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difficult in time of war. Never having been a soldier, I cannot speak from experience concerning the emotions which are stirred by battle. The ruthless cruelty of the foe must beget hatred and loathing. The Red Cross begets different emotions while ministering to suffering allies and enemies, regardless of race, creed, color, or nationality. The activities of the Red Cross remind one of the difference in the law of love under the old and the new dispensation. In the Old Testament the measure of brotherly love was, “Love thy neighbor as thyself.” But the author of the new dispensation sets a higher standard. “Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."
Is this not exemplified over and over again in the sacrifices upon the field of battle? He was willing to die that others might attain everlasting life. That is the spirit of the Red Cross and of the Christian soldier. In the trenches and upon the high seas our boys have offered up their lives for others. The contemplation of such service and struggle and sacrifice should assist not merely in the culture of the heroic emotions but also in the cultivation of the noblest virtues and affections which can find lodgment in the heart of man.
DISCUSSION: A BETTER APPRECIATION OF ETHICAL VALUES
A. R. BRUBACHER, president, State College for Teachers, Albany, N.Y.-Education is to my mind best described as a process of adjustment to the environment. Since our environment is, among other things, a democracy, our education is concerned with adjustment to that social environment which is peculiar to a democracy. The ethical values of which I am askt to speak grow out of the distinctive obligations imposed on its citizens by a democracy, right conduct in the citizen implying that he functions properly to his environment. We want to know, therefore, whether our educational scheme prepares our children to function adequately to their democratic environment.
Our list of duties as citizens constitutes the ritual of democracy. Out of this ritual grow our ethical obligations. I find here the bone and marrow of our democratic clan life. Our social sins have been largely sins of ignorance. Now it is the business of education to adjust the youth to this clan life, with its complicated privileges and responsibilities. Human conduct is ethical or unethical according as it functions or fails to function with society. For us the duties of citizenship are distinctive; the responsibilities are likewise distinctive, both duties and responsibilities contrasting strongly with those under other forms of society. Our ethical code is therefore equally distinctive. Its keynote is loyalty; its foundation is intelligence; its guaranties are social responsiveness, self-restraint, and sound judgment. These are the fundamentals of right conduct in a democracy.
Purpose is, of course, the chief determinant of conduct, and purpose is determined by knowledge. “To know the good is to do it.” Socrates puts it thus: "No man voluntarily pursues evil, or that which he thinks to be evil.”
It is the business of the elementary school to give that minimum of information by which purpose may have the necessary basis of knowledge. This may certainly include the facts pertaining to personal hygiene, physical fitness, vocational efficiency, the common courtesies of life, duty to others, loyalty to the state; that is, the school can give that knowledge which tends to eliminate malevolence and positively increases the benevolent purposes of the citizen. Under our democracy a benevolent purpose is essential to right conduct
The second determinant element of conduct grows out of the first. It is the will to obedience. Right conduct can come only when the purpose is benevolent and the will is disciplined sufficiently to act accordingly. A disciplined will means resolution, that is, the will of the individual must be socialized before it will yield habitually conduct that is ethical.
Conduct is a resultant of judgment exercised between conflicting motives. This is the third element. Even where the purpose is benevolent, where the will is resolute and the knowledge adequate, there may be a sharp clash between motives. Fine distinctions are often necessary; effects may be far removed; abstract principles may be involved in the decision-all of which places a burden on the judgment. That it may be sound, unerring, and immediate, it must be exercised and guided in the early years thru right choices, until it becomes habitually right, instinctively accurate.
The social mind, the fourth element, is not usually a native endowment. Selfishness is a natural quality and in its natural state is not immoral. It is a necessary incident of the self-preservation instinct. But the instinct must be socialized in order to reach its best development. Self-interest, merged in community interest, becomes a socialized selfishness and shades almost imperceptibly into altruism. Education is the medium. When the needs of humanity grip and urge to service, we have the social mind, which is an antecedent to moral conduct.
The spirit of humaneness is the fifth element of conduct. Its opposite, cruelty, is a characteristic of the animal which is instinct in us. Children are proverbially cruel. Witness the torture of insects and animals; and witness the inhumanity of child to child. Every teacher is familiar with this native inhumanity. Humaneness is easily cultivated; it is one of the first flowers of culture and refinement. In the school it is that determinant of ethical conduct which may be cultivated from the kindergarten on.
