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compositions, debates, war scrapbooks, and even poems. Germany announces that her schoolboys and girls have written between two and three millions of war poems, the best of which are rewarded by prizes and printing, for she recognizes that poetry is the vernacular of the heart, that the heart makes disposition and is three-fourths of the soul. Several of our states and more cities have organized junior military training in high schools, while more hold that all-around physical training is the best foreschool for military training. Others hold that modified Boy Scout activities are best to develop military qualities in the teens. The more work the schools can accomplish in selling Liberty bonds, War Savings stamps, doing Red Cross work, singing and hearing the best camp songs, gathering posters and slogans, reading up about the Kaiser and his six sons, who, if Germany wins, will sit on six thrones, the more countless activities born of the present emergency the better. Concessions as to high requirements for graduation and promotions in school and college are amply justified in the minds of all who realize the larger education that comes when the life of the community, the country, and the world flows over into and irrigates the school so that it can teach life as never before. We must make no concessions to the narrow jingoism that would abandon now the study of the German language and history. German pedagogues, unique in their hatred of everything English, agree that this language and literature must now be studied as never before, and the same is true here, for whatever the issues of the war German will be heeded as never before for practical if not for cultural purposes.
The war is even more transforming colleges and universities. Chemistry gives special courses and promotes research on explosives and gas warfare. Physics tends to focus on electricity, projectiles, and the principles that underlie the mechanism of aëroplanes and submarines. Biology emphasizes eugenics and hygiene. Geologists help lay out trenches. History is more military and diplomatic and has a new interest in international law. Sociology and economics are absorbed in the impending reconstructions of all our industrial and social institutions. Theology, law, and most of all medicine are more practical, for everywhere pure science is yielding the saddle to applied science, while some academic departments are being neglected, as if the students felt that they might be condemned as unessential industries. We cannot check nor very much direct these trends, and they will increase every month the war lasts. It is simply common sense to accept and make the very most and best of them.
Finally, the future is our Muse. She is now invested with a promise and potency unsurpast in any prophetic age. “Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our faith triumphant o'er fears” are always heard. The best things have not happened yet, and so all history so far is only the prelude to the all hail and hereafter. In these times it is indeed bliss to be alive, to be young heaven. Old men are seeing visions and young men dreaming dreams, because if all this awful sacrifice and slaughter are not to be in vain there must emerge a new world wherein liberty and justice for every man, woman, and child will prevail, wherein right and not might rules, where Kaiserism in every form, even that of trusts, monopolies, profiteering, and the political boss, a superstate and the superman, dogma, autocracy, and militarism shall be done away with, and the true kingdom of man's soul shall be made safe by defeating German militarism and kept safe on one or another of the great plans, British, French, or perhaps better American, for a league of nations.
THE WAR AND UNIVERSITY REFORM
D. E. PHILLIPS, HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION,
UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, DENVER, COLO. Outside of the Army the most necessary, the most efficient, and the most powerful organization in the world is organized education. required this war to arouse the nation to a consciousness of this fact. But the war has also compelled the educational forces of the nation to a realization of the pressing need of more efficient and complete organization and of cooperation for national efficiency. The war is demanding of education definite, tangible, and practical results. The schools have responded with a fiery and passionate enthusiasm unexpected by the general public. We now have and always will have the second, if not the first, place in the heart of the nation. However, the brightness of our present success must not blind us to the splendid anticipations of the future. This monstrous war has had, and will have, many good effects upon
the universities of our land. I wish to call your attention to some changes that have been produced by the war, to some that will become definite reforms, and then to prophesy others that must follow if the redemption of our universities is to be in any wise comparable to the profound and
ermanent changes in our social and political order. Few governments have ever experienst such a fundamental and far-reaching transformation in the short space of twelve months as the government of the United States has now undergone. Set your face toward the future. We shall not return; we cannot return. Shall not the universities of this land realize that they are called upon to make corresponding adjustments? It is obviously certain that every institution that does not adjust will be in imminent danger of decay and death.
A few months ago I sent out letters to 150 universities. I askt the authorities to specify the changes and reforms that the war has demanded, to designate such as are likely to be permanent, and to suggest any anticipated reforms. During a transition period like this it is difficult to tell what are and should be only temporary changes and what will strike deep enough to be called reforms. But the most moderate and cautious conservatism cannot survive this superhuman vigor and activity without: some rare and striking modifications. Is it not the business of higher. education to anticipate the future ?
Five universities have instituted special scientific research work. Two coast institutions have naval training. Baker University and Lehigh University have developt civil engineering departments, and the latter has added shipbuilding. Bowdoin and Tufts colleges and Johns Hopkins University have organized courses in navigation. Eighteen universities have establisht military engineering. Ten of these are state institutions and eight are private.
When we remember that for years a controversy has been waged over allowing college credit for bookkeeping, stenography, and typewriting, it is interesting to learn that a dozen universities, out of those reporting, have establisht such courses, and many others have put increast emphasis upon such work.
Wireless telegraphy has become a vital part of the work in 47 of the 140 institutions reporting, and signal service has been establisht in 40 colleges and universities. I must emphasize the fact that these figures only represent the changes and courses adopted since and because of the war, and that only 140 institutions are included. The results indicate only general tendencies.
