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3. More excursions, autobus rides, and daily trips must be taken by city classes in order that abstract and artificial impression may be counteracted.

4. More teachers must be trained both for primary and for kindergarten service. These teachers should be capable of carrying on the work with the children into the first and second grades.

5. More normal schools will have to organize kindergarten departments to meet the demands for teachers for the youngest children.

6. The supervision of both kindergarten and primary years should be vested in one person, understanding and trained for both and preferably with teaching experience in both. In no better way can the unity between the kindergarten and the school be establisht.

7. Scientists and medical experts are now telling us that no inexperienst teacher should be placed in charge of the delicate task of educating and guiding young children in these formative years.

8. As Dr. Dewey tells us, moral principles should pervade every act and attitude of school work.

In our first year of war juvenile crime increast 20 per cent in New York City, notwithstanding the experiences of Europe. Since young children can reap only the savage end of war, it is imperative that we plan very definitely in these impressionable years for the construction of the moral fiber of the nation. Upon this depends America's future unity and permanent peace.

In addition to the moral and intellectual work with the children, the gradual transformation of the ignorant foreign home made possible thru the services of the kindergartner by her constant neighborhood visiting and holding of mothers' meetings will, in the coming year as in the past, be her chief contribution to Americanization work.

In conclusion, what is our personal part, our own definite, constructive program, for the Children's Year? What are we individually going to do in 1918-19 about the nation's "forgotten army”? Not only how many children's lives are we to save, but how many children are to be placed in kindergartens ? How many in playgrounds ? How many foreign homes are we to influence? How many foreign mothers are we to reach with friendly counsel for their own, as well as for their children's, sake?

We have long protected our forests; we have planted and cultivated our war gardens, and now, during the Children's Year, while we encourage the growth of our country's corn, we will not forget to guard the growth of our future citizens.

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION

SECRETARY'S MINUTES

PITTSBURGH MEETING

OFFICERS
President-William B. OWEN, Principal, Chicago Normal College..

Chicago, III.
Vice-President-AUGUSTUS S. Downing, first assistant commissioner of education. Albany, N.Y.
Secrelory-ADELAIDE STEELE BAYLOR,.....

... Indianapolis, Ind.

FIRST SESSION_SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JUNE 29, 1918

The meeting was called to order by the president, at 2:00 p.m., in the Italian Room of the William Penn Hotel.

Dr. Owen spoke on the present organization of the Council by way of introduction to the discussion of changes in such organization to accord with proposed changes in the organization of the National Education Association, to make it more democratic and representative, and to determine how, under present conditions, the Council could best perform its function as a real educational body of the National Education Association.

Interesting résumés of the history of the Council and its work were given by some of the older members, and while it was agreed that the work of the Council could be greatly strengthened by some changes in the organization there was no unanimity of opinion as to how this might best be brought about.

On motion of L. N. Hines, Crawfordsville, Ind., a committee of five was appointed by the president to consider a plan of reorganization in harmony with the recommendations of the committee for reorganization of the National Education Association, and to report at the Tuesday meeting. The following were named as members of that committee: W.A. Brandenburg, Pittsburg, Kans.; Katharine D. Blake, New York, N.Y.; Vel W. Lamkin, Jefferson City, Mo.; L. N. Hines, Crawfordsville, Ind.; Josephine Collins Preston, Olympia, Wash.

SECOND SESSION-SATURDAY EVENING, JUNE 29, 1918

The meeting was called to order by the president at 8:00 p.m., in the Italian Room of the William Penn Hotel.

Arthur H. Chamberlain, chairman of the Committee on Thrift Education, was invited to take charge of the program, which consisted mainly of addresses from the various members of his committee.

The topics for the evening—"Financing the War thru Thrift” and “Reconstruction thru Conservation” were discust in the following papers:

“Club Work and Salvage"—Henry R. Daniel, secretary, American Society for Thrift, Chicago, Ill.

“The Patriotism of War Savings"-S. W. Straus, president, American Society for Thrift, New York, N.Y.

R. H. Wilson, state superintendent of public instruction, Oklahoma City, Okla., could not be present, and his paper on “The War-Garden Movement” was read by® Mr. Daniel.

“Husbanding Human Resources”—Katharine D. Blake, principal, Public School No. 6, New York, N.Y.

"Thrift and Commercial Supremacy”—J. A. Bexell, dean, School of Commerce, State Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore.

Mr. Chamberlain gave a summary and conclusions touching on the purpose and plan of the committee and the vital importance of its work, and the discussion was closed by Dr. G. D. Strayer, of Columbia University, director of the War School Savings Committee, who spoke at the request of Mr. Chamberlain on the concrete relation of these problems to the schools, as shown by the work of his committee.

THIRD SESSION—TUESDAY, JULY 2, 1918

The meeting was called to order at 9:00 a.m., by the president.

It was moved and seconded that when the business meeting of the Council adjourned a recess be taken until the next regular meeting of the Council.

There was informal discussion as to the time to be fixt for such meeting and the subjects to be discust. It was the unanimous opinion of the members present that the Council should meet during the week of the National Education Association meeting, preferably Monday or Tuesday of that week.

The recommendations of the Committee on Nomination of Officers and Members where vacancies occurred were as follows:

Dr. H. H. Seerly, Cedar Falls, Iowa, vice-president.

Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, Washington, D.C., member of Executive Committee to succeed Ellen C. Sabin.

Nathan C. Schaeffer, Harrisburg, Pa., to succeed Augustus S. Downing as a member of the Committee on Membership.