The method of moral or ethical instruction in the elementary school is self-evident. Here as elsewhere the child will learn by doing. Thruout his school life the child frequently confronts conflicting motives; he must make daily choices; he exercises judgments; his rights conflict with the rights of playmates; the needs of helpless animals come to his attention; duty to parents presses on his time; duty to the community thru channels of public health and public safety attracts his attention. These and other motives daily exercise his will, and it is the chief business of his teacher to guide the budding personality of the child along right lines of conduct, bringing to bear on him all the social restraints, and making valid the social sanctions of moral conduct by full justification of each to the child mind. Out of such teaching will come that discrimination which is the basis of ethical conduct.
The personal contact between pupil and teacher is of course first in importance. Whenever the will of a cultured, moral teacher, comes into gripping contact with the will of the pupil, an ethical product is the inevitable result. The discipline of the schoolroom, playground, schoolyard, and street is the ethical laboratory where conduct is a continual experiment and habit a perpetual and final result. The teacher is naturally the hero (or heroine) of the pupil. His conduct becomes the standard for the child. His judgments, his ideals, his aspirations, will magnetize the child mind. In the personality of the teacher, therefore, we have an ethical force of great moment. We have long glibly recognized this fact, but we have gone forward, placing over our schools young men and women whose personal qualities were frequently colorless and weak, sometimes negative, occasionally immoral. The schools of America must safeguard this ethical factor for the sake of our democracy.
I want to give all possible emphasis to the superior importance of conduct over ethical formulas, of concrete problems of behavior over general precepts. I believe that the American public school is particularly strong in this respect. The important matter is that the pupil does not merely receive moral edicts by authority but shares in the ethical life, in its conflicting motives and its judgments, and writes its results daily in indelible lines on his character.
N. H. CHANEY, superintendent of schools, Youngstown, Ohio.—This splendid appeal for a better appreciation of ethical values in education, that it may the better determine and control all forms and phases of human life and labor, confirms anew our thought and faith that the most important, practical, valuable, and even precious thing about men, as individuals and nations, is just their moral quality; their view and treatment of the moral element in their own and other's lives.
Certain it is that no man is of prime, paramount, and permanent importance who does not import from God, in his entire life, a strong and steadfast moral quality, no matter how wise and rich he may be. No man is practical as a man who does not practice the moral virtues, no matter how skilfully he may practice a trade or a profession. No man can be truly valuable to society, business, or government, who does not always move in a fixt moral purpose, however cultured and refined his manners may be. No man can be truly precious to himself or to anybody else, nor be loved and welcomed even by his own kith and kin, who is known to violate the moral virtues. And this is true not only of individuals but of nations also.
Hence it is that moral quality tests and determines real human worth, both in being and in doing. Moral personality is life's first value and security, and therefore it should be the first aim and end of all formal education. First a moral man, then a scholar, and then a craftsman. The moral rank is the first and the highest rank with God, and it must be such with men and nations in all their stretch and training for efficiency, if ever this dark, sad world is to be filled with light, peace, joy, and permanent prosperity.
Let knowledge grow from more to more,
But vaster. And the swell of this vaster music, this larger harmony in humanity, must be more on the side of reverence than of knowledge. Surely the schools are not to decrease their light of knowledge but to increase their reverence for God and humanity, until hate and strife shall yield their thrones to love and saving service.
Germany is a bright and shining example, tho now justly repulsive and rejected, of how schools and schoolmasters can determine the mental and moral life and activities of a nation by dealing with its children. They can put love or hate into heads, hearts, and hands. They can make hate use strong heads and hands to hurt and harm for selfish ends. They can also teach love to use skilled minds and hands to heal and help and save for all men's sake. They can make children predatory demons, or princes of peace, prosperity, and world-wide human welfare. Thus teachers are the chief and choice determinants of human qualities and ambitions.. Let the people look well to the kind of teachers their children have!
Now to conserve the highest welfare of the people in the present changing order in education, teachers must deal more with life and less with textbooks; they must possess and radiate life, moral life, more abundantly. By a more democratic and less autocratic rule, by more love and less police force, they must lead their pupils into a better appreciation of the ethical values in all life and learning; into such a commitment of their wills to moral qualities that they shall be prouder to be right, just, and bravely good than to hold any rank or emolument that might be otherwise gained. When I long for a model of the moral teacher, with a winning democratic soul of service, I can but think of Dante's description of the saintly women whom he saw in his vision of paradise. After meeting several of them he sings,
Another of those splendors
And of Beatrice he says, “She smiled so joyously that God seemed in her countenance to rejoice.”
