard Diploma”-N. D. Showalter, president, State Normal School, Cheney, Wash.; A. J. Matthews, president, Tempe Normal School of Arizona, Tempe, Ariz.

The general discussion was participated in by: John Keith, Indiana, Pa.; M. M. Parks, Milledgeville, Ga.; A. G. Crane, Minot, N.D.

The conference adjourned.




WEST CHESTER, PA. Four years ago, during a lecture on the history of education at the West Chester State Normal School, by Dr. Frank P. Graves, then a professor in the educational department of the University of Pennsylvania and now dean of its school of education, the thought came to me, “Why not have regular college courses here by such men as Professor Graves every

year ?"

I spoke of the matter to Dr. Graves, and he thought that the plan was a good one and could be carried out. I took the matter up with the dean of extension work and made arrangements to begin the following year.

During 1914-15 we carried on two such half-year courses during the first semester of the college year and two others during the second semester. During 1915-16 we had six such courses, during 1916–17 we had eight, and during the present year we are giving six, as we have found by experience that that is about the right number.

The professors come from the University of Pennsylvania to the normal school and give two-hour lectures one evening each week, presenting the same lectures which they give to their classes at the university itself, and giving them the same amount of time. At the close of the course they give a regular college examination in the subject, and those who pass this examination get one unit of college credit for each semester's work in any subject.

We exercise great care in the selection of the subjects of these courses and still greater care in the selection of the professors who give them. Unless the professors who give these courses are first-class teachers the interest will soon die out, and the plan will fail. We choose courses which are interesting as well as important to teachers. We find that courses in English, which usually include the various courses in contemporary or at least modern English and American literature; courses in history, especially modern or contemporary history; courses in sociology, especially practical social problems and community civics; and courses in geography are most in demand, altho for the past three years we have maintained a course in college mathematics, including analytical geometry and higher algebra, quite successfully.

These subjects, as far as possible, are substituted for the same subjects in the normal-school course, and that is a factor in the success of any course, but others are outside of and additional to the normal-school course. The latter are not put officially in their diplomas but are noted on them by the authorities of the school. The names of such of these students as pass the college examinations, and with few exceptions they all pass them, are printed in the catalog of the university, practically as special students, which is a decided encouragement to the scheme.

It should be noted that the Pennsylvania state normal schools offer no college courses and give no college degrees, and there is no present tendency toward introducing them into these schools. Pennsylvania has so many good, well-establisht colleges that there is felt to be no great need of adding to them. The normal schools have a four-year course, planned by the superintendent of public instruction and the principals of the normal schools. This is a combined academic and pedagogical course. Graduates of four-year high schools enter the third year of the course and generally graduate in two years, and a few of the best graduates of three-year high schools are also able to graduate in two years. No student can graduate without an attendance of at least two years, except such as have completed one or more years of college work in a college of good standing. These may graduate after one year's attendance. Students who are not high-school graduates may be admitted to the normal schools but must expect to spend from four to five years there in order to graduate.

Students who wish to take these college courses—and it is practically confined to students in the third and fourth years of the course--are permitted to do so only when it is believed that they have time to do this extra or substitute work. These students pay directly to the university the regular fees for this work, which is $10 for each half-year course. This year the university required an enrolment fee of $2.50 from each student, but this is paid but once by any student. I understand that the professors receive all these fees except the enrolment fee as extra compensation for such extra work, and when the classes are large, as they frequently are, it is a considerable addition to their income.

The plan is working very satisfactorily. It gives the more capable and better-prepared students an opportunity to use their extra time to the best advantage. It adds valuable subjects to their curriculum, gives them experience in college work, prepares them for college work in the future, and gives them credit toward the completion of a college course, which of course can be transferred to any other college. This is a great incentive toward going to college.

Graduates who have taken these college courses here and are now teaching or in college are enthusiastic about them. Several have secured better teaching positions than they could otherwise have obtained, sometimes positions which only college graduates have heretofore been getting, or places which normal-school graduates without teaching experience have never secured before. Others have been led to go to college who otherwise would not have gone, and several who have thus entered college have found that these courses taken here have enabled them to save a year in the completion of a college course. All say that these courses broadened their knowledge and outlook on life and education, added interest and zest to their teaching, and made them better and more successful teachers.

As will be seen from the increase in numbers of those taking these courses, they are growing in popularity and value every year. Our faculty, as well as students, especially graduates, who have taken these courses here, feels that the plan is a great success, and I believe that it will grow in usefulness and efficiency.


In order that I may be entirely frank and fearless in my address and that you may listen as frankly and fearlessly, let me say that I challenge anyone to put in a claim for greater loyalty to normal schools, or greater devotion thereto, or more persistent activity in their behalf. I speak as a lover of normal schools to lovers of normal schools.

Training is in no wise applicable to what a normal school should do for young people who are preparing to teach. Training is making anything go in the direction in which you want it to go until it will always go as you train it to go. You train a young tree, an elephant, a lion, a dog, a rat-if you can find a rat that will be trained.

If the normal school is not to train its students, what is it to do? Why, simply prepare them to teach. This means scientifically that the normal school should have an educational budget system. The budget system in finance is righting more wrongs than any other scheme ever invented. Before the day of the budget system a city council was askt to vote money for the things it was willing to vote money for and then used it as it pleased. The streets are in horrible shape. The public will stand an extra $50,000 for street repairs, but, once appropriated for streets, $10,000 of it at least will be used for some junket or other. No city ever let the public know what became of the money. All the public knew was that $50,000 was appropriated for street repairs; it did not know that $10,000 was transferred to "miscellaneous expenses.” The budget system demands that a careful survey be made of all needs and of all revenues, and not a dollar is appropriated that is not in sight in the revenue and not a dollar can be transferred to any other account. An educational budget system studies the actual needs of teachers who begin teaching in a given class of school in which the young women are to teach. Then a careful study is made of the time in which she must be prepared for the work, and so much time and only so much time as is adjudged necessary is given to that preparation.

The first great gain in all this will be the realization of the fact that no normal school can in two years prepare anyone to teach in both a rural and a city school. It will put a stop to the vicious practice of allowing a girl to get her two years' experience for a city school in a country school. An educational budget for a rural school is no more a preparation for a city school than a course in a law school is a good preparation for the practice of medicine.

What does a rural teacher need in order to succeed in a rural school ? What preparation does she need ? In the rough, one-third of her need is ability to deal with the community, young and old, in solving problems of nature and human nature; and the other two-thirds of her need is preparation, one-third of which should be devoted to the art of teaching and onethird to psychology, history of education, scholarship, and the development of her personality.

With a faculty of twelve, four would give their time to helping students equip themselves to grapple with the problems of nature and of human nature; four to principles, methods, devices, administration, and pedagogy; and four to psychology, history of education, improvement in scholarship and health, and the development of personality.

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