Carroll G. Pearse, Milwaukee, Wis., to succeed himself as a member of the Committee on Membership

The following were appointed members of the Council to succeed themselves, with terms expiring in 1924: Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, Washington, D.C.; Edwin S. Monroe, Muskogee, Okla.; W. H. Elson, Cleveland, Ohio; John W. Carr, Philadelphia, Pa.; Grace C. Forsythe, Brooklyn, N.Y.; Carleton B. Gibson, Rochester, N.Y.; C. G. Schulz, St. Paul, Minn.; Oscar T. Corson, Columbus, Ohio; Adelaide Steele Baylor, Indianapolis, Ind.

To supply vacancies caused by death or by the lapsing of memberships the following were named:

Wm. K. Dwyer, superintendent of schools, Anaconda, Mont., with term expiring in 1924, to succeed Edward C. Elliott (membership lapst).

Mrs. Una B. Herrick, dean of women, College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, University of Montana, Bozeman, Mont., with term expiring in 1919, to succeed Bettie A. Dutton (deceast).

Cora Wilson Stuart, president, Kentucky Illiteracy Commission, Frankfort, Ky., with term expiring in 1920, to succeed 0. S. Wescott (membership lapst).

W. A. Lewis, president, Fort Hays State Normal School, Hays, Kans., with term expiring in 1921, to succeed L. E. Wolfe (membership lapst).

This report of the Committee on Nomination of Officers and Members was unanimously approved by the Council.

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS

THE PATRIOTISM OF WAR SAVINGS S. W. STRAUS, PRESIDENT, AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THRIFT, NEW YORK, N.Y.

America today stands in the position in which all her economic problems must be solved thru thrift. Whether we consider plans for the defeat of the sinister forces that are pounding at the very foundations of civilization or whether we have in mind the smallest details of home and business routine, the answer remains the same. America, because of her boundless resources, has been the last of the nations to turn to thrift. Today, happily, she is learning the value of this virtue and the folly of improvidence. The thrift of patriotism, the thrift of sacrifice, this is the spirit of war savings. It is the same spirit that makes glorious the heroism of the boys in the trenches of France. For patriotism is the same, whether it be over there or back here.

We have come into a new order of things. The days of right by might are ending. Military autocracy belongs to an age that is gone. This war marks the darkness that precedes the dawn of universal democracy-a democracy lifted to the lofty level of brotherhood.

Into the statesmanship, the politics, the business of the day that is breaking just ahead, there will come a new spirit-a spirit of honesty, generosity, and gentleness. The statesmanship of the world will be successful only in so far as it is honorable and just. The politician who achieves success will attain his ends by worthy acts alone. The business man must stand on the broad ground of real brotherhood. The attitude between employer and employé will be that of man to man, not of master to slave. Every man must practice thrift, and every man must have the chance to practice it. It will be the duty of every employer to see that his employés do practice thrift, that the conditions of employment are such that they can practice it. The autocracy of politics and the autocracy of business have reacht the day of reckoning. The dollar sign is passing as the insignia of ruthless power, and the day is dawning when it shall stand as the symbol of protection to the weak and help for the worthy.

Are we fighting this war merely to crush a coterie of madmen whose hearts are beating in unison with the cruelty and treachery of mediaevalism and whose standards of life are those of Frederick the Great? Is it the only object of this war to demonstrate that the feudal spirit of the eighteenth century was wrong? No, we are fighting this war for a democracy that shall reach down and take root in the heart of every citizen in every country. There is no such a thing as a democracy that is not universal, any more than there is an autocracy that is tolerant.

These things are to be among the fruits of this war. And into this order of life the universal practice of thrift must come, for thrift is the very

essence of democracy itself. Thrift is upbuilding and constructive-essentials without which no true republicanism can permanently endure. These are some of the lessons which we must learn from the great textbook of passing history. There never will come a time in our national life when thrift will not be a necessity. It is as vital to our success in winning the war as are powder and steel. And in the period of readjustment following the war thrift will be just as essential. Millions of men will come home from the war to take up again the occupations of peace. The present acute scarcity of labor will be ended. The pressing demand for war supplies will be over. The inflation that now exists will subside rapidly. In this readjustment there will be need for thrift and economy to preserve the equilibrium. And as the years go on, the prodigious losses of the war must be made up thru thrift. Humanity must save then what it is destroying today. The time when thrift will not be needed-needed as vitally as food itself—will never come.

And so out of the spirit of our patriotism in war savings let us coin a new phrase—the patriotism of peace savings.

Thrift will win the war, and after the days of bloodshed are over the nations will bind up their wounds thru thrift. Thru thrift alone can the rebuilding come—the rebuilding of America, the rebuilding of the world. In peace or war thrift is the strong right arm of civilization. Thru it we have made splendid progress in the year of our belligerency. Thru thrift victory will come to us-victory and peace-which, let us hope, will mark the end of all war for all time.

THRIFT AND COMMERCIAL SUPREMACY

J. A. BEXELL, DEAN, SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,

CORVALLIS, ORE. The increase of surplus is accomplisht in any ordinary business by at least four fundamental methods: (1) by an increast volume of business; (2) by a decreast ratio of operating expenses to the volume of business; (3) by utilizing more effectively the capital employed and every facility used in carrying on the business, including labor, material, and equipment; and (4) by the employment of new methods and by education.

The old economic doctrine that growth of wealth depends on the ability and disposition of people to save is the foundation upon which every successful business rests; but this involves a very much larger conception and interpretation of the idea of saving than is commonly understood by this term. It involves all the four fundamental methods which were just named as the requisites to the growth of every successful business.

What has been said regarding the success of an individual business is also true of larger units, and it is true regarding the growth of the wealth of nations. If we examine the balance sheet of the United States we find that

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