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meeting and was heartily in favor of a nation-wide campaign for the purpose of presenting to the young men of the country the urgent need of their continuing their studies until called into active service by the government. Dr. Capen, who is a member of the War Department's Committee on Education, was also present. I stated that while at the beginning there was no appreciation of the desirability of keeping students of applied sciences or teachers of applied sciences in the colleges, it has already become apparent that it is absolutely necessary to do so. President Wilson, Secretary Baker, Secretary Lane, and several others in authority have publicly exprest their judgment that the schools and colleges of the country should be maintained at full strength, and that young men under twenty-one should be encouraged to continue their education.

The Council has authorized its Executive Committee to organize a nation-wide campaign during the summer for the purpose of urging young men under draft age to go on with their education. State campaign directors are being appointed in every state in the Union, and it is planned to secure the cooperation not only of colleges and universities but also of the public schools, commercial clubs, women's organizations, churches, and

the press.

What the outcome of this campaign will be it is difficult to predict, but it is hoped that at least 100,000 men will be enroled in institutions of higher learning next September.

Another matter in which the Council has become very much interested is the establishment of more intimate relations in education between America and our Allies. The one definite undertaking which has already been launcht is being carried on in cooperation with the Association of American Colleges. Last February that Association, with the approval of the Council and of the United States Bureau of Education, undertook to find scholarships covering the cost of board, room, tuition, and fees for at least one hundred French women to be brought to American colleges and universities. These scholarships are to be for the period of each student's undergraduate study. The institutions are responding most enthusiastically, and a committee of two American women has recently been sent to France to assist the authorities of the French government in selecting the young women and in assigning them to particular institutions in this country.

This movement should be extended in the near future and should be made to include Great Britain and our other Allies, and also South America and Mexico. The Council hopes to render important service in this field of international relations in education.

I have already referred to the Council's interest in the proposed establishment of education. One of the first committees appointed was the Committee on a National Department of Education, headed by President Judson of the University of Chicago. The members of the Council are unanimously in favor of this movement, altho most of them have not as yet been officially instructed by the associations which they represent. There is every reason to believe, however, that the movement will in due time receive the support of the great majority of institutions represented in the various associations which constitute the Emergency Council on Education.

THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND SPECIAL TRAINING S. P. CAPEN, SPECIALIST IN HIGHER EDUCATION, NATIONAL BUREAU

OF EDUCATION One-fourth of the active force of a modern army is made up of technical specialists. These men must have had previous training or experience in mechanical lines. Altogether some two hundred and fifty trades and specialized occupations are carried on by the Army.

It has proved impossible to get by selective draft all the technical specialists needed without disrupting industrial conditions. Men must be specially trained to make good the discrepancy between the numbers furnisht by the draft and the numbers needed by the Army. Early in February, 1918, the Secretary of War created the Committee on Education and Special Training, to have charge of this training program. The Committee has organized training centers in 136 institutions, mostly engineering schools. These centers offer instruction two months in length in courses in some twenty different fundamental trades. The largest demand of the Army is for automobile mechanics, and 70 per cent of the training under the direction of the Committee is in this line.

Men are specially inducted into the service by the Provost Marshal General to take the courses organized by the Committee. They are under military discipline, uniformed, and paid. At present there are 34,278 enroled in the training centers.

The Committee has also studied the question of utilizing collegiate nstitutions for more advanst technical and general training. The Secretary of War issued an order on May 8, 1918, providing for the establishment of military training units at colleges and universities and offering an enlistment in the regular Army to students over eighteen volunteering for training in these institutions.

THE PRESENT EMERGENCY IN EDUCATION

GEORGE .D. STRAYER, CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION COM

MISSION ON THE EMERGENCY IN EDUCATION, NEW YORK, N.Y.

The achievements of college graduates in the armies of those who fight for the establishment of Democracy in the world is the greatest glory of higher institutions of learning.

All of our schools have been greatly influenst and in considerable measure controlled by our higher educational institutions. Our elementary schools and high schools have for the most part provided such courses of study as would enable the pupil at the end of the twelve-year period to satisfy the college-entrance requirements. With the very great increase in attendance in our secondary schools there has been some tendency in recent years to provide courses which look in the direction of efficient participation in modern social and industrial life. There is still the need, especially in our smaller high schools, for a reform in the course of study which can be brought about only as our higher educational institutions are willing to accept maturity and intellectual training along such lines as can best be provided, rather than the traditional college-entrance subjects.