Fifty-six report that courses in military conversational French have been establisht and enthusiastically supported. Thirty-five institutions have establisht departments of home economics, and two-thirds of those reporting are giving courses on food conservation for war purposes. Some thirty have organized courses for the medical side of Red Cross work. Sixty-four report the inauguration of courses in military science and reserve officers' training corps. I quote from President G. Stanley Hall:
Never was the need of the best university work so great as now, because at present the cry is, "Put out the fire,” but later we shall have to rebuild vast areas on a new and better plan; industry, society, religion, family, will all have to be reconstructed, like Chicago after her great fire, and this will test every ability. Of course you have noted the academic trend all along the line over to the technique and away from the pure cultures, from humanity to the real stage. We are having one of our best thesis men working on these changes. Every department here is modified in its spirit and in its field, and it would take a long time to tell you the changes that the war has wrought even in my own work.
As incomplete and indefinite as this material must of necessity be concerning changes and what may become reforms, it is undisputably suggestive and stimulating to the would-be educational prophet. The deepest and most sacred thing behind all of it is a spirit of educational devotion to the needs of our nation never known among us before. Nearly every page manifests wider and more national views of higher education.
I beg of you to tolerate the boldness of a few suggestions concerning probable reforms in institutions of higher learning. If they never come to :pass yoư.will
, lasenothing save the few minutes I am to speak concerning these epoch-making achievements.
i. It is obviously certain and desirable that higher education shall become more nationalized. This supreme crisis has demonstrated the need of nationalizing education from the lowest to the highest forms. This nationalization must come from national financial support, from nationalized aims, and from greater unified action. In our higher institutions, departments and courses of study have been originated and developt in the past mainly to meet individual and local needs. It was assumed that the nation would establish such schools as are needed to serve her ends. Do we not now realize that higher education has been largely pursuing a kind of detacht ideal ?
2. The foregoing consideration suggests certain definite lines of university reform for the future. We must not, we cannot, escape becoming a world-wide commercial nation. To meet this demand in any adequate way there must be definite, practical courses in everything that pertains to navigation. In order that we may respond to our country's needs, such departments must be establisht in many universities. In less than five years the oceans will be dotted with ships flying the Stars and Stripes. May the pictures of an inspired imagination move the educational world to action now.
3. This increast commerce of the world, especially with South America, calls for a decided emphasis on, and preference for, all the modern languages. Let us bury the dead of all kinds and move on.
4. Aviation, wireless, and all kindred sciences must have a specific place in our universities. Such courses must not stop with a slight familiarity with these sciences. They must aim definitely at national service and at practical air and water navigation.
5. As a means of settling the great problems of the war and of any successful prevention of such a world-calamity in the future, sociology must become even more fundamental than it now is. Universal biological sociology founded on anthropology, ethnology, and psychology must become the common knowledge of the people. Only by the development of such a sociological consciousness will we arrive at any reasonable toleration of different governments, religions, and customs.
6. These additions and extensions, with others that will doubtless come, call for greater freedom and adaptability to individual needs in our university
I foresee the complete collapse of our time-honored college
7. There exists a certain kind of criterion and university standardization that must be banisht from among us.
It is not necessary
university should have everything that every other similar institution has or be discredited. If national service is to be the chief aim of higher educa
tion, then uniformity in university courses is a ridiculous misconception. Sympathetic helpfulness and cooperation must take the place of narrowminded criticism.
8. We must assume a different kind of relation to foreign universities, especially in those countries with which we are otherwise so closely bound. The core of any serious pro-Germanism in this country was mainly due to the relation of German science and German universities to American universities during the past quarter of a century or more. Let us now establish a cooperative relation with the universities of our Allies. Let us begin now to forge thoro chains that shall bind us after the common interests of war have disappeared. This Association should not adjourn without appointing a committee with means and power to formulate plans for future action.
9. If the national government does not establish a dozen or more universities backt by the most liberal appropriations from Congress, then the national government should establish a large number of free liberal scholarships in the various institutions of higher learning. By such scholarships the government might encourage and partly control the organization and distribution of departments aimed to serve more directly and specifically national needs.
10. American universities must become the centers of unlimited inventive genius. To stimulate invention and scholarship of the highest type, I am praying for what seems to me one of the fundamental needs of our civilization. What this country needs more than anything else is an endowed higher institution of learning where anyone can study practically anything for which there is a reasonable demand, without a penny's cost and by means of financial aid to deserving students wherever necessary. There should be no entrance requirements. The only question should be the personal one-am I prepared to do the work to which I aspire? Personal liberty would soon lead to proper adjustment. There should be no course of study to complete and no time limit or graduation. From this institution no one would ever graduate. Students should be permitted to work as fast and as long as they desire. The student should be told that he can go one year, twenty, or a lifetime, just as he deems it most profitable, that he has an opportunity to make discoveries of any kind, and that such are his forever. He should understand that his future life will depend, not upon what diplomas and institutions are back of him, but upon what he carries within, upon what he is able to do.
It must be a clear-cut divergence from the old system. Such a system will automatically eliminate all persons without a deep and abiding desire for education and will develop the most earnest set of intellectual workers ever assembled on earth. Pronounce it a dream if you like. Dreams more fantastic than this have been realized. I shall work for it until I dream my last dream.