Such radiant souls, shining with the moral light of God and transforming all they touch by their own resistless goodness and delight in doing good, belong not only to a paradise of vision but also to that paradise of human childhood, the public school, where a world's destiny is being shaped and assured in the minds and hearts of happy children. Teachers can make ethical values spread and prevail, if they will! An appreciation of ethical values and their application to human need is possible to all peoples everywhere, thru their schools and teachers, if these vital forces will only follow and enforce the light and love of the unselfish soul-God's light set in humanity to reveal the way to highest human worth and world-wide brotherhood.
Then let reverence as a moral splendor lead wisdom as a giant servant over all the stormy face of the earth, and the golden harvest of this fruitful twain will cover the lands with peace and plenty. And joy and gladness, good-will, and trustful fellowship shall reign.
THE KINDERGARTEN AS A FACTOR IN AMERICANIZATION
CAROLINE HEDGER, REPRESENTING THE NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN
ASSOCIATION, NEW YORK, N.Y. Last year in Boston at the International Kindergarten Union I took somewhat the attitude of “wake up,” but that is not the attitude I want to take today. This Americanization movement looks to me like a boy sliding down hill. At the top he needs a push, and after he gets over the edge he needs careful steering. That is the point we have reacht in this movement. The American people have suddenly become wide awake to the fact that we have foreign neighbors, and that they are living with us. We did not know it until the war came, but we know it now, and large numbers of people who feel patriotic go out and organize an Americanization committee, hoping that they can be of real service to their country.
All this effort and this sudden awakening are very hopeful, but there are one or two points of danger that I want to emphasize before I begin on the hopeful side. One of those points, and I think the most dangerous point, is the force element.
We have a man in my town who takes himself down to Washington, with what authority I know not, and says, “These people have got to speak English. They have got to be forst to speak English." If any of you have any question as to the danger of this point of view, I wish you could get hold of some intelligent Danish people; meet them face to face and heart to heart. Their Schleswig-Holstein was grabbed in 1860, grabbed as was Belgium in 1914, and to this day Danes are deported from SchleswigHolstein because they dare to speak their native language. That is the Prussian oppression method. I want you to talk with those Danes about the results of prohibiting the speaking of their native language. I want to get the United States away from that method of stopping the use of foreign languages. It is not sound; it is not necessary.
I hold that there is only one place where there can be an excuse for the use of force in compelling the speaking of English. Ford has reduced the accidents in his automobile plant 54 per cent since he started his English school.
I hold that industry has some right to demand English as a factor in preserving the life and limb of the worker, but as a society we have no right to demand and to force the speaking of English. Why? Because it is our attitude in years past that keeps the foreigners from speaking English today. If fifteen years ago we had waked up to the fact that they were here, if we had given them night schools (I am speaking of communities outside the large cities, of course), if we had given them any American contact, today they would be speaking English without compulsion; therefore it is altogether wrong to apply force to our foreign neighbors; the force should be applied to ourselves, that our hearts may become right, that we may have the right attitude, and that we may see the possibility of friendship and the right way to spread the ideals of democracy that have been given us so richly.
There has been considered in this great convention a plan which I hope will work out well, a plan for a great drive for Americanization. It has been quite thoroughly discust, I believe.
This drive should be in areas where some agency is giving the foreign neighbor an understanding of our language and ideals; otherwise the drive should be into the pockets of the Americans to produce more kindergartens, more night schools, more agencies that can reach the foreign neighbor in some sane way.
At the moment the great need is for trained teachers, and I am here this afternoon to try to enrol you in this kind of teaching. Before we can get the kind of teachers that we need for the guidance of this movement we must rid the minds of the American people of two serious misconceptions, The first one of these is that anybody can teach English to foreign adults. The other day I met a woman, a superior type, a teacher of English, who wisht to get into the work in Chicago in the factories. We need teachers in Chicago, and I referred her to the supervisor. She called the supervisor over the telephone, and the supervisor asked her several questions as to her training, etc.; but when the supervisor asked, “Have you ever had experience with the foreign neighbor ?” her tone stiffened: “I am a teacher of English, and when you have the method it can be applied anywhere."
The technique of teaching English to high-school pupils, or to normalschool pupils, or to college students is not the technique that is necessary for the foreign neighbor, and English cannot be applied anywhere without special training.
The second misconception that is so widely spread that I must speak of it is that the foreign neighbor must have for a teacher someone who speaks his own language. He may need someone who speaks his language to give