The National Education Association Commission on the Emergency in Education is concerned with a reorganization of education which will take into account the varying capacities and abilities of boys and girls, and the limits of the work which can be done to best advantage even by the smaller secondary schools.

We have a situation in the United States at the present time which is truly alarming. Approximately one-fourth of all of the boys and girls in our elementary schools are being taught by teachers with little or no professional training and with little general education. We need to undertake a crusade in which higher educational institutions should participate, for the establishment of the ideal of properly trained and adequately paid teachers for every American boy and girl.

Our normal schools, which are higher educational institutions charged with the preparation of elementary-school teachers and to some extent teachers for the secondary schools, must be more liberally supported. When we come to have a national conception of education we shall realize the anomaly which at present exists in retaining the normal school as a state institution. National support should be provided, because teachers are trained for national service.

If our ideal of a properly equipt teacher for every American boy and girl is to be realized we shall not only have to provide more adequate support for teacher-training institutions, but must as well provide vastly increast sums of money for teachers' salaries. We cannot hope to have young men and young women spend four years in high school and from two to four years in a teacher-training institution with the expectation that they may receive the miserable salaries which are now paid in most of our school systems. One who has taken these six years of training, if he is fortunate, may receive as much as six to eight hundred dollars a year and has the prospect of a maximum of from one thousand to twelve hun-, dred dollars a year after a long period of service.

In other fields a very much shorter period of training results in much larger rewards. It is not because we would argue in favor of increasing our own salaries that we argue in favor of increasing salaries for teachers. It is only because we hope to place in every schoolroom a better teacher. It is only because we believe that the nation cannot afford to have any but the best-trained men and women in the schoolrooms. It is only because the future of America depends upon this investment that we would argue for more money for the support of our teachers.

The Commission is concerned as well with other problems in which our higher educational institutions must participate. The education of our immigrant population to the end that all may understand American institutions and subscribe unreservedly to the principles of our democracy before attaining citizenship needs the support of leaders in education everywhere.

The organization of physical education which will provide for the development of a more efficient people is the concernment of every true American. Training for national service by means of which all may come to recognize their obligation to the nation and subject themselves to the discipline and training which is necessary for those who would defend our free institutions must be undertaken in our higher educational institutions, for from them will come many of those upon whose shoulders must fall the burden of leadership.

It is fortunate indeed that even in time of war the contribution which the higher educational institution of the country can make to the national defense is recognized in the plan which continues the work of students in these institutions up to the point of completing their courses. There is a recognition in this action of the War Department of the demand for trained men, and of the need for higher education and trained intelligence in our Army and Navy.

A NEW EDUCATIONAL AGENCY

GUY STANTON FORD, EDUCATIONAL DIVISION, COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC

INFORMATION, WASHINGTON, D.C. One week after the war began President Wilson establisht a war emergency national university with the Secretaries of State, War, and Navy as its board of regents. It was called the Committee on Public Information.

For several months after its creation the public discussion in the press and in Congress pictured it as a prospective committee on censorship, an organ of repression. Gradually its constructive character as a national war Chautauqua, as an agent of expression and information became more and more apparent and important. For more than one year it has been at work with a registration that is only limited by the population of the United States.

In a war that is only in part the task of armies and navies, this Committee has striven to give the greatest publicity on the basis of accurate information concerning what America was doing in the war. If we were to ask of our people sacrifices to the uttermost limit, such full publicity was the least that was due them.

The Committee has gone farther, and by every possible means it has sought to bring home to our people what we were fighting for, what were America's aims and purposes, how this war is nothing short of a life-anddeath struggle for us. To do this it was equally important to reveal the spirit, institutions, and methods of the German military autocracy, with its faith in brute force and its worship of a state above morals and the dictates of common humanity.

To do this the Committee has enlisted every modern agency of publicity and education. Pictures, posters, films, the press, pamphlets, the schools, and the public platform have served it in a work that has now become world wide. For it has cast aside the old American indifference to foreign opinion and is now making the fight for public opinion in every neutral land.

Over 25,000,000 of its pamphlets have been read by our own people and made texts in schools and in teachers' reading circles.

During the coming year it will put itself even more at the service of the schools, for the schools and the teachers have as never before become parts of our national life. The teacher is enlisted in this war,

and more and more the morale of the nation and the thinking in its homes will be determined by what she knows and teaches in this supreme crisis.

The Committee on Public Information and the schools have a great common war task to make an Americanized, nationalized American nation. If we, working with all other agencies, fail, then America will fail.

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